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INCOLWIS 2019 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Local Wisdom Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia August 28-30, 2019 CCER EDITORS Herry Nur Hidayat Pramono Pramono Eka Meigalia Kundharu Saddhono Khairil Anwar

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INCOLWIS 2019Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on

Local WisdomPadang, West Sumatera, Indonesia

August 28-30, 2019


EDITORSHerry Nur HidayatPramono PramonoEka MeigaliaKundharu SaddhonoKhairil Anwar

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Local Wisdom

August 28-30, 2019, Minangkabau Literature Departement, Faculty of Humanities, Andalas University,

Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia


General Chairs

Dr. Khairil Anwar, M.Si. (General chair) Eka Meigalia, S.Hum., M.Hum. (Co-Chair) Yerri Satria Putra, S.S., M.A. (Secretary)

Bahren, S.S., M.A. (Co-Secretary) Rona Almos, S.S., M.Hum. (Treasurer)

Dr. Reniwati, M.Hum. (Secretariat) Dr. Diah Noverita, M.Hum. (Co-Secretariat)

Dr. Lindawati, M.Hum. (Program Chair) Dr. Khanizar, M.Si. (Panels chair) Pramono, M.Si., Ph.D.(Web chair)

Drs. Wasana, M.Hum. (Accommodation and Transportation) Muchlis Awwali, S.S., M.Si. (Publicity)

Herry Nur Hidayat, S.S., M.Hum. (Publication) Yudhi Andoni, S.S., M.A. (Staff on duty) Donny Eros, S.S., M.A. (Staff on duty)

Novalinda, S.S., M.Hum. (Staff on duty) Sonezza Ladyanna, S.S., M.A. (Staff on duty)

Ayendi, M.Pd., M.Pd. (Staff on duty)

Technical Programme Chair

Prof. Dr. Sutrisna Wibawa, M.Pd. (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia) Prof. Dr. Suwardi Endraswara, M.Hum. (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

Pramono, M.Si., Ph.D. (Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia) Dr. Muhammad Rohmadi, M.Hum. (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia)

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Conference Organization

Steering Committee

Tafdil Husni Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Uyung Gatot Syafrawi Dinata Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Hasanuddin Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Pramono Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia

Organizing Committee

General Chair Khairil Anwar Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia General Co-Chairs Eka Meigalia Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Secretary Yerri Satria Putra Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Bahren (Co-Secretary) Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Treasurer Rona Almos Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Secretariat Reniwati Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Diah Noverita (Co-Secretariat) Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Program Chair Lindawati Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Panel Chair Khanizar Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Publicity Chair Muchlis Awwali Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Publications Chair Herry Nur Hidayat Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Web Chair Pramono Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Accommodation and Transportation Chair Wasana Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Staff on duty Chair Yudhi Andoni Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Donny Eros` Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Novalinda Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Sonezza Ladyanna Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia Ayendi Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia

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Technical Program Committee

Sutrisna Wibawa (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia) Suwardi Endraswara (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia) Pramono (Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia) Muhammad Rohmadi (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia) Ulfa Rizqi Putri (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia) Keken Wulansari (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia) Aldi Dwi Saputra (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia) Habib Safillah Akbariski (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia)

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Preface Digitalization that has become a necessity in the 4.0 era is still often responded with anxiety. The term disruption is interpreted as a crippling attack. That is natural because technology, in addition to bringing benefits to facilitate human work, also changes behavior. For example, when Gutenberg invented the printing press, humans who usually gather and tell stories to one another, turn into room humans. Human activities think done in the room by dialoguing with books. Verbal tradition eroded, but then led to written tradition. Civilization changes. This is also what is happening now in the 21st century. Anxiety is a natural thing because a lot of work is lost replaced by digital processes. But humans are blessed by God in the form of reason. Humans are required to think about opening new opportunities in the format of digital technology.

Anxiety or expectation of our response depends on how to read the technology. When viewing digital technology as a medium, the hope lies that our medium is increasingly varied and broad. Variative in terms of platform, broad in terms of reach. This means we can convey messages easily in the form of content.

