Casin fibres

Casein Fibre An Innovative Milk Fibre Presented by: Mona verma Ph.D Research scholar, I.C . College of home science, ccshau, hisar

Transcript of Casin fibres

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Casein Fibre An Innovative Milk


Presented by:Mona verma

Ph.D Research scholar, I.C . College of home science, ccshau, hisar

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CONTENTS IntroductionTypes of caseinTechnical uses of casein fibre

Benefits of casein fibreManufacturing process of casein fibreQmilch fibreApplication of casein fibre Conclusion

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Casein is the principal protein found in cow’s milk from which it has been

extracted commercially for most of the 20th century.

It is responsible for the white, opaque appearance of milk in which it is

combined with calcium and phosphorus as clusters of casein molecules,

called micelles.

Milk fiber was invented in 1930’s in Italy and America to compete wool.

The fiber known as ARALAC, Lanatil, Merinova all different brands for

the same fiber manufactured from milk casein.


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The major uses of casein until the 1960s were in technical, non-food

applications such as adhesives for wood, in paper coating, leather finishing

and in synthetic fibres, as well as plastics for buttons, buckles etc.

The present age in textiles is tending more and more to the utilisation of

synthetic fibres.

The superior physical properties of wool have for long been the subject of

investigation by scientists, and therefore it is not unexpected that at this

particular period of civilisation a fibre aiming at the chemical constitution and

physical properties of wool should have been developed and made available

commercially. This fibre is one which we here have called "Casein


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The production of a synthetic fibre requires a plentiful supply of a cheap

raw material. In the case of the fibre under discussion, the raw material is

casein obtained from skim milk.

Nevertheless, the protein has already become established in several

industrial spheres, and there is certainly a surplus of skim milk which in

many parts of the world is assessed at a very low price and is available for

textile purposes.

Other proteins such as the vegetable proteins in the nut, and soya bean, are

also available, and have been converted into filaments, but casein stands pre-

eminent from the point of view of abundance, good colour, and the possibility of

isolating it without molecular breakdown.

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Lanital was the first successful protein fiber from milk casein. Antonio Feretti was

granted a patent for this fiber from the Italian government in 1935. It was named

Lanital [lana = wool +ital = Italy], and manufactured by Snia Viscosa which called

the fabric a fancy rayon. It lasted into the early 40s and superceded by Merinova

which was used to blend with rabbit hair in the production of felts. Merinova was

discontinued in the late 1960s.

Fibers of both fabrics were very similar to wool and could be dyed by the same

processes, and like wool they were easily damaged by alkalis. Both had a resilient

wooly feel but were not as strong and firm nor as elastic as wool. Moths would not

attack and shrinkage was not as much as wool but fibers mildewed easily when

damp, an inherent characteristic of protein fibers as noted earlier.


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A new generation of innovative fiber and a kind of synthetic

fiber made of milk casein fiber through bioengineering method

with biological health care function and natural & long-lasting

antibacterial effect, which has got valid certification for

international ecological textile certification of Oeko-Tex

Standard 100 Authentication approved it in April 2004. It is most

comfortable, excellent water transportation and air-permeability.

It is also more healthy, light, soft and colorful. It's being resistant

to fungus, insects and aging.

What is casein fibre ???

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Properties Good moisture, absorption and conduction:

The fiber base body does not have regular channels, which makes the milk

fiber have as fine moisture absorption as natural fiber and better moisture

conduction than synthetic fibers - milk fiber is both comfortable and


Vertical picture of fiber                 Horizontal picture of fiber

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No Item name Index

1 Fiber tenacity (dtex) 0.8-3

2 Breaking tenacity (cN/dtex) 2.5-3.5

3 Breaking elongation rate (%) 25-35

4 Modulus (cN/dtex) 60-80

5 Standard moisture regain(%) 5.5

6 Specific resistance 1.5×104

7 Static friction coefficient 0.187

8 Dynamic friction coefficient 0.214

9 Color fastness to washing 4-5 grade

10 Fastness to crocking 4-5 grade

11 Fastness to perspiration 4-5 grade

12 Color fastness to light 4 grade

13 Pilling resistance 3 grade

Main Technical Indexes of Milk Protein Fiber

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Constitutionally casein has a striking similarity to wool. It is a phospho-protein built up from a number of amino acids.

