Chap04 Lecture

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Satellite image of a hurricane near the Florida coast; water droplets move with the air, enabling us to visualize the counterclockwise swirling motion. However, the major portion of the hurricane is actually irrotational, while only the core (the eye of the storm) is rotational.

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Objectives• Understand the role of the material derivative in

transforming between Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions

• Distinguish between various types of flow visualizations and methods of plotting the characteristics of a fluid flow

• Appreciate the many ways that fluids move and deform

• Distinguish between rotational and irrotational regions of flow based on the flow property vorticity

• Understand the usefulness of the Reynolds transport theorem

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4–1 ■ LAGRANGIAN AND EULERIAN DESCRIPTIONSKinematics: The study of motion. Fluid kinematics: The study of how fluids flow and how to describe fluid motion.

With a small number of objects, such as billiard balls on a pool table, individual objects can be tracked.

In the Lagrangian description, one must keep track of the position and velocity of individual particles.

There are two distinct ways to describe motion: Lagrangian and Eulerian

Lagrangian description: To follow the path of individual objects.

This method requires us to track the position and velocity of each individual fluid parcel (fluid particle) and take to be a parcel of fixed identity.

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• A more common method is Eulerian description of fluid motion.

• In the Eulerian description of fluid flow, a finite volume called a flow domain or control volume is defined, through which fluid flows in and out.

• Instead of tracking individual fluid particles, we define field variables, functions of space and time, within the control volume.

• The field variable at a particular location at a particular time is the value of the variable for whichever fluid particle happens to occupy that location at that time.

• For example, the pressure field is a scalar field variable. We define the velocity field as a vector field variable.

Collectively, these (and other) field variables define the flow field. The velocity field can be expanded in Cartesian coordinates as

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(a) In the Eulerian description, we define field variables, such as the pressure field and the velocity field, at any location and instant in time. (b) For example, the air speed probe mounted under the wing of an airplane measures the air speed at that location.

• In the Eulerian description we don’t really care what happens to individual fluid particles; rather we are concerned with the pressure, velocity, acceleration, etc., of whichever fluid particle happens to be at the location of interest at the time of interest.

• While there are many occasions in which the Lagrangian description is useful, the Eulerian description is often more convenient for fluid mechanics applications.

• Experimental measurements are generally more suited to the Eulerian description.

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A Steady Two-Dimensional Velocity Field

Velocity vectors for the velocity field of Example 4–1. The scale is shown by the top arrow, and the solid black curves represent the approximate shapes of some streamlines, based on the calculated velocity vectors. The stagnation point is indicated by the blue circle. The shaded region represents a portion of the flow field that can approximate flow into an inlet.

Flow field near the bell mouth inlet of a hydroelectric dam; a portion of the velocity field of Example 4-1 may be used as a first-order approximation of this physical flow field.

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Acceleration Field

Newton’s second law applied to a fluid particle; the acceleration vector (purple

arrow) is in the same direction as the force vector (green arrow), but the velocity vector (blue arrow) may act in a different direction.

The equations of motion for fluid flow (such as Newton’s second law) are written for a fluid particle, which we also call a material particle.

If we were to follow a particular fluid particle as it moves around in the flow, we would be employing the Lagrangian description, and the equations of motion would be directly applicable.

For example, we would define the particle’s location in space in terms of a material position vector (xparticle(t), yparticle(t), zparticle(t)).

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Advective (convective) acceleration

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When following a fluid particle, the x-component of velocity, u, is defined as dxparticle/dt. Similarly, v=dyparticle/dt and w=dzparticle/dt. Movement is shown here only in two dimensions for simplicity.

The components of the acceleration vector in cartesian coordinates:

Flow of water through the nozzle of a garden hose illustrates that fluid particles may accelerate, even in a steady flow. In this example, the exit speed of the water is much higher than the water speed in the hose, implying that fluid particles have accelerated even though the flow is steady.

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Material Derivative

The total derivative operator d/dt in this equation is given a special name, the material derivative; it is assigned a special notation, D/Dt, in order to emphasize that it is formed by following a fluid particle as it moves through the flow field.

Other names for the material derivative include total, particle, Lagrangian, Eulerian, and substantial derivative.