The characteristics of the medium always want to reach a wider audience. The media looking for circulation, television, and radio reach viewers and listeners, digitizing looking for visitors. That's why Google already provides translation features in various languages, including regional languages. From our language, in addition to the national language, regional languages have entered, including Javanese and Sundanese. Google's goal is to invite readers to their pages. The number of visitors that Google accumulates and can provide their benefits.

The model developed by Google is an opportunity for us to create creative content. However, the features developed by Google have theoretical and practical benefits. Theoretically, it can be researched for linguistics. Practically, it makes it easier for people to know every language in the translation version they want. For example, try to look for the proverb in Javanese and Sundanese. That means that there are already those who use digital media for language development. But they are still limited to practical interests. This is one of our challenges as lecturers and researchers in local languages and cultures to create creative content that can be utilized by the community.

The International Conference on Local Wisdom in Padang, with very diverse themes and touching various cultural issues, is challenged to utilize digital technology in the hope that messages from local wisdom can reach the public, both for theoretical and practical purposes. Of course, to achieve this goal, collaboration must involve resources from the digital technology circle. I am sure, going forward, local wisdom will not only be a cultural asset but will also be a guide for the community.

Prof. Dr. Sutrisna Wibawa

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Getting Back on Education: What’s Learning Look Like in Indonesian PrisonHigh School?I Rosmilawati, D Darmawan


Attitude of The Community Language of Bogor District towards SundaLanguage: Sosiolinguistics StudiesY Adiningsih, Y Haryanto, R Nuryani, Musaljon Musaljon, S Muhamad,Sofiatin Sofiatin, Triyanto Triyanto, R Maulinda


Determinant Factors in the Formation of Students’ Islamic Personality atIndonesian School of Bangkok (SIB) 2018Andriyani Andriyani


Education and Knowledge as Determinant Early Marriage in Women, BogorDistrict, IndonesiaM Fauziah


Internalization of Anticoruption Education Values Through Creativity ofWriting PoemsC Ulya, M Rohmadi, M Sudaryanto


Nista Madya Utama, The Local Wisdom to Achieve Prosperity and Peace inthe Digital EraS H Widyastuti


Environmental Literacy for Elementary Students Based on Sundanese LocalWisdomL Nugraha, Rahman Rahman, Syaefudin Syaefudin, K Wachidah,Septinaningrum Septinaningrum, Y Gumala, Opik Opik


Hermeneutic Study of Pakubuwana VII Leadership in Serat Tata Krama PBVIIK Saddhono, B Setiawan, R W Ginanjar, A B Satriya, Y M Raharjo


Local Wisdom on Nyadran Tradition in Sragen RegencyK Saddhono, B Setiawan, Yuliningsih Yuliningsih, F S Rahmaniar


Folklore in Meme: Minangkabau Folklore Survival Form in The Digital WorldH N Hidayat, Wasana Wasana, Pramono Pramono, T Immerry, F Dahlan


Local Wisdom in Traditional Game Kasti as Cultural Values of CharacterBuildingH Susilo, Salliyanti Salliyanti


Maternal Behavior Factors Related to the Incidence of Diarrhoea in Infants inRW 06 Pamulang District, South Tangerang in 2018T Srisantyorini


The Influence of Firing Line Active Learning Approach on Students’Motivation in Learning MathematicsSiti Lestiawati, Rahmita Nurul Muthmainnah


The Use of Image Media to Increase Learning Motivation in the Field of SocialSciences in Elementary School StudentsS Ratnaningsih



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The Effect of Transformational Leadership and Integrity on Quality of WorkLife Government Internal Supervision Officers Republic of IndonesiaMinistry of Law and Human RightsJ Martanto, S Tippe, B Santoso


Evaluation the Lesson Plan of English Language Learning in Junior HighSchool Seraphine Bakti Utama West JakartaH D Mauliate, A Rahmat, S Wachidah


