Centrifugal compressor surge and speed control -...
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 567
Centrifugal Compressor Surge and Speed ControlJan Tommy Gravdahl, Member, IEEE, and Olav Egeland, Member, IEEE
AbstractPrevious work on stabilization of compressor surgeis extended to include control of the angular velocity of thecompressor. First a low-order centrifugal compressor model ispresented where the states are mass flow, pressure rise, androtational speed of the spool. Energy transfer considerations areused to develop a compressor characteristic. In order to stabilizeequilibria to the left of the surge line, a close coupled valve is usedin series with the compressor. Controllers for the valve pressuredrop and spool speed are derived. Semiglobal exponential stabilityis proved using a Lyapunov argument.
Index Terms Compressors, Lyapunov methods, modeling,surge control.
COMPRESSOR surge is an axisymmetric oscillation ofthe mass flow and pressure rise. Modeling and control ofthese oscillations is of considerable interest since surge limitsthe useful range of mass flows where the compressor operatesstably. Large amplitude surge can also damage the compressor.Low-order models for surge in compression systems havebeen proposed by many authors, and a classical referenceis . However, the compression system model of  hasbeen widely used for surge control design. It was derivedfor axial compression systems, but  showed that it isalso applicable to centrifugal compressors. The model has twostates, normalized mass flow and normalized pressure, and thecompressor is treated as an actuator disc, with a third-orderpolynomial flow/pressure rise characteristic.
Over the last decade many papers covering the area of surgecontrol have been published. A review can be found in . Ofmany possible actuation schemes, closed coupled valve (CCV)control is considered one of the most promising , , ,, . Experimental results of CCV control is reported in and . Surge in a compression system can be explainedby the throttle line crossing the compressor characteristicin an area of positive compressor characteristic slope. Aclose coupled valve is placed immediately downstream ofthe compressor (hence close coupled), and active control ofthe valve pressure drop is utilized to make the slope of theequivalent compressor (compressor in series with the valve)negative and thereby stabilizing the system.
This approach was used in , , and  for surgecontrol of the model of . Linear stability analysis was usedin designing control laws resulting in local stability results. In pressure disturbances were included in the analysis, and
Manuscript received November 25, 1997; revised July 28, 1998. Recom-mended by Associate Editor, M. Jankovic.
The authors are with the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwe-gian University of Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
Publisher Item Identifier S 1063-6536(99)06452-0.
a nonlinear CCV control law was designed for the model of using the method of Lyapunov. By applying backstepping, developed nonlinear surge controllers for the same model,but included disturbances both in mass flow and pressure.Global stability results were presented. In  certain passivityproperties of the model were utilized in designing a CCVcontrol law.
One drawback of CCV control is that the valve introducesa pressure drop in the compression system as discussed in. When using the valve as a steady-state device, such asin , this loss may become unacceptably large. However,as pointed out in  and , a time varying valve willintroduce considerably less pressure drop than a valve withconstant pressure drop.
Since compressors are variable speed machines, it is ofinterest to investigate the influence of speed transients onthe surge dynamics. Models describing this interaction weredeveloped in  and  for axial compressors, and in and  (a preliminary version of this paper) for centrifugalcompressors. As surge can occur during acceleration of thecompressor speed, it is of major concern to develop controllersthat simultaneously can control both surge and compressorspeed.
In this paper, a surge control law for variable speed cen-trifugal compressors is presented and analyzed. The speedis controlled with a PI-control law. Inspired by  and, we make a departure from the third order polynomialapproximation of the compressor characteristic commonlyused in the surge control literature. Fluid friction and incidencelosses, as well as other losses, in the compressor stage aremodeled, and a variable speed compressor characteristic isdeveloped based on this. Both annular and vaned diffusersare studied.
Semiglobal exponential stability results for the proposedcontrollers are given using Lyapunovs method, and the resultsare confirmed through simulations.
