CELLS & the ORGANELLES Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Animal vs. Plant Cells

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    02-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    218
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of CELLS & the ORGANELLES Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Animal vs. Plant Cells

  • CELLS & the ORGANELLESProkaryote vs. EukaryoteAnimal vs. PlantCells

    Cells

  • Life is OrganizedAtomsC,H,N,O,P,SMoleculesOrganellesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemsOrganismSpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeEx: Tundra, desert, temperate forestBiosphere

    Smallest / most simpleLargest / most complex

  • Early MicroscopesRobert Hooke (1665) Coined the term cell (Why?) looking at cork, he saw little boxes Is cork alive?

    Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1674) saw living cells in pond waterCells

    Cells

  • Cell DiscoveriesMatthias Schleiden (1838) Plants are made of cells

    Theodor Schwann (1839)Animals are made of cells

    Rudolf Virchow (1855) Saw dividing cells new living cells come frompre-existing cellsCells

    Cells

  • The Cell Theory

    1. All living things made of cells.

    2. Cell are the basic unit of structure & function for life.

    3. Cells can only arise from pre-existing living cells

    Cells

    Cells

  • Types of OrganismsUnicellular organisms living organisms that are composed of only ONE cellExamples: bacteria, algae, protists, yeast

    Multicellular organisms any organism that is made of MORE THAN ONE cellEvolved laterCells

    Cells

  • Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote

    Prokaryotic CellsDNA not bound by a membrane no true nucleusUsually smaller, simpleNearly all unicellular No membrane bound parts (organelles)Ex: bacteriaRead Section 6.3Eukaryotic CellsDNA is bound by a membrane bound nucleusLarger, complex, has internal organizationHave internal membrane bound structures = organellesEx: you, plants, algae

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRO-DPyB9Bk

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRO-DPyB9Bk

  • Cells

    Cells

  • Basic Structures For ALL CellsCell membraneSurround the cell barrier between inside and environmentCytoplasmContains water and organellesDNAInstructions for the cell to carry outRibosomesMakes proteinsCells

    Cells

  • OrganellesVery small sizeHave specific functions Create specificity of cellsEX: muscle cells have more mitochondria than skin cellsFound throughout cytoplasmExamples: Nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts (plants only), vacuoles, cytoskeleton, centrioles (Animal only)

    Cells

    Cells

  • Cells

    Cells

  • Cells

    Cells

  • The Nucleus:Control center of the cell, houses genetic materialCells

    Cells

  • NucleolusIs a small dense region in the nucleus

    Makes ribosomes, which make proteinsCells

    Cells

  • RIBOSOMESFree floating in cytoplasmorAttached to ER

    reads RNA code from DNA to assemble proteinsprotein factoryCells

    Cells

  • ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMInternal passageway within the cellCan be Rough or Smooth Rough has ribosomes attached protein synthesisSmooth has no ribosomes membrane lipid synthesis, detoxification, cholesterol metabolismCells

    Cells

  • GOLGI APPARATUSModifies, sorts, packages proteins coming from ERDestination of products storage in cell export out of cellCustomizesAdds lipids, carbs to proteins Cells

    Cells

  • LYSOSOMESSmall, enzyme-filled organellesDigests material for use or disposalOnly common in animals but recent evidence suggest they are in plants as wellCells

    Cells

  • MITOCHONDRIAConvert food into usable energy

    Have an outer & inner membrane

    Has its own DNA!Inherited from your momCells

    Cells

  • CHLOROPLASTSCapture sunlight & convert it to energyPhotosynthesis make their own foodGreen plants and some algae

    Have 2 membranes

    Contain the green pigment chlorophyllHas its own DNA!Cells

    Cells

  • VACUOLESStores materials

    Water, salts, protein, carbsLargest in plantsGives turgor pressure

    Larger in plantsCells

    Cells

  • CYTOSKELETONStructural support& transport

    MICROFILAMENTSActin threadlike protein

    MICROTUBULESTubulins proteinbasis of cilia & flagellaCells

    Cells

  • CENTRIOLESHelp in the process of cell division

    Only in AnimalsCells

    Cells

  • PLANTS V. ANIMALSCELL WALLS made of celluloseLARGER VACUOLECHLOROPLASTSCENTRIOLESSmaller or No vacuolesCells

    Cells

  • Colonies

    Cells ChlamydomonasVolvox Volvox is a colony of individual cells. Each cell of a Volvox resembles a Chlamydomonas (a one-celled organism). Volvox cells coordinate the beating of their flagella so that the movement is not random through water. - shows cooperation among cellsColonies a group of unicellular microorganisms living togetherIf colony attaches to a solid surface = biofilmVS

    Cells

  • Colonies of BacteriaCells

    Cells

  • Cell to Cell ConnectionsCells in same tissue communicate with each other through junctionsTight junction : membranes are fused, stitched together; no passageDesmosomes: protein fibers that anchor in cytoplasm of neighboring cells allow passage of materialsGap junction : Channels formed by donut-shaped proteins btwn cells ; yes passagePits & Plasmodesmata : (plants) cell walls perforated with pits, strands of cytoplasm (plasmodesmata) run through pits connecting cellsCells

    Cells

  • Cells

    Cells

  • Cell to Cell ConnectionsCells

    Cells

  • Extracellular MatrixSolution of macromolecules (proteins & carbs) that surround cells in a tissueSecreted by the cell itself to the space outsideHolds cells togetherAllows them to migrate & interactMay regulate behavior in cellsEx: collagenCells

    Cells

  • Cells Division of Labor In Multicellular OrganismsCells

    Tissues a group of cells working together

    Organs a group of tissues working together

    Organ System a group of organs working together

    Organism a group of organ systems working together

    Differentiation when cells take on a specific role

    Cells

    *Another common way of stating that life is made of cells is to say that life is organized.Species are capable of interbreeding, populations are made up of same species***********************http://bama.ua.edu/~hsmithso/class/bsc_495/connections/connect_lit.html if you want to go REALLY in depth!**TJ, GJD, Phttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mboc4.section.3532 : good explanation of extracellular matrix*