Chapter 14 Human Remains
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Transcript of Chapter 14 Human Remains
Chapter 14Human Remains
Forensic AnthropologyIdentifies skeletalRemains where bones are the only evidence
Assist in investigation of crimesExamine and analyze human remains
Skills used toRecover individuals from crime scene
Reconstruct remains to analyze effects of trauma
Identify human remains when conventional methods cannot be used
Give expert testimony
Remains human?Single individual or several?When did death occur?Was the body disturbed post-mortem?Gender, race, age?Cause of death?Type of death?Signs of disease, old injuries?Height, weight, physique estimated?Functions of the Skeleton:
Internal structure and support
Protection of vital organs
Attachment for muscles
Make blood cells
Storage of minerals
Types of bones:
***Most accurate if body is found within 24 hours of death
Algor mortis; cooling of the body after death
Body cools at approx. 1-1.5 degrees per hour until environmental temp is reached.
Researcher must consider factors such asEnvironmental temp.Type of clothingIs clothing wet? (aids cooling)Air movement (aids cooling)Layers of clothing (prevents cooling)Surface area/body mass ratio(small bodies will cool more quickly)Glaister formula gives hours elapsed:
98.4 internal temp________________
1.51. Determining time of deathB. Livor mortis; purple or red discoloration of the skin after death, caused by pooling of the blood due to gravity.
Begins .5 hr after death, most evident within 12 hr. After 12 hr discoloration will not move regardless of how the body is handled or moved.
Areas in contact with ground (or anything) show no discoloration because capillaries are compressed.C. Rigor mortis; stiffness in skeletal muscles 2-3 hrs after death, lasting until ~30 hrs.Smaller muscles first. Affected by temp, dehydration, condition of muscles, use prior to death, etc.Osteology; the study of bonesOsteons;
2. Animal vs Human Bone
In animals, these osteons would occur in rows (osteon banding) or rectagular shapes (plexiform bone).
Human Animal3. Estimating Height
using long bones.humerusradiusfemurtibiaSince men and women have different proportions of long bone length to total body height, we have a different formula for each sex
Height (cm)=femur x 2.21 + 61.41femur x 2.23 +69.08
tibia x 2.53 + 72.57tibia x 2.39 + 81.68
humerus x 3.14 + 64.97humerus x 2.97 + 73.57
radius x 3.87 + 73.50radius x 3.65 + 80.404. Sex Determination
Using the pelvis
These three bones fuse together to make the os coxa,or half of the pelvis.
Also, the ventral arc and the width of the pubic body
Pg. 418 in text
using the skull
Use page 421 to add other features
5. Age Determination
Epiphyses; growth plates at the end of long bones that fuse to the bone during early adulthood. (pg 423 of text)Using cranial sutures
Sagittal Suture closed:26 or older29 or older
Sagittal Suture completely open:Younger than 32Younger than 35
Using the os pubis
Furrows (youngest) SmoothBreakdown of bone6. Determining RaceCaucasoid; European, Middle Eastern, East Indian descent
Negroid; African, Aboriginal, Melanesian descent
Mongoloid; Asian, Native American, Polynesian descent
History of Forensic AnthropologyEnd of 19th centuryDr. Thomas Dwight Father of American (1843-1911) Forensic Anthropology
Dr. Thomas Dwight..
Looked at clues to ID a person from bones
Other leading forensic anthropologistsDr. George DorseyNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
1868-1931 LUETGERT CASE
Dr. T.D. Stewart Curator from the Smithsonian Institute
Helped ID casualties from WWII and the Korean WarCILHICentral Identification Laboratory in Hawaii
1. ResponsibilityIdentify and repatriate American soldiers
2. How remains are analyzed..
Teams travel to field locations
Statistical methods are usedTo differentiate remains from those of the native population
The remains are taken to CILHIWhere a biological profile is created and compared to a database
TEAM APPROACHForensic Pathology Determines cause and manner of death by autopsy