Influence of Receivables, Debt, Capital, and Assets to Profitability (Empiricalresearch on Property & Real Estate listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange year2012-2016)P Putranto, M Triantoni Hendrias


Islamic Academic Culture (Budai) as a Model of Sustaining ReligiousEducation in a Global Era at Sultan Agung Islamic University Semarang,IndonesiaD Murwantono, Nuridin Nuridin, Mubarok Mubarok


Trends of Mobile Learning in MathematicsH Patmawati, R Hermanto, I Muzdalipah


Skill Education Program for Persons With Visual Disability in Indonesia(Study on the Rehabilitasi Sosial Bina Netra (RSBN) Orphanage in MalangCity, East Java, Indonesia)O Sukmana


Integrity Value in Local Wisdom (Wayang Sukuraga): Character EducationMedia Learning in Elementary SchoolD Lyesmaya, A Sutisnawati, L Hamdani, A E Wardana, I Nurasiah, D AUswatun, A R Amalia


Analyze Climate Change Against Occurance of Dengue Fever inSouthTangerang City In 2013-2018Ernyasih Ernyasih


Local Wisdom ( Sukuraga Puppets) Android Application as a Media LiteracyLearningI Nurasiah, A Juliansyaha, D Lyesmaya


An Internalization of Entrepreneurship’s Values Through Market Day inElementary SchoolMarliani Herlina, Abdul Rahman A. Ghani, Udin Saefudin Sa’ud, DismanDisman, Wahyu Sopandi, Didik Murwantono


Writing Literacy Based on the Game Toward Children in MinangkabauA Kharisma, N T Hartati, Rahman Rahman, R Wismaliya, Chandra Chandra,M Fauziah


Improving Visual Spatial Ability of Children 3-4 Years Through Playing LegoD A Sari, S Rahmatunnisa, M Bahfen, Fauziah Fauziah


The Representation of Cina on Indonesian TwitterA Fadly, Khaerunnisa Khaerunnisa, L S Faznur, W S Devi, R D Kartikasari, ASumardi, Iswan Iswan


Developing Character Education on Symbols of Begalan Tradition inBanyumas, Central JavaE Suroso, Sumarlam Sumarlam, M Rohmadi, Sumarwati Sumarwati



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Community Empowerment Policy Analysis in the Archipelago Group NaturalResources ManagementLilik Sulistyowati


The Effect of Responsibilitas, Leadership, on Job Performance of High Schoolat North JakartaHamri Hamri, M Asmawi, U Rasyid


Project Based Learning Method in Indonesian Learning on Class XiiNusantara Vocational Health School 02 CiputatR Maulinda, D N Hamidah, Y Adiningsih


Traditional Games versus Digital Games: Which is superior?R Rahutami, S Suryantoro, M Rohmadi


E-Class: Alternative for the Valuation of Foreign Student’s WritingCompetence Using “Learning Management System Schoology”LE Rahmawati, S Suwandi, K Saddhono, B Setiawan


The Use of Team Games Tournament Method for Reading Javanese LetteredText in Vocational High SchoolA Septianawati, B Setiawan, M Rohmadi, K Saddhono


Job Satisfaction: Mediating Variable of Vocational High School Teacher’sPerformanceT Murwaningsih, Wahjoedi Wahjoedi, H Wahyono, B E Soetjipto


Nyuwun Pangapunten: Local Genius of Javanese Society in Speaking on WebApplication of Javanese CorpusE N Fauziyah, D Rahmawanto, D Puspitorini


Javanese Ethnic Non-verbal Language Forms and Functions, anEthnopragmatic Study for EducationPranowo Pranowo, R P Dewi


Student Interest of Music Career in Vocational School Yogyakarta IndonesiaH Y Wicaksono


PBLBA as The Habituation Of Academic Cultures in The Student’s LearningEnvironmentM Suswandari, Siswandari Siswandari, Sunardi Sunardi, GunarhadiGunarhadi


Generic Skills: Expectation and RealitySumaryati, S, Joyoatmojo, S, Anitah, S W, Suryani, N


