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Chapter 10: Teaching Effective Thinking Strategies

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Chapter 10: Teaching Effective Thinking

Strategies

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Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 10: Teaching Effective Thinking Strategies

Chapter Ten Objectives

After completing Chapter 10, students should be able After completing Chapter 10, students should be able to do the following:to do the following:

1. Provide a definition for thinking and differentiate among the various categories of thinking skills.

2. Explain creativity as a process and product and describe the four stages of creative thought.

3. Describe various difficulties that can hinder the creative process.4. Define and describe metacognition.5. Describe different approaches and activities that can be used in teaching

thinking skills.6. Explain the eight behaviors that exemplify "nonthinking".7. Explain the role of the teacher and how modeling is used in the teaching of

thinking skills.

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Thinking Skills

•• DefinitionDefinition of Thinking—Lipman (ASCD, 1990):- “Thinking is Processing Your Experiences in the

World; to edit/Rearrange/Examine Experiences.”

• Two ConsiderationsConsiderations Teachers Should Make Before Teaching Thinking Skills are:

1. Maturity Level of Students.2. Special Needs of the Subject.

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Thinking Skills—Continued

Teaching Thinking Skills: Teaching Thinking Skills: − Helps Increase Academic Test Scores on High Stakes

Testing.− Involves Students in Active Learning.− Engages Students in Decision-Making and Problem

Solving .− Enables Students to: Read, Reflect, Make Predictions

and become Strategic Learners.

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Bloom’s Levels of Thinking

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Components of Bloom’s Taxonomy

1. Knowledge • Recognize/RememberRecognize/Remember Key Facts—Define, Recall, Practice Drills.

2. Comprehension • Translate, Interpret and Explain Given Given Information.

3. Application • TransferTransfer Known Information to Applicable Situations.

4. Analysis • Think about how to DivideDivide a Whole into Component Parts.

5. Synthesis • Take Parts of Previously Learned Information and Create Create Completely New Product/Whole.

6. Evaluation • JudgeJudge Quality, Credibility, Worth and Practicality.

Low

High

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Critical Thinking

• Requires Higher Higher Levels of Thinking: - Evaluation. - Synthesis.

• Based on Standards of:- Objectivity. - Consistency.

• Skill that Can be Improved in Everyone w/Effective Instruction.

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Critical Thinking—Continued

• Lipman (1988b) Believes that Most Students:- Engage in Thinking that is SimpleSimple and -- LacksLacks Standards.

• He Suggests that Students be Taught to Change their Thinking From:

1. Guessing to Estimating. 6. Associating Concepts to Grasping Principles.

2. Preferring to Evaluating. 7. Noting Relationships to Noting Relationships Among Relationships.

3. Grouping to Classifying. 8. Supposing to Hypothesizing.

4. Believing to Assuming. 9. Offering Opinions without Reasons to Offering Opinions w/Reasons.

5. Inferring to Inferring Logically. 10. Making Judgments without Criteria to Making Judgments wit/Criteria.

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Creative Thinking

•• Definition:Definition:- Putting Together Information to Come Up w/a Whole New

Understanding, Concept/Idea.

•• CharacteristicsCharacteristics of Creative Thinking: - Takes People Beyond Where They Have Ever Gone Before.- Occurs as the Result of Questioning and Learning Beyond

Gathering of Rote Information.- Teachers Need to Support and Encourage this Kind of

Thinking in their Classrooms.

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Four Stages of Creative Thought

1. Preparation1. Preparation——Collect Data, Identify Relationships & Construct a Hypothesis.

2. Incubation2. Incubation——the Idea Sits Until It Surfaces from the Unconscious to the Surface.

3. Illumination3. Illumination——this the Aha Stage, Eureka, I Have Got It!

4. Verification4. Verification——Verifying and Testing the Idea.

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Creative Thinking—Continued

Difficulties EncounteredDifficulties Encountered by Creative Thinkers:- Finding Words to Describe Original Images.- Letting the Imagination Go to Explore in a Free, Unstructured

Way. - Tendency to Over Analyze and Not Synthesize.- Not Completing Analysis and Jumping to Synthesis. - Fear of Expressing Creative, Ground-Breaking Ideas.- Too Many Ideas at One Time and Difficulty Selecting One and

Staying Focused.

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Metacognition

Thinking About Thinking: • In terms of Classroom, MetacognitionMetacognition is:

- Teaching Students to Talk to Themselves Through Activities they are Engaged in, Asking Themselves/Each Other the Questions You Would Ask.

- Helps Create Independent Learners. • It includes:

- Self-Interrogation, Self-Checking, Self-Monitoring, Reflection, Self-Responsibility, Initiative, Analyzing, Memory Aids, and Recalling Content.

