Centrifugal Pumps - Design and Application, 2nd Edition

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CENTRIFIUGAL PUMPS Design & applicationSecond Edition

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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Design & ApplicationSecond Edition

Val S. Lobanoff Robert R. Ross

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPSDesign & ApplicationSecond Edition

Copyright 1985, 1992 by Butterworth-Heinemann. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. For information, please contact: Manager of Special Sales Butterworth-Heinemann 225 Wildwood Avenue Woburn, MA 01801-204! Tel: 781-904-2500 Fax:781-904-2620 For information on all Butterworth- Heinernann publications available, contact our World Wide Web home page at: http://www.bh.corn Printed on Acid-Free Paper (oo) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lobanoff, Val S., 1910 Centrifugal pumps: design & application/Val S. Lobanoff, Robert R. Ross.2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-87201-200-X 1. Centrifugal pumps. I. Ross, Robert R., 1934- . II. Title. TJ919.L52 1992 621.6'7dc20 91-41458 CIP

IV

ContentsPreface ..... ...... xi

Part 1: elements of pumps Design1 introduction Part1: Elements

1

of Pump Design, . , ,1 .. 3

System Analysis for Pump Selection. Differential Head Required, NPSHA. Shape of Head Capacity Curve. Pump Speed. Liquid Characteristics. Viscosity. Specific Gravity. Construction. Pump Selection.

2

Specific Speed and Modeling Laws .

11

Definition of Pump Specific Speed and Suction Specific Speed. The Affinity Law. Specific Speed Charts. Correction for Impeller Trim. Model Law. Factoring Laws. Conclusion.

3

Impeller Design

28

Impeller Layout. Development of Impeller Profile (Plan View). Development of Impeller End View. Impeller Inlet Angles. Development of Impeller Vane. Design Suggestions. Notation.

v

4

General Pump Design

45

Performance Chart. 5 Volute Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SO

Types of Volute Designs. Single-Volute Casing Designs. Double-Volute Casing Designs. Double-Volute Dividing Rib (Splitter). Triple-Volute Casings. Quad-Volute Casings, Circular-Volute Casings. General Design Considerations. The Use of Universal Volute Sections for Standard Volute Designs. The Design of Rectangular Double Volutes. The Design of Circular Volutes. General Considerations in Casing Design. Manufacturing Considerations. Casing Surface Finish. Casing Shrinkage. Conclusion, Notation. Reference, 6 Design of Multi-Stage Casing 6S

General Considerations in Crossover Design. Specific Crossover Designs. Crossovers with Radial Diffusing Sections. Crossovers with Diagonal Diffusing Sections. Mechanical Suggestions. Notation. 7 Double-Suction Pumps and Side-Suction Design . 77

Double-Suction Pump Design. Pump Casing. Double-Suction Impeller. Side Suction and Suction Nozzle Layout. Suction Layout (End View). Suction Layout (Profile),8 NPSH ,, 15

Establishing NPSHA. Predicting NPSHR. Moderate Speed Pumps. Influence of Suction Specific Speed (Nss). High Speed Pumps. Cavitation-Free NPSHR. Influence of Suction Nozzle. Influence of Liquid. Suction Piping. Effect of Viscosity. Notation. References.

Part2:Applications111 9 Vertical Pumps

113

by Erik B, Fiske Configurations. Well Pumps. Wet Pit Pumps. Barrel-Mounted or Can-Mounted Pumps. Applications. Well Pumps. Water Well Pumps. Incline-Mounted Pumps. Cavvi

ern Pumps, Mine Dewatering Pumps. Wet Pit Pumps. Water Supply Pumps. Condenser Cooling Water Pumps. Cooling Tower Pumps. Flood Control Pumps. Transfer Pumps. Barrel-Mounted or Can-Mounted Pumps. Condensate and Heater Drain Pumps. Process Pumps. Small Boiler Feed Pumps. Cryogenic Pumps. Loading Pumps. Pipeline Booster Pumps. Design Features. The Bowl Assembly. The Column Assembly. Outer Column. Column Shaft. Shaft Enclosing Tube. The Head Assembly, Pump Vibration, References. 10 Pipeline, Waterflood, anil CQ2 Pumps ,,.....,., 139

Pipeline Pumps. Condition Changes. Destaging. Bi-rotors. Slurry Pipelines. Example of Pipeline Pump Selection. Series vs. Parallel. Waterflood Pumps. C02 Pumps, Mechanical Seals. Horsepower Considerations. Notation. References. 11 High Speed Pumps ,,,..................,.,,, 173

by Edward Gravelle History and Description of an Unconventional Pump Type. Terminology. Partial Emission Formulae. Specific Speed. Suction Specific Speed. Inducers. Partial Emission Design Evolution. Design Configuration Options. Other High-Speed Considerations. References, 12 Double-Case Pumps 206

