Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness Chap. 6 Flexibility

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Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness Chap. 6 Flexibility. Health Benefits. Increased bone density Increased HDL-C Increased muscle mass which increases BMR Decreased risk of low-back syndrome Greater stability and balance Improved self-image. Muscular Strength. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness Chap. 6 Flexibility

  • Chap. 5 Muscular Fitness

    Chap. 6 Flexibility

  • Health BenefitsIncreased bone densityIncreased HDL-CIncreased muscle mass which increases BMRDecreased risk of low-back syndromeGreater stability and balanceImproved self-image

  • Muscular StrengthMuscular strength is the maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle or muscle group. Muscle strength is specific toThe muscle groupType of contractionSpeed of contractionJoint angle

  • Muscular EnduranceMuscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to develop repeated force over a period of time or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for a prolonged period of time.

  • Types of Muscle ContractionsDynamic (a.k.a. isotonic)ConcentricShortening contractionsMoves mass against gravityEccentricLengtheningResists gravity acting on a massStatic muscle does not change length

  • Gradation of Muscle ForceIncreased frequency of discharge (rate coding)Increased number of motor units recruited

  • Factors Determining Torque Produced by MusclePhysiological FactorsNumber of motor units recruitedTypes of fibers recruitedLength of muscleMechanical FactorsLength of lever armAngle of pull

  • Strength Testing ModesStaticDynamicConstant resistanceVariable resistanceIsokinetic

  • Muscular Endurance Testing ModesStatic (% of 1 RM)Dynamic% of 1 RM% of body weightIsokinetic

  • Fundamental Concepts of ProgressionProgressive overloadSpecificityVariationPeriodizationClassic (linear) modelUndulating (nonlinear) model

  • Interaction of Loading & Reps StrengthEndurance1246810121416..Repetitions MaximumHeavy(100%)Moderate (70%) Light (50%)ResistancePower??

  • Program VariablesMuscle actionLoadingTraining VolumeExercise selectionExercise orderRest PeriodsVelocity of Muscle ActionFrequencyFree weights vs machines

  • Muscle ActionNovice: Concentric and eccentricIntermediate: Concentric and eccentricAdvanced: Concentric and eccentric

  • LoadingNovice & Intermediate60-70% of 1 RM or 8-12 RM2-10% increase for RM loadingAdvanced80-100% of 1 RM or 1-5 RMPeriodized schedule2-10% increase for RM loading

  • Training VolumeNovice: 1-3 setsIntermediate: 2-3 setsAdvanced: 3-6 setsTraining volume increase should be no more than 10% every 2-4 weeks

  • Exercise SelectionBoth single and multi-joint exercises should be usedLess risk of injury with single joint exercisesMore transfer to performance with multi-joint exercise

  • Exercise OrderWhen training all major muscle groups in a single sessionLarge muscles before smallMulti-joint before singleSplit RoutineLarge before smallMulti-joint before singleRotation of agonist/antagonist

  • Rest PeriodsFor all levelsFor multi-joint, high resistance and large muscle exercises: 2-3 minutesFor single-joint, small muscle exercises or lower resistance: 1-2 minutesMay alternate muscle groups with little or now rest in order to shorten total exercise time

  • Velocity of Muscle ActionNoviceSlow (2-4 sec for each phase)Moderate (1-2 sec for each phase)Intermediate should use moderate velocitiesAdvanced should use slow to fast (
  • FrequencyNovice should train the entire body 2-3 days per week.Intermediate2-3 days per week for total body3-4 days per week such that each muscle group is trained 1-2 days per weekAdvanced4-6 days per week with 2-3 days per week for each major muscle groupMultiple sessions per day may be used if recovery is optimized

  • Factors Affecting the Ability to Hypertrophy MuscleMuscle TypeGeneticsHormonesNutritionGeneral nutritionSupplementationTraining


  • Training for HypertrophyLoading70-100% of 1 RM1-12 Reps with majority 6-12 3-6 setsPeriodizedRest periods of 1-2 minutes except in heavy loading of core exercises when 2-3 minutes of rest are recommended

  • Training for Muscular PowerPower = Work/Time Power is optimized using more explosive movements on top of a good strength baseLight to moderate loading (30-60% 1 RM) performed at an explosive velocity

  • Common Causes of Back Pain or SyndromesWith age, the disk degenerates and the space for the nerve root is reduced.Bone spurs and arthritis can impinge on the nerves and cause pain.

  • Exercise movements that cause full lumbar flexion and extension should be avoided, especially the older you get.

  • What is Good Posture?Minimal stress on the vertebral joints and supporting ligaments.Body segments balanced around the center of gravity.

  • Lumbar Lordosis (Sway Back)Weak abdominals and short hip flexors tip the pelvis forward and increase back strain.

  • Proper Posture (Neutral Pelvis)Strong abdominals and longer hip flexors keep the pelvis neutral.