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Metacognition—Continued

Metacognition has Two Processes that Occur Simultaneously:Metacognition has Two Processes that Occur Simultaneously:

1. Monitoring Progress while completing an Activity.

1. Monitoring Monitoring Progress while completing an Activity.

2. Making Changes and Adapting as Problems Arise during an Activity.

2. Making Changes and AdaptingAdapting as Problems Arise during an Activity.

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Metacognitive Strategies1. Consciously Identifying what they Already Know.

5. Making a Checklist of what Needs to Happen.

9. Monitoring using Questioning and Self-Testing.

2. Determining how Performance will be Evaluated.

6. Organizing Materials.

10. Providing their Own Feedback.

3. Estimating Total Time for the Completion of the Project.

7. Utilize Outlining, Mnemonics, Diagramming etc. to Facilitate Learning.

11. Keeping Concentration and Motivation High.

4. Scheduling Study Time and Setting Priorities.

8. Reflecting on What Works and Does Not Work.

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Thinking Skills

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Thinking Skills Instruction

Two Approaches to Teaching ThinkingTwo Approaches to Teaching Thinking--Skills:Skills:

1. Separate Approach1. Separate Approach—Thinking Skills Taught as a Separate Subject.

2. Infusion Approach2. Infusion Approach——ThinkingSkill and Immediately Utilized in the Regular Curriculum.

• Rationale for Teaching it Separately is Students LackLack the Thinking Skills Necessary.

• Immediate Transfer of the Thinking Skill to a Relevant, Meaningful Learning Experience.

• Lessons can be Used to Teach Thinking Skills and the FocusFocus Could be on Learning the Skills and Nothing Else.

• Relevance is Established.

• Practice can be Supported/Scaffold by the Teacher through Modeling and Active Engagement.

• Immediate Application.

• Evaluation of Understanding can be Carried Out Easily.

• Feedback for both Thinking Skills and the Curriculum/Content Area.

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Critical Thinking Instruction

• Two Critical AreasCritical Areas of Critical Thinking are:1. Identifying and Challenging Assumption—

unquestioned rules assimilated in value systems. 2. Exploring and Imagining Alternatives.

• Critical Thinking Develops: Develops: 1. Open-Mindedness.2. Willingness to Explore Other Possibilities.3. Ability to Examine Old Ideas in New Ways and

Consider Alternatives to Old Ways of Thinking.

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Critical Thinking Instruction—Continued

• Direct Instruction with Explicit Explicit Modeling: - Teacher Should Model Open-Mindedness.

• Opportunities for Students to Engage in Critical Thinking Should be Provided:- Choice in Assignments/Projects.- Shared-Responsibility in Deciding Rules, Trips, Solutions to Class

Problems.- Structured Lessons Should be Scheduled Regularly:

- Small Group Work on Loaded Questions Followed by Classroom Discussion.

- Carefully and Slowly w/Respect Help Students Broaden Broaden theirPerspective Beyond the Confines of their Own Culture.

- Remember the Goal is to Not to Destroy but to Refine.

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1. Impulsiveness1. Impulsiveness——leap before they look. Fail to Consider Consequences of their Actions.

5. Dogmatic, Assertive BehaviorDogmatic, Assertive Behavior——think that their Perceptions are the Only Correct Ones.

2. Overdependence on the Overdependence on the TeacherTeacher——inattentive and Rely on the Teacher to Repeat Information.

6. Rigidity, Inflexibility of Behavior—Reluctant to Give Up Old Strategies that Worked Well in the Past.

3. Inattentive Behavior—Students do not Stay on Task and their Attention Span is Short.

7. Fearful, lack of ConfidenceFearful, lack of Confidence——Afraid to Express Themselves and Usually Won’t Seek Extra Help.

4. Restless RusherRestless Rusher——they Concentrate Only on Turning in the Work.

8. Responsibility Forfeiture—want the Teacher to Supply the Correct Way to Complete Tasks and Shift Responsibility to Teacher.

Nonthinking Behaviors that Adversely Affect Critical Thinking

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Thinking Skills that Offset Nonthinking Behaviors

1. Brainstorming 2. Flexible Thinking

3. Forecasting 4. Inductive Thinking

5. Inference Making

6. Logical Thinking

7. Deductive Thinking

8. Problem Solving

12. Comparison9. Decision Making

10. Observation 11. Interpretation

13. Analysis

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Reflection

Based on your Reading of this Chapter, how would you help this Student Develop Metacognitive Skills to better monitor his reading comprehension?

Based on your Reading of this Chapter, how would you help this Student Develop Metacognitive Metacognitive Skills to better monitormonitor his reading reading comprehension?comprehension?

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