by Erik B. Fiske Configurations. Pump Casing. Volute Casing with Opposed Impellers. Diffuser Cas ings with Balance Drum. Diffuser Casings with Balance Disk. Applications. Boiler Feed Pumps. Charge Pumps. Waterflood Pumps. Pipeline Pumps. Design Features. Removable Inner Case Subassembly. Auxiliary Take-off Nozzles. Double-Suction FirstStage Impellers. Mounting of the Impellers. Impeller Wear Rings. Shaft Seals. Radial Bearings. Thrust Bearings, Baseplates and Foundations. Mounting of the Barrel. Design Features for Pumping Hot Oil with Abrasives. Double-Case Pump Rotordynamic Analysis. The Effect of Stage Arrangement on Rotordynamics. The Effect of Impeller Growth from Centrifugal Forces. Comparison of Diffuser Casings with Volute Casings. Diffuser Casings. Volute Casings. References. 13 Slurry Pumps 226

by George Wilson Slurry Abrasivity. Pump Materials to Resist Abrasive Wear. Slurry Pump Types, Specific Speed and Wear. Areas of Wear. Casing. Impeller. Wear Plates. Bearing Frames, Sealing. Sump Design. Pump Drive. The Effect of Slurries on Pump Performance,vii

14

Hydraulic Power Recovery Turbines .....

.............

246

by Rolf Lmnetiurg and Richard M, Nelson Selection Process. Specific Speed. Net Positive Discharge Head. Power Output and Affinity Laws. Configuration. Turbine Performance Prediction. Prediction by Approximation. Prediction by Analysis. Optimizing and Adjusting Performance Characteristics. Design Features (Hydraulic and Mechanical). Reverse-Running Pump. Turbine Design with Fixed Guide Vanes. Turbine Design with Internally and Externally Adjustable Guide Vanes. Operating Considerations. Performance Testing. Applications. Operation and Control Equipment. Conclusion. References, 5 1 Chemical Pumps-Metallic and Nonmetatlic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 by Frederic W. Buse ANSI Pumps, Specifications. General Construction. Impeller. Casings. Volute. Gasketing. Flat Gasket. 0-Rings. Casing Covers. Stuffing Box. Frame. Support Head. Bearing Housing, Shaft. Impeller Attachment. Bearings. Lubrication of the Bearings, Mounting the Bearing. Clamping Between the Housing and End Cover. End Cover Mount. End Sealing. Bedplates. Standard Beds. Stiit-Mounted Beds. SpringsMounted Beds. Noncorrosive Beds. Flinger. Other Types of Chemical Pumps. Sealless Pumps. Sump Pumps. Self Priming. Nonmetallic Pumps. Armored Pump. Reinforced Composite Material Pumps. Thermosetting Polymers. Thermoplastics. Manufacturing Techniques. Compression Molding. Resin Transfer. Design Stresses. Pressure vs. Temperature. NPSHR. General Construction of Nonmetallic Pumps. Nozzle Loading. Bolting. Gaskets. Back-up Support for Bolting. Stuffing Box Area. Mechanical Seals. Impellers. Nonmetaliic Immersion Sump Pumps. Driver. Level Controls. Stilling Tubes. Mounting Plates and Pit Covers. Processes. Pump Corrosion. Pump Materials. Chlorine. Sodium-Hypochtorite. Hydrochloric AcidHCL. Sulfuric AcidH2SQ4. Ferrous and Ferric Chloride. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Ethylene and Propylene Glycol. Synthetic Glycerine. Corn Syrup. Dyes. Pesticides. Sodium ChloriteNa CI03. Pulp and Paper. Metal Finishing. Carbon Steel Pickling. Stainless Steel Pickling. Desalinization and Water Purification. Secondary Oil Recovery (Waterflood). MiningCopper Leaching and Uranium Solvent Extraction. Industrial Waste Treatment. Material Selection. References.

11 ( Shaft Design and Axial Thrust.............................. 333 Shaft Design. Shaft Sizing Based on Peak Torsiona! Stress. Shaft Sizing Based on Fatigue Evaluation. Shaft Deflection. Key Stress. Axial Thrust. Double-Suction Singleviii

Part3:

Mechanical

Design

331

Stage Pumps. Single-Suction Single-Stage Overhung Pumps. Multi-Stage Pumps Notation. References.

17

Mechanical Seals

354

by James P. Netzel Theory of Operation. Design Fundamentals. Seal Leakage. Seal Wear. Classification of Seals by Arrangement. Classification of Seals by Design. Materials of Construction, Mating Ring Designs. Adaptive Hardware. Upstream Pumping. Mechanicai Seals for Chemical Service. Mechanical Seals for Refinery Service. Typical Applications. Light Hydrocarbon Service. Mechanical Seal Installation and Troubleshooting References. 48 Vibration and Noise in Pumps .............................. 422

by Fred R. Szenasi Introduction. Sources of Pump Noise. Mechanical Noise Sources. Liquid Noise Sources. Causes of Vibrations. Installation/Maintenance Effects. Application. Hydraulic Effects. Half-Wave Resonance (Open-Open and Closed-Closed). Quarter-Wave Resonance (Open-Closed). Design/Manufacturing. Rotordynamic Analysis. Lateral Critical Speed Analysis. Seal Effects. Response to Unbalance. Acceptable Unbalance Levels. Allowable Vibration Criteria. Rotor Stability Analyses. Torsional Critical Speed Analysis. Variable Speed Drives. Diagnosis of Pump Vibration Problems. Measure ment Techniques. Impact Tests. Troubleshooting, Impact Tests. Appendix. Acoustic Velocity of Liquids. References.

Part4: Ext