Chapter 9 OverviewOfPrimateswhe .Week 11: Overview of the Fossil Primates ... the postcranial...

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  • Name: _____________________________ Score: ____________ Spring 2015


    Pasadena City College, Department of Anthropology

    Anthropology 001: Physical Anthropology (3.0 Unit)

    Week 11: Overview of the Fossil Primates (Pre-Great Apes) The Cenozoic era represents the broad period when most of the primates evolved. It is the age of mammals. This period is divided into seven epochs, the oldest of which is called the Paleocene (66 mya). For each of epochs, we can roughly attribute a particular phase of primate evolution and development. Know which primates correspond to each time period/epoch:

    Paleocene (66 56mya): Plesiadapiforms

    Eocene (56 34 mya): Adapoids and Omomyoids

    Oligocene (34 23 mya): Oligocene primates/adapoids

    Miocene (23 5.3 mya): Proconsuloids

    Pliocene (5.3 1.8 mya): Early hominin

    Pleistocene (1.8 10,000 ya): Early homo

    Holocene (10,000 ya present): Modern humans Plesiadapiforms (Paleocene), and/or plesiadapis consist of early mammals with certain primate-like characteristics. Some researchers consider plesiadapiforms to be the first primates because of their petrosal bulla (skeletal casing in the middle ear), more rounded molar cusps, and arboreal features of the postcranial skeleton. Fossils are known from North America, Europe, and China. WHATS IMPORTANT! First known archaic primates

    Plesiadapis Adapoids and Omomyoids primates (Eocene), the true primates of North America, Europe, and Asia, more than 80 species, with a dental formula of WHATS IMPORTANT! Ancestors to Old World monkeys. Two well-known species are Adapis and Necrolemur. Oligocene primates (Oligocene), apidium, and aegyptopithecus known as the true primates! Fossils found in Africa and Egypt. Apidium had a dental formula is; thereby suggesting it had a diverse diet. Researchers believe Oligocene primates represent the last extinct primate lineage before the split into early human primates. WHATS IMPORTANT! Supposed ancestors to the hominoids and the first to exhibit the Y5 molar cusp pattern (see page 3, this handout).

  • Name: _____________________________ Score: ____________ Spring 2015


    Dental formulas: Apidium (2:1:3:3), Aegyptopithecus (2:1:2:3)


    Proconsuloids (Miocene), proconsul lived in Africa and Asia 2017 mya. Large cranium when compared to apidium and aegyptopithecus. Displayed arboreal and terrestrial abilities, with ape-like heads and a body with a mixture of ape-like and monkey-like features, about 5 feet long and 50-75 pounds, with no tail. An Asian form of the Proconsuloids is known as sivapithecus from India and Pakistan. WHATS IMPORTANT? Proconsuloids have a bilophodont molar pattern (4 cusps), where as humans have a Y-5 molar pattern. Extinct cousin of chimp?

    Dental formula: Proconsul (2:1:2:3)

  • Name: _____________________________ Score: ____________ Spring 2015


    Left: bilophodont, Right: Y5 molar cusp pattern Proconsul skull

    Left to right: Chimpanzee, Sivapithecus (a Proconsuloids), and Orangutan