What do Indonesian Novelists Think About?M Sudaryanto, M Rohmadi, C Ulya


The Infringement of Maxim and the Perspective of School Teachers towardthe News in Mass MediaM Rohmadi, M Sudaryanto, C Ulya


Semiotics on The Drama Script of “Mak, Ana Asu Mlebu Ngomah!” by AndySri WahyudiY E Nugroho, U Fuadhiyah, D L Santi



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The Cultural Negotiation of the Minangkabau Elite in Post-New OrdersIndonesia: Indonesian and MinangkabaunesseY Andoni, D Eros


The Practice of Reading Approaches in Developing Students’ ReadingCompetency on Javanese Language among Primary School TeachersY Gumala, Rahman Rahman, L Nugraha, Septinaningrum Septinaningrum, KWachidah, Opik Opik, E Syaodih, F Ahmadi, H Farhana


Mantra: Between Habits and Belief of Minangkabau PeopleY S Putra, E Meigalia


Implementation Kato Mandaki of Civility Minangkabau Community inRangkasbitungY Sulaeman, M Fauziah, Rahman Rahman, A E Anggraini, Chandra Chandra,A W Sakti


Sundanese Language Politeness as a Local Wisdom in the IndustrialRevolution Era 4.0Y Sudaryat, Rahman Rahman


Pepatah Petitih: Its Interpretation On InstagramWasana Wasana, H N Hidayat, T Immerry, F Dahlan, Pramono Pramono, EMeigalia, M N Sari


Sundanese Speaking Test ModelU Kuswari, H S Nugraha


Designing Minangkabau Idiomatic Expression Comic Strips for CulturalLiteracyT Immerry, F Dahlan, H N Hidayat, Wasana Wasana, Pramono Pramono


50 Teachings of Household Harmony at “Upacara Panggih” Javanese StyleBridal Ceremony in YogyakartaS Dwijonagoro, E Istikomah


Batik Jambi as a Reflection of Local WisdomSupana Supana


Developing a Model of ‘Proficiency in English’ for the Indonesian LocalContext: Some Considerations from the English as an International Language(EIL) PerspectiveS Imelwaty, T Helda, E Kemal, L Perpisa


Implementation of the Interactive e-Book Model as an Optimization of BIPALearning in Indonesia in an Effort to Increase the Independence of ForeignStudentsS Hastuti, K Saddhono, B Setiawan, YM Raharjo


Language in the Provincial Capital Public Space in the Perspective of LocalWisdomS Ladyanna, R Almos


The Principle Obedience to the Pragmatic Aspects in Javanese Humor Memes(An Effort to Explore Javanese Local Wisdom)S Mulyani



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Multiliteracy in The Rite of Grebeg Pancasila as aMedium for CharacterEducation in Digital EraSeptinaningrum Septinaningrum, Rahman Rahman, M Supriatna, M Agustin,L Nugraha, Y Gumala, K Wachidah, Opik Opik


Sundanese Oral Tradition Research Mapin-Undergraduate Theses of Studentsof Department of Sundanese Education of FPBS UPIRuhaliah Ruhaliah, Hernawan Hernawan


Local Wisdom and The Threat of Extinction in Kitchen Appliances ofMinangkabau LexiconsR Almos, S Ladyanna


Moral Dilemma Story Design Based on The Local Wisdom of the Sundanese toDevelop Moral JudgementR Wismaliya, Rahman Rahman, KA Hakam, A Kharisma, Chandra Chandra, MFauziah


Pattern of Women's Education in Minangkabauthrough the Lingual Forms inthe Myth of PalasikR Febrina, D N Syafar


Tali Paranti as A Local Wisdom of Sunda Traditional SocietyR Isnendes


Local Wisdom in the Use of Greeting Word of Minangkabau SocietyReniwati Reniwati, Noviatri Noviatri


Literacy in the Era of 4.0 Industrial Revolution in Listening Skill Based onLocal Wisdom Video in Elementary SchoolRahman Rahman, W Sopandi, R Wismaliya, Chandra Chandra, A Kharisma, MHosman, ASobandi ASobandi, A Sumiati


