Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton A&P Biology 141.

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Transcript of Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton A&P Biology 141.

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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton A&P Biology 141 Slide 2 The Appendicular Skeleton Figure 81 Slide 3 The Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles Slide 4 The Pectoral Girdle Figure 82a What are the bones of the pectoral girdle, their functions, and features? Slide 5 The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement Consists of: 2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium Slide 6 The Clavicles Figure 82b, c Slide 7 The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end) Slide 8 The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone Slide 9 The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa Figure 83a Slide 10 Structures of the Scapula Body has 3 sides: superior border medial border (vertebral border) lateral border (axillary border) Body has 3 corners: superior angle inferior angle lateral angle Slide 11 Structures of the Scapula Figure 83b The Scapular Head Holds glenoid cavity Which articulates with humerus To form shoulder joint Slide 12 Processes of the Glenoid Cavity Coracoid process: anterior, smaller Acromion: posterior, larger articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint Slide 13 Structures of the Scapula Posterior surface Scapular spine: ridge across posterior surface of body Separates 2 regions: supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa Posterior Features of the Scapula Slide 14 What are the bones of the upper limbs, their functions, and features? The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) 1 bone - the Humerus Slide 15 The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone Articulates with the pelvic girdle Slide 16 Tubercles of the Proximal Epiphysis Separated by the intertubercular groove: greater tubercle: lateral forms tip of shoulder lesser tubercle: anterior, medial Slide 17 Head and Neck Head: rounded, articulating surface contained within joint capsule Anatomical neck: margin of joint capsule Surgical neck: the narrow metaphysis Slide 18 The Shaft Deltoid tuberosity: a bulge in the shaft attaches deltoid muscle Radial groove: for radial nerve posterior to deltoid tuberosity The Distal Epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles: for muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus: articulates with ulna and radius Slide 19 Articular Regions of the Condyle Trochlea: coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa articulates with ulna Capitulum: radial fossa articulates with radius Slide 20 The Forearm Figure 85 Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones: ulna (medial) radius (lateral) Slide 21 Ulna: The Olecranon Superior end of ulna Point of elbow Superior lip of trochlear notch Articulates with trochlea of humerus Ulna: The Coronoid Process Inferior lip of trochlear notch Slide 22 Ulna: Articulations with the Humerus Forearm extended: olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed: coronoid process enters coronoid fossa Slide 23 Ulna: Other Articulations Radial notch: articulates with head of radius forms proximal radioulnar joint Ulnar head: prominent styloid process attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist Interosseous Membrane A fibrous sheet Connects lateral margin of ulnar shaft to radius Slide 24 The Radius Lateral bone of forearm Disk-shaped radial head above the neck Radial tuberosity below the neck, attaches biceps Slide 25 Articulations of the Radius Ulnar notch: distal end articulates with wrist and radius Styloid process: stabilizes wrist joint Slide 26 The Wrist Figure 86 Slide 27 The Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones 4 distal carpal bones allow wrist to bend and twist Slide 28 The 4 Proximal Carpal Bones Scaphoid bone: near styloid process Lunate bone: medial to scaphoid Triquetrum: medial to lunate bone Pisiform bone: anterior to triquetrum Slide 29 The 4 Distal Carpal Bones Trapezium: lateral Trapezoid bone: medial to trapezium Capitate bone: largest Hamate bone: medial, distal Slide 30 Metacarpal Bones The 5 long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges Slide 31 Phalanges of the Hands Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal) Slide 32 The Pelvic Girdle Figure 87 What are the bones of the pelvic girdle, their functions, and features ? Slide 33 The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum) ischium pubis Slide 34 The Acetabulum Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface) Acetabular Notch A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum Slide 35 Marks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerveMarks of the Ilium Greater sciatic notch: for sciatic nerve Marks of the Ischium Ischial spine: above lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity: posterior projection you sit on Ischial ramus: meets inferior ramus of pubis Slide 36 Marks of the Pubis Superior ramus: meets pubic tubercle Pubic symphysis: gap between pubic tubercles padded with fibrocartilage Slide 37 Marks of the Pelvic Girdle Obturator foramen: formed by ischial and pubic rami attaches hip muscles Pectineal line: ridge of superior ramus of pubis continues to iliac crest as arcuate line Iliac fossa: depression between ileac crest and arcuate line Slide 38 Articulations of the Pelvic Girdle Sacroiliac joint: articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium with the sacrum stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity Slide 39 The Pelvis Figure 88 Slide 40 The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae 3D Rotation of Pelvis PLAY Slide 41 Divisions of the Pelvis Figure 89 Slide 42 Divisions of the Pelvis * True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity- Pelvic brim: upper edge of true pelvis encloses pelvic inlet Perineum region: inferior edges of true pelvis forms pelvic outlet perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line Slide 43 What are the structural and functional differences between the male and female pelvis? Slide 44 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Figure 810 Slide 45 Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Female pelvis: smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments Male and Female Pelvis PLAY Slide 46 Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards Slide 47 What are the bones of the lower limbs, their functions, and features? The Lower Limbs Functions: weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg Slide 48 Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes) Slide 49 The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 811 Slide 50 Femur: The Proximal Epiphysis Femoral head: articulates with pelvis at acetabulum attaches at fovea capitis Femur: The Neck Narrow area between head and trochanters Joins shaft at angle Slide 51 Femur: Trochanters Greater and lesser trochanters: tendon attachments Intertrochanteric line (anterior) and intertrochanteric crest (posterior): mark edge of articular capsule Femur: The Shaft Linea aspera: most prominent ridge of shaft attaches hip muscles joins epicondyles Slide 52 Femur: The Distal Epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles: above the knee joint Medial and lateral condyles: separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface form part of knee joint Slide 53 The Patella Figure 812 Slide 54 The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament Slide 55 The Tibia Figure 813 Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula Slide 56 Tibia: The Proximal Epiphysis Medial and lateral tibial condyles: separated by intercondylar eminence articulate with medial and lateral condyles of femur Tibial tuberosity: attaches patellar ligament Tibia: The Shaft Anterior margin: sharp ridge of shinbone Slide 57 Tibia: The Distal Epiphysis Medial malleolus: medial projection at the ankle Slide 58 The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia Slide 59 Fibula: Articulations with Tibia Fibula/tibia articulations: head inferior tibiofibular joint Interosseous membrane: binds fibula to tibia Lateral malleolus: lateral projection of ankle Slide 60 The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones Figure 814a Slide 61 Bones of the Ankle Talus: carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon Cuboid bone: articulates with calcaneus Slide 62 Ankle Bones Navicular bone: articulates with talus and 3 cuneiform bones Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Slide 63 Feet: Metatarsal Bones 5 long bones of foot Numbered IV, medial to lateral Articulate with toes Slide 64 Feet: Phalanges Phalanges: bones of the toes Hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal) Slide 65 Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Figure 814b Slide 66 Feet: The Longitudinal Arch Calcanear portion: lateral Talar portion: Medial Feet: The Transverse Arch Formed by a difference in curvature between medial and