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  • Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 1

    Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 1

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2Chapter 3, Section 1

    IntroductionIntroduction

    • six main principles on which the Constitution is based

    – Popular Sovereignty – Limited Government – Separation of Powers – Checks and Balances – Judicial Review – Federalism

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3Chapter 3, Section 1

    Outline of the ConstitutionOutline of the Constitution

    • The Constitution is simple and brief.

    – The seven articles are followed by the 27 amendments.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4Chapter 3, Section 1

    Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty

    • people are the only source for all governmental power.

    – The government rules through leaders elected by the people to represent the people.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5Chapter 3, Section 1

    Limited GovernmentLimited Government

    • Government may only do those things the people have given it the power to do.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6Chapter 3, Section 1

    Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers

    – divides power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches.

    – Separation of powers keeps a strong central government from being too powerful

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7Chapter 3, Section 1

    Checks and BalancesChecks and Balances

    • Each branch of the federal government can check the power of the other two.

    • The use of checks is fairly rare. – Compromise is more common

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9Chapter 3, Section 1

    Judicial ReviewJudicial Review

    • The Courts can decide if a government action is constitutional.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10Chapter 3, Section 1

    FederalismFederalism

    • Federalism is a compromise between an all- powerful central government and an independent state government.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11Chapter 3, Section 1

    Federalism, cont.Federalism, cont.

    • The Constitution divides power among the State and Federal Governments.

  • Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 2

    Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 2

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13Chapter 3, Section 1

    Changing with the TimesChanging with the Times

    • The amendment process allows the Constitution to adapt to the changing needs of our nation and society.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14Chapter 3, Section 1

    The Amendment ProcessThe Amendment Process

    • Article V of the Constitution describes the amendment process.

    – Amendments may be proposed:

    • By a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.

    • By a national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15Chapter 3, Section 1

    The Amendment Process, cont.The Amendment Process, cont.

    • Amendments can be ratified:

    – By three-fourths of the state legislatures.

    – By conventions in three-fourths of the states.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16Chapter 3, Section 1

    FederalismFederalism

    – Amendments are proposed at the national level and ratified at the state level by legislatures or conventions.

    – A state can reject an amendment and later decide to ratify it.

    • But a state cannot change its mind after it votes to ratify an amendment.

    – The President cannot veto proposed amendments.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17Chapter 3, Section 1

    Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty

    • The amendment process is based on popular sovereignty.

    – The people elect the representatives who vote to propose or ratify amendments.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18Chapter 3, Section 1

    The Bill of RightsThe Bill of Rights

    – They spell out many basic rights and liberties.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19Chapter 3, Section 1

    The 27 AmendmentsThe 27 Amendments

    • Many of the 27 current amendments were proposed in response to legal disputes, social conflicts, or perceived constitutional problems.

  • Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 3

    Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 3

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21Chapter 3, Section 1

    The Role of CongressThe Role of Congress

    • Congress has expanded upon basic constitutional provisions.

    – Congress created much of the specific structure of the federal government.

    – Congress established the federal court system—the Constitution created only the Supreme Court.

    – Congress created the many departments and agencies in the executive branch.

    – Congress has clarified issues such as the succession of the Vice President.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22Chapter 3, Section 1

    Powers of CongressPowers of Congress

    • Congress passes laws that clarify its own constitutional powers. – The Constitution describes some congressional

    powers in vague terms. • For example, Congress has the power to regulate

    foreign trade and interstate commerce.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23Chapter 3, Section 1

    Expanding Executive PowerExpanding Executive Power

    • Presidents have increased their constitutional powers by taking a broad interpretation of such powers.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24Chapter 3, Section 1

    Presidential PowerPresidential Power

    • The Constitution grants the President “executive power.”

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25Chapter 3, Section 1

    The State of the UnionThe State of the Union

    • While an address to Congress is required by the Constitution, the method of address is left to each President.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26Chapter 3, Section 1

    The CourtsThe Courts

    • The nation’s courts, particularly the Supreme Court, interpret the Constitution on a regular basis. – The power of judicial review gives the Court the

    power to declare laws unconstitutional.

    – Each type of ruling sets a precedent for interpreting future laws.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27Chapter 3, Section 1

    Political PartiesPolitical Parties

    • The Constitution does not mention political parties.

    • Yet parties are very influential in our political process.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28Chapter 3, Section 1

    Political Parties, cont.Political Parties, cont.

    – The Constitution says nothing about the nomination process.

    – Political parties use state primaries and national conventions to choose candidates.

    – Parties also influence the selection of electors to the electoral college.

    – Party membership also influences the President’s decision-making process when choosing political appointees.

  • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29Chapter 3, Section 1

    CustomsCustoms

    • Unwritten customs can be as influential as written laws.

    • After Franklin Roosevelt was elected to four consecutive terms from 1932 to 1944, the two-term limit was made into law by passage of the 22nd Amendment in 1951.