Revitalization of Javanese Culture - Islam in the Millennium Eraby JavanesePeople in SurakartaPAW Wibowo, Nurnaningsih Nurnaningsih


Creating Batik Motifs from Minangkabau Manuscript IlluminationPramono Pramono, Bahren Bahren, H N Hidayat, Wasana Wasana, ASyahrani


Early Literacy Value on KakawihanOpik Opik, Rahman Rahman, D Sunendar, L Nugraha, SeptinaningrumSeptinaningrum, Y Gumala, Chandra Chandra, A Kharisma


The Comparison of Affixes in Minangkabau Language Between the Region ofOrigin and Migration RegionNoviatri Noviatri, Reniwati Reniwati


Game “Sepak Tekong” As A Method for Increasing the Ability of ReadingSituation in Primary SchoolM Fauziah, A E Anggraini, Rahman Rahman, T Hartati, Y Sulaeman, AKharisma


Leadership in Minangkabau’s ProverbsM Awwali, Bahren Bahren, Lindawati Lindawati


Internalizing the Value of Patience in Telling Bedtime Stories Activity inSundanese SocietiesM Supriatna, R Wismaliya



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Transitivity of Sensory Verb in IndonesianM Yusdi, Lindawati Lindawati


Film for Preserving Indigenous Knowledge Minangkabau CultureM. Fadli, D Hasfera, Arwendria Arwendria


Aesthetics Value and Characters Education on Serat Kridhasmara Made byRM. Ngabehi Wangsa SarsanaK Saddhono, Supana Supana, S N Hidayah, K R Pertiwi, B W Setyawan


Implementation Learning Book of Teaching Indonesian to Speaker fromOther Language (TISOL) based on Javanese Culture using Scientific Approach:Study in Central Java, East Java, and YogyakartaK Saddhono, R Suhita, M Rohmadi, B W Setyawan


Destination of Cultural Tourism at Pariangan Based Upon Adat BasandiSyarak Syarak Basandi KitabullahKhanizar Khanizar


Values of Integrity in Kelong Literature as a Moral Education Efforts for TheGenerations in the Millenial EraK Daeng, A Asri, S Fitri


Lexicon of Verbal Anger Expressions of Minangkabau WomenG Sastra, N Sabrian


Domestic Violence and The Role of Women in Modern Minangkabau SocietyFatmariza Fatmariza, R Febriani


Knowledge Transfer in "Maghrib Mangaji" at Tradition “Kembali ka Surau”F N H Zalmi, L Rahmi, S Nelwati


The Existence of Bagurau Tradition on InstagramE Meigalia, Y S Putra


Educational Values on Ludruk Story “Tragedi Kebun Tebu” made by Cak EdyKaryaD Sulaksono, P A W Wibowo, H K Wardani, S F Kamal, K Saddhono


The Death of Guguritan SundaD Hendrayana


Preservation of Local Culture Wisdom Values of Kean Santang Wawacan inAncient Sundanese Text: A Filological and Ethnopedagogical StudyD Koswara, R Permana, P Hyangsewu


The Social Construction of Entrepreneurship in the Minangkabau MillennialGenerationDamsar Damsar, Indrayani Indrayani


Local Wisdom in the Adding-dinging Ritual of the Tenro Community inSelayar Islands Regency, South SulawesiDafirah Dafirah, B A Teng, Pammuda Pammuda


Early Reading and Writing by Using the Manakok Game as a Manifestation ofBasic LiteracyChandra Chandra, Rahman Rahman, N T Hartati, A Kharisma, M Fauziah, RWismaliya



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Hermeneutics Study and Educational Value of Suluk Wayang Surakarta StyleB Setiawan, P A W Wibowo, I Prabanca, E Indrayana, K Saddhono


Implementation of Higher Education Publisher Management Model inPublishing Online-Based Scientific Work Towards World Class University:Study at Universities in Java and BaliB Setiawan, A Rakhmawati, S Hastuti, K Saddhono, R Devilito


