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  • Challenges of Challenges of JaLTERJaLTER toward interdisciplinary toward interdisciplinary study on ecosystem adaptation study on ecosystem adaptation

    under global changesunder global changes

    Hideaki Shibata Hideaki Shibata (Hokkaido University)(Hokkaido University) TohruTohru NakashizukaNakashizuka (Tohoku University)(Tohoku University)

  • Contents

    • Need of interdisciplinary ecosystem study • What’s JaLTER? • Challenge of JaLTER

    – Long-term study of ecosystem process – Cross-site analysis – Data archiving and sharing

  • Human system needs strategy for adaptation and mitigation under predicted global change.

    (IPCC AR4)

  • (GEO Information Sheet 2008)

    Importance of Ecosystem in GEOSS

  • Ecosystem and biodiversity under global change

    (Chapin et al. 2000: Nature 405: 234-242)

  • (IPCC AR4)

  • Litter fall

    Decomposition & storage

    Leaching

    RespirationPhotosynthesis & respiration

    Production

    --- Inter-related processes of carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem --- Ecosystem function under the global climate change

  • Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystem (FLUXNET: Baldocchi et al. 2001)

    Temperature effect

    Growing period

  • Control of temperature and nitrogen on C uptake

    (Magnani et al. 2007, Nature 447: 848-850)

  • Future increase of nitrogen pollution

    (Galloway et al; MA Synthesis 2005)

  • Change of litter decomposition associated with nitrogen nutrition would control nutrient supply for plant and carbon storage in soil. Progressive nitrogen limitation under climate change

    (Johnson et al. 2006, Ecology 87: 64-75)

  • (Reich et al. 2001, Nature 410: 809-812)

    Biodiversity also affect ecosystem productivity affected by elevated CO2 and nitrogen.

  • (IPCC AR4-WGII report Chapter 4)

    From carbon fertilization to saturation and loss

  • IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability"

  • Lake and estuary

    Grass land

    Forest

    Associate-siteCore-site

    JaLTER site network (April 2008)

    Japan Long-Term Ecological Research Network (JaLTER)

    Established in 2006

    Membership of ILTER in 2007

    Various ecosystems and institutes

    Different environmental conditions

    Long-term and Large-scale study

    Cross-site analysis

    Data archive and sharing

    Education program

  • 100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

    Year

    M ax im u m s n o w pa c k (c m )

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    4 10 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 10 4 10

    month

    d e p o si ti o n f lu x (m m o l/ m 2 )

    SO4 NO3

    2001 2007

    Challenge of JaLTER; Long-term monitoring of environment and ecosystem

    JaLTER core site; North Hokkaido

    Snowpack

    Atmospheric deposition

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year

    V ol

    um e

    (m 3 h

    a- 1 )

    Conifer Broadleaved

    Tree volume 0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year

    V ol

    um e

    (m 3 h

    a- 1 )

    Conifer Broadleaved

    Tree volume Natural mixed forest

  • Challenge of JaLTER: Large-scale infrastructures

  • Carbon exchange between ecosystem and atmosphere

    Internal dynamics of carbon in ecosystem

    Carbon leaching to stream

    Biomass, litterfall, respiration, decomposition, storage

    -- carbon cycling in watershed ecosystem -- Challenge of JaLTER: Integrated study of ecosystem processes

  • Carbon cycling and budget in forest ecosystem (gC m-2 y-1)

    Litter fall

    Translocation

    SOC

    Leaching

    Soil respiration

    Mortality

    Gross Ecosystem Exchange

    838 580

    118

    4

    Δ=92

    549

    Δ=16 Δ=146

    79

    Litter fall

    Translocation

    SOC

    Leaching

    Soil respiration

    Mortality

    Gross Ecosystem Exchange

    838 580

    118

    4

    Δ=92

    549

    Δ=16 Δ=146

    79

    Challenge of JaLTER: Integrated study of ecosystem processes IGBP/MEXT・GCTE project (JaLTER core-site; Tomakomai)

    (Shibata et al. 2005)

  • -2

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    N E

    P (

    gC m

    -2 da

    y- 1 )

    1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002~

    Gross Primary Production Net Primary Production Ecosystem Respiration Soil Respiration Net Ecosystem Production Above-ground Respiration

    JaLTER core-site; Takayama (provided by Dr. Muraoka (Gifu Univ.))

    Challenge of JaLTER: Long-term study of ecosystem processes

  • Process modelFlux measurementEcosystem process

    Remote sensing

    Challenge of JaLTER: Interdisciplinary approach

    JaLTER core-site; Takayama (provided by Dr. Muraoka (Gifu Univ.))

  • Challenge of JaLTER: Application of experimental manipulation

    Soil warming experiment

    Nitrogen addition

    Clear-cut experiment

  • Biodiversity & Ecosystem

    Tree growth

    Litter-fall

    Seed production

    Forest-floor insects

    Bird community

    --- Monitoring sites 1000 ---

    Challenge of JaLTER: Interdisciplinary cross-site study

    Ministry of Environment, Japan

    Forest and estuary sites are strongly over-lapped by JaLTER-site.

    Mr. Sakamoto will explain details in the afternoon session.

  • Some JapanFlux sites are registered as JaLTER site.

    Collaboration with JapanFlux

    Challenge of JaLTER: Interdisciplinary cross-site study II

  • Challenge of JaLTER: Data archiving and sharing – EML database

  • Education program for next generation

  • Conclusive remark • Linkage between GEOSS and on-site

    ecosystem research network with interdisciplinary approach would be quite important for ecosystem management toward the adaptation under global changes.

    • Understandings of the interrelationship between carbon, water, nutrition and biodiversity in ecosystem with different environmental conditions and different spatial and temporal scale would be one of the key research themes for GEOSS-Ecosystem and Biodiversity.

  • Kick-off meeting of JaLTER in Tomakomai Experimental Forest (November 2006)

    We thank JaLTER and ILTER colleagues.