Chapter 12 Token Economies. Token Economies token economies are reinforcement systems that employ a...

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Transcript of Chapter 12 Token Economies. Token Economies token economies are reinforcement systems that employ a...

  • Chapter 12

    Token Economies

  • Token Economiestoken economies are reinforcement systems that employ a monetary system(token reinforcers) and backup reinforcerstoken economies employ widespread use of tokens within groups of individualstoken economies can be used to control a wide range of behaviorstoken economies typically use diverse consequences

  • Starting a Token Economyidentify target behaviorsdefine target behaviors so that all involved can identify instances of appropriate and inappropriate behaviorconduct a functional analysisrecruit and train staffestablish baselines

  • Tokenstokens can take many forms but should be:durableeasy to handledifficult to stealdifficult to counterfeitsystems can have graded value for tokenssystems can associate different types of tokens with different behaviorssystems can use group or individual contingencies

  • Backup Reinforcers and Punishersuse direct and indirect assessment procedures to identify backup consequencesuse a wide variety of backup consequencessome systems use response cost procedures to punish inappropriate behavior

  • Managing the Consequencesensure backup reinforcers are on handclearly describe criteria for earning and exchanging tokensaward tokens as immediately as possibleuse reinforcers such as praise along with tokenskeep accurate records of behaviors and consequencesprovide bonuses for high-level performance

  • Managing the Consequences (continued)train those administering tokensincorporate methods to ensure accuracy when self-reinforcing with tokens

  • How Many Tokens to Deliverless pleasant activities might earn morethose with less ability might earn moreuse more tokens on the first few daysgradually thin schedules

  • Determining Exchange Ratescosts should relate to the number of tokens that can be earnedcost in tokens might reflect the actual cost of itemshigh-demand items might cost moreoffer lower cost for backups that have therapeutic valueexchange systems should take into account intellectual and cognitive abilities

  • Phasing Out the Programin programs that target long-term change, the token system should be phased outuse natural reinforcers such as praise and feedback with tokensfade the use of tokensincrease the number of tokens required to buy backupsincrease the delay between earning tokens and redeeming them

  • Achievement Place: General ModelAchievement Place was designed as a residential token economy program for juvenile boys classified "predelinquent"boys lived with other boys and a pair of teaching parents and continued to go to their own schoolstokens were points earned or lostpoints were recorded on an index card carried by each boy

  • Achievement Place: General Model (continued)most backups were privileges and consumablesboys could bid to serve as manager and earn points based on the performance of others

  • Achievement Place: Self-Regulationthe program was designed to move boys toward self-regulation; boys moved through three phases:daily point system where points were exchanged at the end of each daybackups could be exchanged at the end of each weeka merit system where privileges were taken freely as long as appropriate behavior was maintained by social reinforcers

  • A Day in One's Life at Achievement Placesocial structure of Achievement Place was similar to a family (the teaching-family model)daily routines were similar to those established in most homesevening family conference used to discuss the day's events

  • How Effective Is the Achievement Place Approach?effective in improving a wide variety of behaviors while boys are in attendanceshort- and long-term improvements after involvement in these programs does not seem to be any better than other programs

  • Token Economies in Classrooms IBirnbrauer and colleagues describe a system for a special education classroomstudents earned tokens for correct performance on:academic taskscooperative behaviorextra activitiestokens were written marksbackups were trinkets or special items identified for individuals

  • Token Economies in Classrooms IIBoegli and Wasik describe a schoolwide program used with kindergartners through sixth graderstarget behaviors included those related to: academic work classroom conductstudents had regular access to a storestudents also could use tokens to bid on other objects in auctions

  • Token Economies in Worksites INelton describes a system developed for workers at a manufacturing planttarget behaviors included: absenteeism discipline problemspoints were earned when: attendance was excellent no formal disciplinary actions were pending

  • Token Economies in Worksites I (continued)points were lost for absencespoints could earn a special jacket

  • Token Economies in Worksites IIFox and colleagues describe a token economy targeting miner safetyminers earned trading stamps for not having injuriesgroup and individual contingencies were appliedstamps could be used to buy merchandise like sporting goods and appliances

  • Token Economies in Institutional SettingsAyllon and Azrin implemented an early system in a psychiatric hospital target behaviors included:personal hygiene self-help skillstokens were coinsbackups were items available in a store backups also included opportunities to engage in special activities

  • Implementing Token Economies in Psychiatric Settingstoken economies are more effective than other traditional treatments, but systems have not been widely implemented; several factors have made it a less preferred procedure:staff resist the approachhigh initial costs for staffing and reinforcers

  • Implementing Token Economies in Psychiatric Settings (continued)patients must learn and adapt to these systemstoken economies are hard to monitor in outpatient settingsimplementation has been restricted by legal rulings and ethical concerns

  • Problems and Benefits of Token Economiesgains may be temporary, but new skills are often gainedcosts often are high, but cost of continuing a program is often justified by economic benefitssome characterize token economies as demeaning, but participants in token systems give them high marks