Its main difference from wool as regards these constituents is in its low sulphur content. The comparative figures showing the elementary composition of casein and wool are as follows—

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Property Milk protein fiber Cotton Silk Wool

Length (mm) 38 25-39 ----- 58-100

Fineness (dtex) 1.52 1.2-2.0 1.0-2.8 6-9

*Dry tensile strength (CN/dtex) 2.8 1.9-3.1 3.8-4.0 2.6-3.5

*Dry breaking elongation rate (%) 25-35 7-10 11-16 14-25

Wet tensile strength (CN/dtex) 2.4 3.2 2.1-2.8 0.8

Wet breaking elongation rate (%) 28.8 13 27-33 50

Friction coefficient (static) 0.187   0.52 0.24

Friction coefficient (dynamic) 0.214   0.26 0.384

Logarithm of mass specific resistance (Wg/ cm2) 9.1 6.8 9.8 8.4

*Initial modulus (CN/dtex) 60-80 60-82 60-80 44-88

Moisture regain (%) 5-8 7-8 8-9 15-17

Specific weight (g/cm3) 1.22 1.50-1.54 1.46-1.52 1.34-1.38

Property comparison between milk protein fiber and other textile fiber

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Casein makes up approximately 80% of the protein in milk

with molecular weight ranging from 19,007 to 25,230

daltons. Casein contains many polar groups, such as -

COOH, -NH2, and -OH etc., which contribute to the

hydrophilicity, as well as the reactivity of the casein

molecules. Casein abounds in the world as a natural

polymer and thus made it an attractive natural resource

for improving the characteristic of synthetic fibers.

1. Liu, Y.H., Zhang, Y.Z., Liu, Z.Z. and Deng, K.L. (2002) Eur. Polym. J, 38, 1619–1625.2. Liu, Y.H., Zhou, W.Q., Bai, L.B., Zhao, N. and Liu, Y.W. (2006) J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 100, 4247–4251.

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Dairy products are an important source of food in the United States. There are

dairy farms in all 50 states and a reported 65,000 dairy farms in Kansas and

Missouri, which share the metropolitan statistical area of Kansas City. Both

states combined have close to 218,000 dairy cows state wide and produce

3,944,000,000 pounds of milk per year. The dairy industry is looking for ways

to address the problem of sustainability by diversifying their business model.

Milk waste offers unique opportunities to develop a local textile and apparel

industry. Casein fiber textile products, made from milk waste offer new

business opportunities for the dairy industry to compete in “green” markets.

By using waste, overall negative environmental impact of producing both

fabric and milk is reduced. Casein is a suitable material to produce fiber for


USDA Agriculture Overview, Kansas & Missouri, 2010Dairy Research Institute, 2011.

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Commercial casein is generally made in two forms:Rennet Casein Acid Casein

Acid Casein which is used for spinning of textiles fibres. Acid casein may be made

either by precipitation from milk by mineral acids, or by separation after allowing

the milk to sour. The dried product is made into a solution using dilute caustic

alkali. The process of manufacture which follows is similar to that of other synthetic

fibres, the solution being extruded through fine holes into a coagulating bath.

The chemicals used, however, are different, and an essential part of the

process consists in a treatment to render the casein fibres insoluble, and

resistant to the various textile baths.

Types of Casein Fibre

Formaldehyde and aluminum salts are used in this treatment, and the rendering

of casein insoluble by these chemicals is a most important part of the process.

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Technical Uses of Casein Fibre

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Take sour milk, a raw material that is otherwise wasted and unmarketable

Process it naturally until it becomes the most basic protein in the milk, a protein called casein.

Process of Casin Fibre Manufacturing

The casein is dissolved in water that contains about 2 percent by weight

of alkali to make a viscous solution with 20 to 25 percent protein.

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The solution, streaming from the holes of the spinneret, is immersed in

water that contains an acid.

The next step is to pump the filtered casein solution by a metering pump

through a platinum-gold alloy disc, or spinneret, which has thousands of

fine, accurately placed, and uniform holes.

The acid neutralizes the alkali used to dissolve the casein. The small,

continuous fibers are then stretched, treated in various solutions, and

collected by the spinning machinery.

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A further treatment is needed in order to make the fiber resist the boiling

bath commonly used in dyeing wool.

The tensile strength of the yarn is enhanced by stretching the fiber while

it is being tanned with aluminum salts and formaldehyde.

Use it just like regular thread

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DESIZINGEnzyme products may be used, preferably at pH 4.0 to 6.0. If water soluble sizes have been used, desizing is not neccessory It is done to break down the size.


It is processed mainly to remove the impurities present in the fiber. Synthetic detergents should be used, preferably under acid conditions .