The centrifugal compressor consists essentially of a sta-tionary inlet casing, a rotating impeller which imparts ahigh velocity to the gas, and a number of fixed divergingpassages in which the gas is decelerated with a consequentrise in static pressure. The latter process is one of diffusion,and consequently, the part of the compressor containing thediverging passages is known as the diffuser, . Fig. 1 isa diagrammatic sketch of the impeller and diffuser of acentrifugal compressor. The function of the inlet casing isto deliver gas to the impeller eye. A volute (also known asa scroll or a collector) may be fitted at the diffuser exit. Its
10636536/99$10.00 1999 IEEE
568 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999
Fig. 1. Diagrammatic sketch of a radially vaned centrifugal compressor. Shown here with a vaned diffuser.
Fig. 2. Compression system.
function is simply to collect the diffuser exit flow, and to guideit as efficiently as possible to the compressor outlet, withoutimpeding the effectiveness of the diffuser .
We are considering a compression system consisting of acentrifugal compressor, close coupled valve, compressor duct,plenum volume, and a throttle. The throttle can be regarded asa simplified model of a turbine. The system is shown in Fig. 2.The model to be used for controller design is in the form
where is the compressor mass flow, is the pressuredownstream of the compressor, is the inlet stagnation sonicvelocity, is the length of compressor and duct, is areference area, is the spool moment of inertia, is thedrive torque and is the compressor torque. The two firstequations of (1) are equivalent to the model of , whereasthe whole model (1) is similar to the model of . It shouldalso be noted that models similar to (1) are used in modelingthe compressor in IC engine turbochargers, see . In whichcase, would be the intake manifold or intercooler pressure.
Fig. 3. Velocity triangle at inducer.
The angular speed of the compressor is included as astate in addition to mass flow and pressure rise which are thestates in Greitzers surge model. The equation for followsfrom the mass balance in the plenum, assuming the plenumprocess isentropic, and the equation for follows from theimpulse balance in the duct. In the following, the model (1)will be developed in detail. In particular, expressions must befound for the terms and It will also be shown that anexpression for the compressor characteristic results from thisderivation.
Incoming gas enters the impeller eye (the inducer) of thecompressor with velocity (see Fig. 3). The mass flowand is given by
where is the constant stagnation inlet density. The tangen-tial velocity of the inducer is calculated as
where is the angular velocity of the impeller and is thenumber of revolutions per second. The average diameteris defined according to
GRAHVDAHL AND EGELAND: CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR SURGE AND SPEED CONTROL 569
Fig. 4. Velocity triangle at impeller tip.
where and are the diameters at inducer tip and hubcasing, respectively. The circle with diameter and area
divides the inducer in two annuli of equal area. The gasleaves the impeller at the impeller tip with velocity asshown in Fig. 4. The diameter at the impeller tip is andthe tangential tip velocity is
III. ENERGY TRANSFER
A. Ideal Energy Transfer
For turbomachines, applied torque equals the change inangular momentum of the fluid
where is the compressor torque, ,and is the tangential component of the gas velocityPower delivered to the fluid is
where is the specific enthalpy delivered to thefluid without taking account for losses. Equation (6) is knownas Eulers pump equation. For simplicity, the following twoassumptions are made. A radially vaned (no backsweep)impeller is considered with , and there is noprewhirl, that is It is to be emphasizedthat these assumptions are made only to simplify the analysis,the results to follow can easily be generalized by omittingthese assumptions.
For an ideal radially vaned impeller, the whirl or tangentialcomponent of the gas velocity leaving the impeller tipshould equal However, due to the inertia of the gasbetween the impeller blades, the tangential gas velocity tendsto be less than This effect is known as slip. The flow isdeflected away from the direction of rotation of the impeller,which it leaves at an angle smaller than the vane angle. Theslip factor is defined as
which is a positive number less than unity. The slip factordepends largely on the number of impeller blades, but alsoon the passage geometry, the impeller eye tip to exit diameterratio and mass flow rate. There exists many approximations forthe slip factor, the one appropriate to radial vaned impellers