Chapter 20 Terrestrial Biomes

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Chapter 20 Terrestrial Biomes. Spatial Patterns of Vegetation. Biogeographer: A geographer who studies the spatial distribution of natural vegetation and its relationship to abiotic conditions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Chapter 20 Terrestrial Biomes

  • Biogeographer: A geographer who studies the spatial distribution of natural vegetation and its relationship to abiotic conditions. Structure: The growth forms of the dominant plants and their organization and arrangement in space.

    Flora: List of plants found in a regionSpatial Patterns of Vegetation

  • Life FormsSize and stratificationCoverage: the degree to which the foliage of plants cover the ground beneath them.BarrenVery sparseDiscontinuousContinuousPeriodicity: response of plant foliage to annual climatic cycle.DeciduousEvergreenLeaf Shape and Size:Broad leafNeedle leafLeaf TextureMembranous: average thicknessFilmy: thin and delicateSclerophyllous: hard, thick and leatheryVegetation Structure

  • Life FormsTrees: A perennial woody plant having a single upright main trunk. Shrubs: a woody plant having several stems branching near the groundLianas: woody vines that climb on trees.Herbs: small tender plants lacking woody stems. Broadleaved herbs are termed forbs in distinction with grass.Epiphytes: plants using other plants as supporting structures and thus live above ground level.

    Vegetation Structure

  • Life FormsForbsGrassTreesEpiphytesShrubLianas

  • Biome: a broad major grouping of natural ecosystems that include animal life as well as plants. The major biomes are recognized primarily based on vegetation.

    Forest SavannaGrasslandDesertTundraThe Major Biomes

  • Tropical Rainforest(1) Trees are smooth barked and unbranched in the lower 2/3, and trunks commonly buttressed at the base; (2) Broadleaf evergreen trees dominate the forest;(3) Crowns form two or more layers of trees(4) large number of species of trees coexist (up to 300 species/ha).Subtropical Evergreen Forest(1) compared to tropical rainforest, BEF has fewer species, smaller leaves and more leathery, and canopy is less dense(2) Annual range of temperature is small or moderate, and rain fall is abundant and well distributed throughout the year.(3) Includes both broad and needleleaf evergreen trees.Midlatitude Deciduous Forest(1) Almost entirely limited to the midlatitude landmasses of the northern hemisphere.(2) dominated by tall, broadleaf trees that provide a continuous canopy in summer but shed leaves completely in winter.Forest Biome

  • Needleleaf Evergreen Forest(1) straight-trunked, conical trees with relatively short branches and small narrow needlelike leaves.(2) leaves are evergreen.(3) species are few, thus one or two species can make a large tracts of forest.Needleleaf Deciduous Forest(1) straight-trunked, conical trees with relatively short branches and small narrow needlelike leaves.(2) trees shed needles during the winter.(3) primarily distributed in central and eastern Siberia.Sclerophyll Forest(1) low tree with short, hard, leathery leaves(2) Associated with Mediterranean Climate(3) California coastal ranges, Chaparral.Forest Biome-2

  • Rainforest CanopyFigure 20.5

  • Buttressed TreesFigure 20.6

  • Amazonian Rain ForestFigure 20.6

  • Rainforest CanopyFigure 20.5

  • Mixed Broadleaf ForestFigure 20.10

  • Mediterranean ChaparralFigure 20.16

  • Savanna woodland(1) Consists of trees spaced rather widely apart, permitting development of dense lower layer grasses.(2) Primarily distributed in wet-dry tropical climate;(3) Crowns are flattened or umbrella-shaped(4) Fire is frequent during the dry seasonThorntree-tall grass Savanna(1) A transition to the desert biome.(2) Trees are larges thorny species, and more widely scattered than savanna woodland.The Savanna Biome

  • Prairie(1) Consists of dominant herb and subdominant forbs. (2) Trees and shrubs are almost totally absent.Steppe(1) also called short-grass prairie.(2) short-grass occurring in sparsely distributed clumps or bunches.(3) Ground coverage is low and much bare soil is exposed.Grassland Biome

  • Midlatitude GrasslandsFigure 20.17Figure 20.18

  • Thorntree semidesert(1) found in low latitude region associated with tropical and subtropical climates. (2) xerophytic trees and shrubs adapted to a climate with a very long, hot dry season and only a very brief but intense rainy season.(3) the thorntrees shed leaves during dry season.Semidesert(1) xerophytic shrub vegetation with poorly developed herbaceous lower layer.(2) the middle and southern Rocky Mountain region and Colorado Plateau have seen expansion of semidesert into previously steppe grassland due to over grazing.Dry Desert(1) Xerophytic plants widely dispersed and providing no important degree of ground cover..(2) Small hardleaved or spiny shrubs, succulent plants or hard grasses..Desert Biome

  • Prairie(1) Consists of dominant herb and subdominant forbs. (2) Trees and shrubs are almost totally absent.Steppe(1) also called short-grass prairie.(2) short-grass occurring in sparsely distributed clumps or bunches.(3) Ground coverage is low and much bare soil is exposed.Grassland Biome

  • Sonoran DesertFigure 20.19

  • Arctic tundra(1) Arctic tundra has long daytime in the summer, melting top layer ice. (2) Plants are low and mostly herbaceous though dwarf willow occurs.(3) Sedge, grasses, mosses, and lichens dominate the low layer.Alpine tundra(1) resembles arctic tundra.(2) can develop in any latitude given sufficient altitude.Tundra BiomeTundra Sedge

  • Arctic TundraFigure 20.20

  • Alpine TundraFigure 20.21

  • Major Terrestrial BiomesFigure 20.4

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