The material derivative D/Dt is defined by following a fluid particle as it moves throughout the flow field. In this illustration, the fluid particle is accelerating to the right as it moves up and to the right.

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The material derivative D/Dt is composed of a local or unsteady part and a convective or advective part.

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Material Acceleration of a Steady Velocity Field

Acceleration vectors for the velocity field of Examples 4–1 and 4–3. The scale is shown by the top arrow, and the solid black curves represent the approximate shapes of some streamlines, based on the calculated velocity vectors. The stagnation point is indicated by the red circle.

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Spinning baseball. The late F. N. M. Brown devoted many years to developing and using smoke visualization in wind tunnels at the University of Notre Dame. Here the flow speed is about 23 m/s and the ball is rotated at 630 rpm.

• Flow visualization: The visual examination of flow field features.

• While quantitative study of fluid dynamics requires advanced mathematics, much can be learned from flow visualization.

• Flow visualization is useful not only in physical experiments but in numerical solutions as well [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)].

• In fact, the very first thing an engineer using CFD does after obtaining a numerical solution is simulate some form of flow visualization.

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Streamlines and Streamtubes

Streamline: A curve that is everywhere tangent to the instantaneous local velocity vector.

Streamlines are useful as indicators of the instantaneous direction of fluid motion throughout the flow field.

For example, regions of recirculating flow and separation of a fluid off of a solid wall are easily identified by the streamline pattern.

Streamlines cannot be directly observed experimentally except in steady flow fields.

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Streamlines for a steady, incompressible, two-dimensional velocity field

Streamlines (solid black curves) for the velocity field of Example 4–4; velocity vectors (blue arrows) are superimposed for comparison.

The agreement is excellent in the sense that the velocity vectors point everywhere tangent to the streamlines. Note that speed cannot be determined directly from the streamlines alone.

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A streamtube consists of a bundle of individual streamlines.

In an incompressible flow field, a streamtube (a) decreases in diameter as the flow accelerates or converges and (b) increases in diameter as the flow decelerates or diverges.

A streamtube consists of a bundle of streamlines much like a communications cable consists of a bundle of fiber-optic cables.

Since streamlines are everywhere parallel to the local velocity, fluid cannot cross a streamline by definition.

Fluid within a streamtube must remain there and cannot cross the boundary of the streamtube.

Both streamlines and streamtubes are instantaneous quantities, defined at a particular instant in time according to the velocity field at that instant.

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• Pathline: The actual path traveled by an individual fluid particle over some time period.

• A pathline is a Lagrangian concept in that we simply follow the path of an individual fluid particle as it moves around in the flow field.

• Thus, a pathline is the same as the fluid particle’s material position vector (xparticle(t), yparticle(t), zparticle(t)) traced out over some finite time interval.

A pathline is formed by following the actual path of a fluid particle.

Pathlines produced by white tracer particles suspended in water and captured by time-exposure photography; as waves pass horizontally, each particle moves in an elliptical path during one wave period.

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Stereo PIV measurements of the wing tip vortex in the wake of a NACA-66 airfoil at

angle of attack. Color contours denote the local vorticity, normalized by the minimum

value, as indicated in the color map. Vectors denote fluid motion in the plane of

measurement. The black line denotes the location of the upstream wing trailling edge.

Coordinates are normalized by the airfoil chord, and the origin is the wing root.

Particle image velocimetry (PIV): A modern experimental technique that utilizes short segments of particle pathlines to measure the velocity field over an entire plane in a flow.

Recent advances also extend the technique to three dimensions.

In PIV, tiny tracer particles are suspended in the fluid. However, the flow is illuminated by two flashes of light (usually a light sheet from a laser) to produce two bright spots (recorded by a camera) for each moving particle.

Then, both the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector at each particle location can be inferred, assuming that the tracer particles are small enough that they move with the fluid.

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Streakline: The locus of fluid particles that have passed sequentially through a prescribed point in the flow.

Streaklines are the most common flow pattern generated in a physical experiment.

If you insert a small tube into a flow and introduce a continuous stream of tracer fluid (dye in a water flow or smoke in an air flow), the observed pattern is a streakline. A streakline is formed by continuous

introduction of dye or smoke from a point in the flow. Labeled tracer particles (1 through 8) were introduced sequentially.

