Chapter 2: Socialization Perspectives on Socialization Agents of Child Socialization Processes of...

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Chapter 2: Socialization Perspectives on Socialization Agents of Child Socialization Processes of Socialization Outcomes of Socialization Adult Socialization

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  • Chapter 2: Socialization Perspectives on Socialization Agents of Child Socialization Processes of Socialization Outcomes of Socialization Adult Socialization
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  • What is Socialization? Process: Learning a culture Becoming effective member of society Being human
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  • What do we learn? Skills Knowledge Values Motives Roles 3
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  • 9/4 Consequences of Socialization 1.Establishes self-concepts 2.Creates capacity for role taking 3.Creates tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways 4.Makes people bearers of culture
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  • Every man is in certain respects: Like all other men- Like some other men- Like no other man. Clyde Kluckholm: Anthropologist
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  • Perspectives on Socialization The Developmental Perspective Dependent on Physical & Psychological Development Examples: Potty Training Walking Speaking Feeding self
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  • The Social Learning Perspective Cognitive & behavioral skills Language Shared meanings Imitation Acquiring behavior Performing behavior
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  • 9/6 Social Learning Perspective Children see, children do http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_s9pG5CWX M&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_s9pG5CWX M&feature=related Learning by observation: 4 processes Attention Retention Production Motivation
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  • Social Learning Perspective Bobo doll experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hHHdovK HDNU http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hHHdovK HDNU Reciprocal determinism between: Cognitive abilities Persons behavior Environment The world and peoples behavior cause each other. Bandura
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  • The Interpretive Perspective: Symbolic Interaction Theory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52ATteMIXzI&feat ure=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52ATteMIXzI&feat ure=related Hes Just Not that Into You Cognitive Processes Thinking Reasoning Social interaction Societal meanings Interpretive reproduction (routines) Development of self
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  • Sequence of roles Age-linked roles Predictable transition times Certain persons or organizations responsible The Impact of Social Structure
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  • Socialization as Social Control
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  • 13 Components of Socialization Socialization has four necessary components: 1.An agent someone serves as source for what is being learned 2.A learning process 3.A target person being socialized 4.An outcome - something that is being learned
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  • Agents of Childhood Socialization Four of the Agents : 1. Family 2. Peers 3. School 4. Mass media
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  • Processes of Socialization 1) Instrumental Conditioning Big Bang Theory video Big Bang Theory video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-63ysqT5nu0&feature=related Shaping Punishment Extrinsically motivated Depends on others
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  • Shaping Punishment
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  • Extrinsic Motivation
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  • 18 Punishment Definition: The presentation of painful or discomforting stimulus that decreases probability that a behavior will occur. Widely used in the United States. Our culture is tolerant of or encourages its use. Major child rearing practice used by parents. ResearchPunishment is effective in some circumstances but not in others.
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  • Instrumental Conditioning Intrinsically motivated Self-reinforcement Internalizing standards-judging Self-efficacy
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  • Intrinsic motivation Self-reinforcement
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  • Internalizing Standards-judging Self-efficacy
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  • Processes of Socialization 2) Observational Learning (Modeling) Observe another persons behavior & its consequences Efficient Characteristics of the model High-Status Nurturing
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  • Processes of Socialization 3) Internalization Externally imposed behavioral standards Become internal Self-control
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  • Outcomes of Socialization Gender Roles Linguistic & Cognitive Competence Moral Development Work Orientations
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  • Adult Socialization Role Acquisition Anticipatory Socialization Role Discontinuity