Stylistics Study and Pitutur Luhur on Tembang TayubB Setiawan, P A W Wibowo, Darmawan Darmawan, T Purwadi, K Saddhono


Study of Javanese Script Writing Learning in Senior High Schools in BoyolaliRegencyB Setiawan, P A W Wibowo, F Azzahrah, P R Harjani, K Saddhono


Sundanese Bridal Makeup Guideline in Art Education PerspectiveA W Sakti, R Wismaliya, Rahman Rahman, Chandra Chandra, T Karyono, ASobandi, A Sumiati


Writing Literacy Based on the Game Toward Children in MinangkabauA Kharisma, N T Hartati, Rahman Rahman, R Wismaliya, Chandra Chandra,M Fauziah



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Developing a Model of ‘Proficiency in English’ for the

Indonesian Local Context: Some Considerations from

the English as an International Language (EIL)


1S Imelwaty, 2T Helda, 3E Kemal, 4L Perpisa {[email protected], [email protected], [email protected],

[email protected] }

1,2,3,4STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat Padang, Indonesia

Abstract. Based on the ‘anti-normative paradigms’, English is viewed as a pluricentric

language that there is no uniform standard norm for it. This sociolinguistics reality has

become an issue for English language educators particularly in the context where English

has not been used for daily local communications. Confusions arise among them as which

models of English should be taught to their English language learners. To this end, the

study was conducted to develop a model of ‘Proficiency in English' which may suit with

the local English language learners and users in the Indonesian local context. An iterative

design-based research approach was employed consisting of four main stages. This article

only reports the results of the second stage of the study that offers a solution by

reconstructing the model of ‘Proficiency in English’ for the Indonesian local context within

English as an International Language (EIL) perspective which embraces all kind of

varieties of English equally.

Keywords: ‘Proficiency in English', English language teaching (ELT), English as an

International Language (EIL)


The privilege of varieties of English from the inner circle countries [1] particularly the

varieties of American and British English has been dominated in the English language teaching

(henceforth ELT) for many years. The aim of ELT has always focused on achieving the standard

forms of English which are not attainable for the non- L1 English speakers whose first language

is not English. In the context in which English does not have a function as an official language,

the goal of learning English is to have native-like proficiency which is measured in reference to

the famous ‘Standard' Englishes such as American and British English [2].

For many years, the construct of language proficiency has been debated concerning the

attributes in it. In a broad sense, Renandya [3] describe that ‘language proficiency refers to one's

ability to use language for a variety of communicative purposes'. The meaning of language

proficiency particularly in English has become complicated since English is not only used by

the monolingual native speaker but also in multilingual contexts. Furthermore, English has been

acknowledged to have a special status in many countries around the world as an official

language [4]. For this reason, the English speakers become bilingual and multilingual with their

multicultural backgrounds. It is more than 80 percent of communication is happening among

non-native speakers of English around the world [5].

There is evidence regarding the number of non-native speakers of English that outnumber

the native speaker ones and the various varieties of English existing in the world

INCOLWIS 2019, August 29-30, Padang, IndonesiaCopyright © 2019 EAIDOI 10.4108/eai.29-8-2019.2289012

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communication. English should not be seen as a single variety but it has been transformed into

various ones. According to [6] this sociolinguistic realities have inspired a number of linguists

and applied linguists to develop the frameworks or academic approaches i.e. English as an

International Language (EIL), World Englishes (WE), English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) to

conceptualizing, researching, and learning/teaching English. These frameworks have

categorized as the ‘anti-normative paradigm’ [7] which embrace and acknowledge the varieties

of English.