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Streaklines produced by colored fluid introduced upstream; since the flow is steady, these streaklines are the same as streamlines and pathlines.

• Streaklines, streamlines, and pathlines are identical in steady flow but they can be quite different in unsteady flow.

• The main difference is that a streamline represents an instantaneous flow pattern at a given instant in time, while a streakline and a pathline are flow patterns that have some age and thus a time history associated with them.

• A streakline is an instantaneous snapshot of a time-integrated flow pattern.

• A pathline, on the other hand, is the time-exposed flow path of an individual particle over some time period.

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Smoke streaklines introduced by a smoke wire at two different locations in thewake of a circular cylinder: (a) smoke wire just downstream of the cylinder and(b) smoke wire located at x/D = 150. The time-integrative nature of streaklinesis clearly seen by comparing the two photographs.

In the figure, streaklines are introduced from a smoke wire located just downstream of a circular cylinder of diameter D aligned normal to the plane of view.

When multiple streaklines are introduced along a line, as in the figure, we refer to this as a rake of streaklines.

The Reynolds number of the flow is Re = 93.

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Kármán vortices visible in the clouds in the wake of

Alexander Selkirk Island in the southern Pacific Ocean.

Because of unsteady vortices shed in an alternating pattern from the cylinder, the smoke collects into a clearly defined periodic pattern called a Kármán vortex street.

A similar pattern can be seen at much larger scale in the air flow in the wake of an island.

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Comparison of Flow Patterns in an Unsteady Flow

Streamlines, pathlines, and streaklines for the oscillating velocity field of Example 4–5. The streaklines and pathlines are wavy because of their integrated time history, but the streamlines are not wavy since they represent an instantaneous snapshot of the velocity field.

An unsteady, incompressible, two-dimensional velocity field

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Timeline: A set of adjacent fluid particles that were marked at the same (earlier) instant in time.

Timelines are particularly useful in situations where the uniformity of a flow (or lack thereof) is to be examined.

Timelines are formed by marking a line of fluid particles, and then watching that line move (and deform) through the flow field; timelines are shown at t = 0, t1, t2, and t3.

Timelines produced by a hydrogen bubble wire are used to visualize the boundary layer velocity profile shape. Flow is from left to right, and the hydrogen bubble wire is located to the left of the field of view. Bubbles near the wall reveal a flow instability that leads to turbulence.

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4–3 ■ PLOTS OF FLUID FLOW DATARegardless of how the results are obtained (analytically, experimentally, or computationally), it is usually necessary to plot flow data in ways that enable the reader to get a feel for how the flow properties vary in time and/or space.

You are already familiar with time plots, which are especially useful in turbulent flows (e.g., a velocity component plotted as a function of time), and xy-plots (e.g., pressure as a function of radius).

In this section, we discuss three additional types of plots that are useful in fluid mechanics—

profile plots, vector plots, and contour plots.

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Profile Plots

A profile plot indicates how the value of a scalar property varies along some desired direction in the flow field.

Profile plots of the horizontal component of velocity as a

function of vertical distance; flow in the boundary layer growing

along a horizontal flat plate: (a) standard profile plot and (b)

profile plot with arrows.

In fluid mechanics, profile plots of any scalar variable (pressure, temperature, density, etc.) can be created, but the most common one used in this book is the velocity profile plot.

Since velocity is a vector quantity, we usually plot either the magnitude of velocity or one of the components of the velocity vector as a function of distance in some desired direction.

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Vector Plots

A vector plot is an array of arrows indicating the magnitude and direction of a vector property at an instant in time.

Fig. 4-4: Velocity vector plot Fig. 4-14: Acceleration vector plot.

Both generated analytically.

Streamlines indicate the direction of the instantaneous velocity field, they do not directly indicate the magnitude of the velocity (i.e., the speed).

A useful flow pattern for both experimental and computational fluid flows is thus the vector plot, which consists of an array of arrows that indicate both magnitude and direction of an instantaneous vector property.

Vector plots can also be generated from experimentally obtained data (e.g., from PIV measurements) or numerically from CFD calculations.

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Results of CFD calculations of a two-dimensional flow field consisting of free-stream flow impinging on a block of rectangular cross section.(a) streamlines,(b) velocity vector plot of the upperhalf of the flow, and (c) velocity vector plot, close-up view revealing more details in the separated flow region.