In common with all wet processing, bleaching should be carried out if possible under weekly acid conditions, as casein fibers retain maximum strength and minimum swelling under these conditions. It improves whitness by removing natural colour and remaining impurities in the fibre. If alkaline processing is used, it must be followed by careful washing and acidification with acetic acid.

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Casein absorbs moisture readily and does not have a highly orientated

structure. Dyes can penetrate into the fibre without difficulty.In general,

casein can be dyed with the dyestuffs used for wool. Acid, basic, direct and

disperse dyes are used where good washing fastness is not a prime



After dyeing, loose stock and yarns may be centrifugally hydroextracted

before being dried in conventional plant. Woven fabrics can be hydro-

extracted by open width suction machine, or by centrifuging in open width.

A recommended drying procedure is either to dry on a slack drier, followed

by stentering or to dry and finish on an over feed stenter. It is essencial to

allow an adequate shrinkage from grey to finished dimensions.

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Casein blend fabrics can be printed very effectively. Good results

necessitate through preparation. If singeing is needed a light treatment

with a low burner will be sufficient. A thorough scour is essential. Casein

fibre is generally white and bleaching is not usually necessary. If required,

a mild peborate or peroxide bleach should be used under controlled

conditions. After preparing the fabric should be dried on the tins under

minimum warp tension followed by white room stentering to a stable

width. Fabrics containing casein may be printed by block, screen, roller,

surface roller, and modified paper printer methods. Acid, basic, direct,

chrome, mordant, azoic, vat or pigment dyes may be used.

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Milk protein fiber products should be after treated, such as crease-resist

finishing and softening, to keep it soft and delicate.

Crease resistant finishing

The crease resistant finishing agent has more choices and the environmental

finishing with good crease resist effect should be selected.


During dyeing and producing, the milk protein fiber fabric feels hard after

crease resistant finishing in high temperature and tension. In order to make

fabric full and soft, softening is needed and softening with a suitable

softening agent is an effective method.

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The process is the same for cloth as for loose wool. The vegetable matter is

destroyed by soaking the cloth in weak acids and then heating in an oven.

Casein will withstand the carbonising treatment when carried out with the

minimum strength of sulphuric acid necessary for the effective removal of

vegetable matter after treatment the material should be well rinsed and

adjusted to pH 4 with sodium bicarbonate.mCarbonising may be carried

out before or after dyeing. If done after dyeing it eliminates the general

tendency of the process to cause unlevel dyeing.

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Casein fiber itself does not display any milling properties, and blends of

casein with other non-felting fibers such as rayon staple or nylon should not

be processed in milling machines. A suitable milling medium is a mixture

of 2 parts of soap to 1 part of synthetic detergent. A thorough washing off is

essential after scouring or milling in order to remove soap and alkali. Acid

milling has been used with success for blankets, and its general for most

felted structures..Hat bodies of wool or fur blended with casein and other

felts of various kinds are generally milled with phosphoric or sulphuric acid

preferably at low temperatures.

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The most important material of milk fiber

is milk protein, which contains 18 kinds of

amino acids, with natural and permanent

bacteriostatic function. The plentiful

natural protein humectants factor is

contained in the milk fiber; which makes

skin more delicate and smooth, so it is

beneficial to human health.

It feels like silk to the touch.It requires no special care because of its natural protein base.It is renewable, biodegradable and eco- friendly fabric in the long run.It provides a balance between the 3Ps.

Benefits of Casin Fibre

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It is hygienic and flexible. It is moisture absorbent, permeable and heat resistant. It is colour fast and easily dyeable. It can be blended with other fiber. It is great for sensitive skin as it has the same pH level as human

skin. It is considered as green product. It contains anti-bacterial rate is above 80 percent so it has

sanitarian function.

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In a 2005 study conducted at Woodbury Elementary school in Minnesota, it was found

that, in a five day period, a population of 652 students plus a faculty and staff of 100

produced 66 gallons of milk waste in their normal cafeteria operations. This amount

represented 45% of their total cafeteria waste. Collection of school and other

institutional waste milk can be sourced along regular dairy distribution routes. With

more than 50 elementary schools in the Kansas City metropolitan area, the supply is

adequate to provide the raw material for a sizable textile industry. A new textile and

apparel industry could be formed by cooperating with an existing one. The casein fiber

textiles can be made from 100% wasted milk.

When people recognize that the amount of milk wasted offers enough raw materials to

create an entire new industry, they will make efforts to eliminate the waste.