In the context of ELT in Indonesia, the American and British English are still regarded as a

point of reference. To this end, the ‘Western paradigm of English language teaching’ [8] has

dominated the practices of the teachers of English in Indonesia. In term of proficiency, the

English language learners are expected to have the native speaker-like proficiency which they

are never able to attain. Their English proficiency is still being measured against the native

speaker of English norms based on the assumption that the English users in Indonesia would

use English to communicate with the native speaker of English [9], [10]. Such a condition needs

to be changed because the English learners and users in Indonesia do not only need to

communicate with native speakers of English but also to the non-native ones. Thus, an

appropriate model of ‘Proficiency in English' which could inform English language pedagogy

in the Indonesian context needs to be developed.

The aim of this study is to develop a model of ‘Proficiency in English' that meets with the

Indonesian local context. The ultimate goal of learning English for Indonesian now is to be able

to communicate cross-culturally either with native or non-native speakers of English. This

model is being developed inductively to gain the basic needs of the Indonesian for using English.

English as an International language (henceforth EIL) is employed as its perspective

‘embraces/recognizes all varieties of English at national, regional, social, and idiolectal levels

in all circles as equal’ [6]. Within this perspective, the native English speaker-like proficiency

is challenged as it does not promote English as a pluricentric language [11].


This study employed a design-based research approach for designing the model of

‘Proficiency in English'. This design is adopted because the model which is being developed

should be suitable for the local context. Wang [12] describe that design-based research

(henceforth DBR) is an ‘a systematic, but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational

practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on

collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to

contextually-sensitive design principles and theories'. In other words, this design is also

applicable for improving educational practices such as English language teaching as it employs

a collaboration of team researchers and language educators in the real world setting. The

participants of this study are the practitioners comprising a cohort of teachers of English around

West Sumatra province in Indonesia and English language educators at a tertiary level.

In addition, DBR comprises cyclical and iterative process [12] that the model of ‘Proficiency

in English could be refined to meet with the Indonesian local needs. To this end, the

development of design principles will undergo a series of testing and refinement cycles. Data is

collected systematically in order to re-define the problems, possible solutions, and the principles

that might best address them. As data is re-examined and reflected upon, new designs are created

and implemented, producing a continuous cycle of design-reflection-design. In other words, the

problem, solutions, methods, and the designed principles are continuously refined, tested and

developed as the knowledge enhanced [13].

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There are four main stages in the process of this study as seen in Figure 1. They are (1) the

analysis of practical problems, (2) the development of solutions, (3) the evaluation research of

the solutions in practice, and (4) the reflection to produce design principles and enhance solution

implementation [13]. Within these stages, it is seen that the nature of DBR is dynamic and

flexible research process.

This article is only focusing on reporting the results of the second stage of the study that

offers a solution by reconstructing the model of ‘Proficiency in English’ for the Indonesian local

context. The results of the first stage of the study show the practical problems faced by the

teachers of English in ELT i.e. the dilemma of employing their endonormative model of English

to their students in the process of teaching English and their desired goal for attaining the

exonormative model of English. The results of the first stage could inform the second stage of

the study which is focusing on the development of the solutions of the problems faced by the

local English language educators and the learners as well. The model of ‘Proficiency in English'

was then being designed using the existing principles and the innovations in ELT. This process

involves imagining a solution and analyzing whether it will work or not. In addition, the model

is tested against the researchers' knowledge and theory, the identified problems, and the

improved solutions before committing to implement it.

Figure 1. Design-based research, based on Amiel and Reeves (2008)


In the first stage of the study, there is evidence that the teachers of English have been

teaching English using the local variety of English. Their English could not be regarded as the

English of native speakers such as American or British English. Despite exposing the language

learners with their local variety or the endonormative model of English, the norms of the so-

called native speakers or the exonormative model of English were still being taught and used as

references. However, from exploring the teachers' personal constructs, it was also found that the

needs to use English for cross-cultural communication, expressing their local identities along

with the needs to adhere to the exonormative model of English, particularly in the academic


The results of the first stage of the study were used to inform the development of the model

of ‘Proficiency in English' which could be the frame of reference for being proficient in English

in the Indonesian context. In addition, the existing principles from previous studies and also the

innovations within ELT were adopted to reconstruct the model of ‘Proficiency in English' for