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Contour PlotsA contour plot shows curves of constant values of a scalar property (or magnitude of a vector property) at an instant in time.

Contour plots of the pressure field due to flow impinging on a block, as produced by CFD

calculations; only the upper half is shown dueto symmetry; (a) filled color scale contour plot and

(b) contour line plot where pressure values are displayed in units of Pa gage pressure.

Contour plots (also called isocontour plots) are generated of pressure, temperature, velocity magnitude, species concentration, properties of turbulence, etc.

A contour plot can quickly reveal regions of high (or low) values of the flow property being studied.

A contour plot may consist simply of curves indicating various levels of the property; this is called a contour line plot.

Alternatively, the contours can be filled in with either colors or shades of gray; this is called a filled contour plot.

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Fundamental types of fluid element motion or

deformation: (a) translation, (b) rotation, (c) linear strain,

and (d) shear strain.

Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements

In fluid mechanics, an element may undergo four fundamental types of motion or deformation:

(a) translation, (b) rotation, (c) linear strain (also called extensional strain), and(d) shear strain.

All four types of motion or deformation usually occur simultaneously.

It is preferable in fluid dynamics to describe the motion and deformation of fluid elements in terms of rates such as

velocity (rate of translation), angular velocity (rate of rotation), linear strain rate (rate of linear strain), and shear strain rate (rate of shear strain).

In order for these deformation rates to be useful in the calculation of fluid flows, we must express them in terms of velocity and derivatives of velocity.

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A vector is required in order to fully describe the rate of translation in threedimensions. The rate of translation vector is described mathematically asthe velocity vector.

Rate of rotation (angular velocity) at a point: The average rotation rate of two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at that point.

For a fluid element that translates and deforms as sketched, the rate of rotation at

point P is defined as the average rotation rate of two initially perpendicular lines

(lines a and b).

Rate of rotation of fluid element about point P

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The rate of rotation vector is equal to the angular velocity vector.

Linear strain rate: The rate of increase in length per unit length.

Mathematically, the linear strain rate of a fluid element depends on the initial orientation or direction of the line segment upon which we measure the linear strain.

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Using the lengths marked in the figure, the linear strain rate in the xa-direction is

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Volumetric strain rate or bulk strain rate: The rate of increase of volume of a fluid element per unit volume.

This kinematic property is defined as positive when the volume increases.

Another synonym of volumetric strain rate is also called rate of volumetric dilatation, (the iris of your eye dilates (enlarges) when exposed to dim light).

The volumetric strain rate is the sum of the linear strain rates in three mutually orthogonal directions.

Air being compressed by a piston in a cylinder; the volume of a fluid element in the cylinder decreases, corresponding to

a negative rate of volumetric dilatation.

The volumetric strain rate is zero in an incompressible flow.

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Shear strain rate at a point: Half of the rate of decrease of the angle between two initially perpendicular lines that intersect at the point.

For a fluid element that translates and deforms as sketched, the shear

strain rate at point P is defined as half of the rate of decrease of the

angle between two initially perpendicular lines (lines a and b).

Shear strain rate, initially perpendicular lines in the x- and y-directions:

Shear strain rate in Cartesian coordinates:

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A fluid element illustrating translation, rotation, linear strain, shear strain, and volumetric strain.

Figure shows a general (although two-dimensional) situation in a compressible fluid flow in which all possible motions and deformations are present simultaneously.

In particular, there is translation, rotation, linear strain, and shear strain.

Because of the compressible nature of the fluid flow, there is also volumetric strain (dilatation).

You should now have a better appreciation of the inherent complexity of fluid dynamics, and the mathematical sophistication required to fully describe fluid motion.

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4–5 ■ VORTICITY AND ROTATIONALITYAnother kinematic property of great importance to the analysis of fluid flows is the vorticity vector, defined mathematically as the curl of the velocity vector

The direction of a vector cross product is determined by the right-hand rule.

The vorticity vector is equal to twice the angular velocity vector of a rotating fluid particle.

Vorticity is equal to twice the angular velocity of a fluid particle

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• If the vorticity at a point in a flow field is nonzero, the fluid particle that happens to occupy that point in space is rotating; the flow in that region is called rotational.

