Chapter 10. - “Cogito ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am) -Rene Descartes -“Many...

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Transcript of Chapter 10. - “Cogito ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am) -Rene Descartes -“Many...

  • Chapter 10

  • Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am)-Rene Descartes

    Many people would sooner die than think. In fact they do.-Bertrand Russell

  • Cognition - Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

    Cognitive psychologists study these mental activitiesconcept formationproblem solvingdecision makingjudgment formation

  • Concepts - Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics

    How we learn concepts Artificial concepts/definitions are formed by logical, specific rules.b. Natural concepts/prototypes have characteristic rather than defining features.c. Hierarchies help us group concepts into subcategories within broader categories.

  • -Require specific rulesUsually abstract ideasUsually explicitly learnedWhat are the rules that determine if something is a square or not?

  • -Uses characteristics instead of rulesObservationalUsually implicitly learnedPrototype A mental image or best example that incorporates all of the features associated with a category

  • Hierarchies help us organize concepts into groups and subdivide big concepts into more specific ones

  • Trial and ErrorA problem-solving strategy in which several solutions are attempted until one is found that worksAlgorithmA problem-solving procedure that is guaranteed to produce a solutionHeuristicA mental shortcut that allows one to make judgments that are quick but often in error

  • Step by step processAssesses every possible solutionGuaranteed to produce a correct answerUsed by computer programs

  • Examples: -Working backward-Searching for analogies-Breaking a big problem into smaller problems

    Simple problem solving strategies

    Faster than algorithmsOften faulty

    ENQEUWhat word is this?How do you know?

  • When an answer comes to you instantlyNot a conscious problem solving strategyAn A-ha! or Eureka! moment

  • In what year did George Washington sign the Declaration of Independence?

  • A tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our judgments

  • The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective

    What is a four-letter sport that starts with a T?

    Family Guy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rk81yzaurGw

  • The tendency to think only of the familiar use for an object without considering alternative uses.

    Bruce Lee on Functional Fixedness: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ii-MLjI5Fyc

  • Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in Philosophy and Womens Studies in college. As a students, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in protests.

    Which statement is more likely?

    A Linda is a bank tellerB Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement

  • Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype.

    Dont judge a book by its cover!

  • All accidents or Strokes?Asthma or Electrocution? Homicide or Diabetes?Motor Vehicle Accidents or Cancer of the digestive system?Appendicitis or Lightning?Drowning or Leukemia?

  • 55,000 - All accidents or Strokes? 102,000 920 - Asthma or Electrocution? 500 9,200 - Homicide or Diabetes? 19,00027,000 - Motor Vehicle Accidents or Cancer of the digestive system? 46,400440 - Appendicitis or Lightning? - 523,600 - Drowning or Leukemia? 7,100

    *figures per million deaths

  • Information is often perceived as correct if it is easily retrieved.

    Bears are higher on the food chain, therefore they are more dangerous to people than deer, which is a prey animal.

  • A new disease is sweeping the world. 10 out of every 1000 children die from this disease. There is a vaccine that effectively stops the disease, but the vaccine is also a risk because it has been shown to cause a reaction that kills 5 out of every 1000 children that use it.

    Would you use it? Would you have your younger siblings use it?

  • What if the question were asked this way:

    A new deadly disease is sweeping the world. An imperfect vaccine exists that doubles ones chance of survival if they take it.

    Would you use it? Would you have your younger siblings use it?

  • The way a problem is presented can cause people to respond to it in irrational ways.

  • Some of the beekeepers are artists. None of the chemists are beekeepers.Therefore, some of the artists are not Chemists.

  • Some birds can swimNo fish are birdsTherefore, some animals that can swim are not fish.

  • Some of the beekeepers are artists. None of the chemists are beekeepers.Therefore, some of the artists are not chemists.

    Some birds can swimNo fish are birdsTherefore, some animals that can swim are not fish.-Some A are B -None of C are A-Therefore, some of B are not C

  • The tendency for our beliefs to distort our logic

    Clinging to that bias and refusing to accept evidence that refutes your beliefs is called Belief Perseverance.

    Readiness to accept any evidence that supports your beliefs is called Confirmation Bias.

    Archimedes trying to determine something is gold. Gave up to take a bath and saw water spill out and yelled Eureka and ran naked in the streets because he discovered displacement. Answer: GolfB seems more likely because of the description, but A is more likely because it is less specific.False! Deer cause more deaths is the US than bears. Both carry a risk, but the disease kills 1% while the vaccine kills .5%. This puts taking the vaccine in a far more positive light.Should the government be allowed to use force and the threat of police to take your money? Should the government be allowed to create taxes? Its the same question!