Cells Innate Ppt

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    CELLS INVOLVED IN INNATEIMMUNITY:-The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms

    that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner.

    This means that the cells of the innate system recognize andrespond to pathogens in a generic way.

    THESE CELLS INCLUDE:

    Neutrophils

    Fixed Tissue Macrophages

    Natural Killer CellsAcute Phase Protein

    Interferons

    Compliment

    And Eosino hil

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    NATURAL KILLER CELLS:-NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules intheir cytoplasm containing proteins such asperforin and proteases known asgranzymes.NK cells are activated in response tointerferons,macrophage,cytokinesTo control their cytotoxic activity, NK cellspossess two types of surfacereceptorsactivating receptors and inhibitoryreceptors.MHC class I molecules consist of the mainmechanism by which cells display viral ortumor antigens to cytotoxic T-cells.The loss of the MHC class I molecules renderthe cells vulnerable to NK cell mediated

    apoptosis.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receptor_(biochemistry)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receptor_(biochemistry)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferon
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    INTERFERONS:-IFNs belong to the large class of glycoproteinsknown as cytokines .IFN are released by lymphocytes and are of 3types.Production of interferons predominantly occursin response to microbes, such as viruses andbacteria, and their products or tumour cells.An infected cell dies from acytolyticenzymeprotein kinase RProtein kinase R by a series of reaction reduceprotein synthesis of both viral and host genes.Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both thevirus and infected host cells.IFNs functions to activate immune cells, suchas natural killer cells and macrophages .

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycoproteinshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytolysishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzymehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_Rhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_killer_cellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_killer_cellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_Rhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_Rhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzymehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytolysishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycoproteins
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    COMPLIMENT SYSTEM:-The complement system helps or complements, theability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clearpathogens from an organism.The system is composed of nearly 30 proteins and workin innate and adaptive immune system .The complement system act in a sequence: One proteinactivates another and so on. This sequence is called thecomplement cascade.It consists of a number of small inactive proteins foundin the blood, generally synthesized by the liver . Whenstimulated cause activation of the cell-killing,membraneattack complex (MAC).MAC results in the lysis of pathogen's cell membrane bythe help of perforins that form transmembrane channels orcell holes.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogenshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_systemhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_attack_complexhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_attack_complexhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_attack_complexhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_attack_complexhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_systemhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogens
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    Activation of Compliment System:It is activated in three ways:CLASSICAL COMPLIMENT PATHWAY:By exposure to antibodies produced against a specificforeign invader.ALTERNATE OR PROPERDIN PATHWAY:By exposure to partiular carbohydarte chains present onsurfaces of microorganism.MANNOSE BINDING WITH LECITHIN PATHWAY:In this pathway, mannose-binding lectin binds tomannose residues on carbohydrate or glycoprotein

    components of microorganisms including bacteria,fungiand some viruses.

    NEUTROPHIL EOSINOPHIL

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    NEUTROPHIL:-

    Neutrophils, along with two othercell types; eosinophils andbasophils, are known as

    granulocytesNeutrophils are the most abundanttype of phagocyte, normallyrepresenting 50 to 60% of the totalcirculating leukocytes.

    Neutrophil granules contain avariety of toxic substances that killor inhibit growth of bacteria andfungi.

    Similar to macrophages,neutrophils attack pathogens byactivating a respiratory burst

    The main products of the neutrophilrespiratory burst are strongoxidizing agentshydrogen

    EOSINOPHIL:-

    Eosinophils can ingest bacteriabut also target foreign cells thatare too large to ingest.

    Eosinophils contain granules thatrelease enzymes and othertoxic substances when foreigncells are encountered.

    These substances make holes inthe target cell's membranes.

    They release hydrolyticenzymes,reactive forms ofoxygen, and major basic

    protein; a larvicidal polypeptide.

    Mast cells and basophil releaseeosinophil chemotactic factor tocollect eosinophil at the site ofinjury.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_bursthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidizing_agenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_peroxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypochloritehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypochloritehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_peroxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_peroxidehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidizing_agenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_bursthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_bursthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulocyte
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    MACROPHAGES:-Macrophages are large eating cells develop from monocytes afterthey have moved from the bloodstream to the injured tissues.The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of amacrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria throughthe generation of a respiratory burstreactive oxygen speciesPathogens also stimulate the macrophage to produce chemokines,which summons other cells to the site of infection.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_bursthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_burst
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    ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS:-Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteinsinflammationThis response is called the acute-phase reaction (also calledacute-phase response).In response to injury, local inflammatoryneutrophilgranulocytesmacrophagescytokinesinterleukinsIL-1IL-6IL-8TNFIn response to these cytokines, liver produce a largenumber of acute-phase reactants.Acute phase protein includes C-reactive protein andmannose binding protein that function to opsonize andactivate mannose binding-lecithin pathway of complimentsystem respectively.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrophil_granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrophil_granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_necrosis_factor-alphahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_necrosis_factor-alphahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_necrosis_factor-alphahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrophagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrophil_granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrophil_granulocytehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein
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    Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection,through the production of chemical factors,including specialized chemical mediators, calledcytokines.Activation of the complement cascade to identifybacteria, activate cells and to promote clearance

    of dead cells or antibody complexes.The identification and removal of foreignsubstances present in organs, tissues, the bloodand lymph, by specialized white blood cells.Activation of the adaptive immune systemthrough a process known as antigen presentation.

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    Monocytes and macrophages

    Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow, enter

    the circulation, and migrate to the inflammatorysite, where they develop into macrophages

    Macrophages typically arrive at the inflammatorysite 3 to 7 days after neutrophils

    Macrophage activation results in increased size,plasma membrane area, glucose metabolism,number of lysosomes, and secretory products

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