• Likewise, if the vorticity in a region of the flow is zero (or negligibly small), fluid particles there are not rotating; the flow in that region is called irrotational.

• Physically, fluid particles in a rotational region of flow rotate end over end as they move along in the flow.

The difference between rotational and irrotational flow: fluid elements in arotational region of the flow rotate, but those in an irrotational region of the flow do not.

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For a two-dimensional flow in the xy-plane, the vorticity vector always points in the z- or z-direction. In this illustration, the flag-shaped fluid particle rotates in the counterclockwise direction as it moves in the xy-plane; its vorticity points in the positive z-direction as shown.

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Determination of Rotationality in a Two-Dimensional Flow

Deformation of an initially square fluid parcel subjected to the velocity field of Example 4–8 for a time period of 0.25 s and 0.50 s. Several streamlines are also plotted in the first quadrant. It is clear that this flow is rotational.

steady, incompressible, two-dimensional velocity field: Vorticity:

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For a two-dimensional flow in the r-plane, the vorticity vector always points in the z (or z) direction. In this illustration, the flag-shaped fluid particle rotates in the clockwise direction as it moves in the ru-plane; its vorticity points in the z-direction as shown.

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Comparison of Two Circular Flows

Streamlines and velocity profiles for (a) flow A, solid-body rotation and (b) flow B, a line vortex. Flow A is rotational, but flow B is irrotational everywhere except at the origin.

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A simple analogy: (a) rotational circular flow is analogous to a roundabout, while (b) irrotational circular flow is analogous to a Ferris wheel.

A simple analogy can be made between flow A and a merry-go-round or roundabout, and flow B and a Ferris wheel.

As children revolve around a roundabout, they also rotate at the same angular velocity as that of the ride itself. This is analogous to a rotational flow.

In contrast, children on a Ferris wheel always remain oriented in an upright position as they trace out their circular path. This is analogous to an irrotational flow.

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4–6 ■ THE REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREMTwo methods of analyzing the spraying of deodorant from a spray can: (a) We follow the fluid as it moves and deforms. This is the system approach—no mass crosses the boundary, and the total mass of the system remains fixed. (b) We consider a fixed interior volume of the can. This is the control volume approach—mass crosses the boundary.

The relationship between the time rates of change of an extensive property for a system and for a control volume is expressed by the Reynolds transport theorem (RTT).

The Reynolds transport theorem (RTT) provides a link between the system approach and the

control volume approach.

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A moving system (hatched region) and a fixed control volume (shaded region) in a diverging portion of a flow field at times t and t+t. The upper and lower bounds are streamlines of the flow.

The time rate of change of the property B of the system is equal to the time rate of change of B of the control volume plus the net flux of B out of the control volume by mass crossing the control surface.

This equation applies at any instant in time, where it is assumed that the system and the control volume occupy the same space at that particular instant in time.

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Relative velocity crossing a control surface is found by vector addition of the absolute velocity of the fluid and the negative of the local velocity of the control surface.

Reynolds transport theorem applied to a

control volume moving at constant velocity.

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An example control volume in which there is one well-defined inlet (1) and two well-defined outlets (2 and 3). In such cases, the control surface integral in the RTT can be more conveniently written in terms of the average values of fluid properties crossing each inletand outlet.

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Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem

A more elegant mathematical derivation of the Reynolds transport theorem is possible through use of the Leibniz theorem

The Leibniz theorem takes into account the change of limits a(t) and b(t) with respect to time, as well as the unsteady changes of integrand G(x, t) with time.

The one-dimensional Leibniz theorem is required when

calculating the time derivative of an integral (with respect to x) for

which the limits of the integral are functions of time.

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The material volume (system) and control volume occupy the same space at time t (the blue

shaded area), but move and deform differently. At a later time

they are not coincident.

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Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT

The Reynolds transport theorem for finite volumes (integral analysis) is analogous to the material derivative for infinitesimal volumes (differential analysis). In both cases, we transform from a Lagrangian or system viewpoint to an Eulerian or control volume viewpoint.

While the Reynolds transport theorem deals with finite-size control volumes and the material derivative deals with infinitesimal fluid particles, the same fundamental physical interpretation applies to both.

Just as the material derivative can be applied to any fluid property, scalar or vector, the Reynolds transport theorem can be applied to any scalar or vector property as well.