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the Indonesian local context. To this end, the EIL perspective was adopted as the nature of the

model acknowledging the pluralistic forms of English. In the context of this study, a perspective

means ‘a paradigm for thinking, research, and practice’ [14]. There are several considerations

to adopt this EIL perspective as they are explained in the following points:

1. English is not used for everyday communication among Indonesian. Most of Indonesian

speak more than one language, their mother tongue, and Bahasa Indonesia. To acquire

English proficiency is limited to certain communities as elitist accomplishment [7]. This

means that only the Indonesian, who has a privilege to pursue education to a higher level,

certainly has access to learn and to use English. In the educational context, English is

needed for pursuing opportunities to gain higher education and as a result, the English of

the educated Indonesians could be used as a model.

2. The practice of ELT has been traditionally oriented to the norms of English which are

based on the inner circle countries (e.g. Britain and America). This kind of practice needs

to be challenged as English is not a single variety as Sharifian [14] argues that ‘English,

with its many varieties, is a language of international and intercultural communication’. It

is necessary for Indonesian to communicate interculturally and internationally in order to

be able to compete in a global world without losing their local identity.

3. A growing number of studies which promote EIL such as a study by Briguglio [15] that

English language users need to expect and be able to deal with different varieties of

English; show acceptance toward different accents in English; and develop communication

strategies to deal with different accents and way of speaking in English (where differences

are perhaps more marked than in writing). In addition, many prolific scholars in the field

(to name a few Alsagoff [16]; Matsuda [17]; McKay [18]; Smith [19]; Sharifian [14]) have

been rigorously promoting the significance of teaching English as a heterogeneous

language with multiple grammars, vocabulary, accents, and pragmatic discourse

conventions [2].

Referring to those considerations, this study has made an attempt to offer a solution by

reconstructing the model of ‘Proficiency in English’ for the Indonesian context within EIL

perspective which embraces all kind of varieties of English equally. The model of ‘Proficiency

in English’ for this study was also informed by the three dimensional (3D) framework of

language variation which was developed by Mahboob [2] (also see [20]). This framework also

identifies four continua: users, uses, mode, and time that help us understand how language varies

based on who is using it, for what purposes, with what resources, and when [2]. In other words,

it becomes the basic framework of language variation in a particular context.

Based on the Indonesian local context needs, the model of ‘Proficiency in English’ was

developed by accommodating various English norms ranging from the exonormative model of

English [‘Standard' British or American English] which is appropriately used by the distant

social relation users informal communications as for academic purposes, to the exonormative

model of English [in this context, the local variety of English] which is used by the close social

relation users in non-formal communications as for communicative purposes. There is a

continuum to help the English language learners and its users in determining the position of

their English variations without being judged for using ‘deviant' English. This model also

provides a conceptual framework for language educators and English language learners in

Indonesia to shift the goal of learning and using English for not only aware and experience the

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exonormative model of English but also the exonormative model of English based on with who

using it, what purpose for using it and when to use it in accordance to the contexts [21].


The sociolinguistic realities which are encountered by English language educators, learners,

and users in Indonesia have created problems in defining the attributes of being proficient in

English. Being proficient in English does not only mean having the knowledge and abilities in

the exonormative model of English but also the endonormative one. Therefore, for the local

contexts, the model of ‘Proficiency in English’ has to accommodate not only the exonormative

model of English but also the endonormative one. As in the first stage of the study, the practical

problems had been identified so that in this second stage, the development of the model could

be conducted. Referring to some considerations from the EIL perspective, the existing model of

language proficiency by Mahboob [2] has inspired and informed the researchers to design the

model of ‘Proficiency in English’ that meets with the local context. It is hoped that this model

could help English language educators, learners and users to make decisions and to consider the

choices of who use, what purpose, and when to use both either exonormative or endonormative

model of English.


This research project was funded by in the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher

Education of the Republic of Indonesia in 2018 and 2019. We also thank the local high school

English teachers in West Sumatra province, Indonesia, who have participated in the research

process and provided insights that greatly assisted this research.


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