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Anke Domaske, a German designer and chemist, has created a casein fiber

she calls Qmilch that uses only organic waste milk, little water to produce, (2

gallons to produce 2 pounds of fabric as opposed to 10,000 liters used in

cotton) and is biodegradable (Associated Press, 2011). She claims to have

created a recipe that uses only natural ingredients to enhance the fabric’s

qualities in the processing. Her fabric sets a precedent for a sustainable

casein textile and was listed as one of Time magazine’s top 50 inventions for


Strasser, S. (1999). Waste and want: A social history of trash. New York: Metropolitan Books.Southward, C. (1998). Dairy products/casein products. In J. E. Packer, J. Robertson, & H. Wansbrough (Authors), Chemical processes in New Zealand (2nd ed.). Retrieved from

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It is a biopolymer that consists of 100% natural ingredients. This is different

from other products, which will be ‘bio-based’.

It is extremely environmentally friendly:

- It only takes 2 minutes to produce

- It is produced at low temperature

- There is no waste produced at all and

- It uses a waste product from the dairy


Qmilch: A Milk Fibre

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Properties Of Qmilch Fibre

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Difference between Natural and Chemical Fibres

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Sweaters Women’s Garments


Intimate Garments

Uniforms Sports Wear

Eye Mask

Children’s Garments



New Born’s Bath Towels

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Cho,2014 stated that the casein films and short cellulose reinforced casein

films were successfully manufactured and characterized. These films might

find use in packaging applications. The film made of neat casein without the

addition of the plasticizer are mostly fragile. As the glycerol content increased,

the films became more stretchable with decrease in the mechanical and

thermal stability of the film. The addition of short cellulose fibres increases

the thermal stability and tensile strength of the film, but the fibres decreased

the maximum elongation and transparency of the film. The casein films made

from 20 wt% glycerol and 20 wt% cellulose, show improved tensile strength

and good thermal stability, but lower percentage of elongation.

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Anka Domaske claims Qmilch has essential amino acids that are healthy for

human skin (Sevcenko, 2011). Further claims include that the material is

antibacterial and hypoallergenic, qualities that lend themselves to basic

products like infant cloth diapers or undergarments, yet these claims would

need to be corroborated through the development processes of the locally

produced casein fiber.

Sevsenko, M. (2011, October 24). The Futurists: Clothing from milk :The latest in green technology: Spinning thread from milk byproducts. GlobalPost. Retrieved from

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The study reported on the effects of bovine serum albumin and casein on grafting

of muga (antheraea assamensis helfer)silk fibers using initiator 2,2’

azobisisobutyronitrile. FTIR studies confirm the chemical binding of the proteins

onto muga fibers through shifting of the major amide bonds, accredited to

grafting. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the tensile strength

of the fibers increases with the augmentation in grafting percent. The grafted

fibers showed no loss in weight after chemical resistance measurement

indicating stable bond formation between the proteins and the fibers.

Moreover, the water retention capacity and dynamic contact angle study of

grafted fibers suggest better hydrophobicity. Thus, the use of such eco-

friendly grafting agents for enhancing the strength and stability of silk fiber

proves to be more beneficial than to other chemical grafting agents in

producing efficient and environment-friendly silk for various applications in

textile and other biomaterial fields.(Choudhury, 2015)

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A novel chemical modification method of acrylic fiber was employed by grafting

of casein—a natural polymer, onto the surface of acrylic fiber. The effects of

reaction conditions, such as chlorination time, chlorination temperature, grafting

time and temperature, and pH value on grafting efficiency were investigated

systematically. The structure and morphology of the casein grafted fiber were

characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning

electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that casein had been grafted

onto the acrylic fiber. Moisture absorption, water retention and specific

electric resistance were found to be improved compared with the untreated

fiber. Mechanical properties of the grated fiber could still meet the

requirement for wearing fiber. (JIA, 2006)

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It appeared around 1941; R for research and 53 indicating it was the 53rd fiber

tested in a search for a fiber which was suitable to manufacture felt hats. This

fiber was finer than Aralac and was used to blend with rabbit fur in making felt

for hats. Little information is available. It was listed by this name as late as

1953 but seems to have disappeared. Possibly the fiber might have been

renamed or absorbed by Merinova or failed to survive as a competitor.

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1. Cool type :( milk fiber/silk, bamboo fiber, natural silk, cashmere )   Moisture retentive, sweat conductive, comfortable and ventilative, has

pleasant gloss, do not lose its straight character in being soft and smooth, can

wear outside, can show out the elegance, person's taste and it is really good for


2. Thermal protection type : ( milk fiber/mercerized wool,cashmere )Milk albumen fiber is a kind of three-dimensional and multigap structure, its

characteristic of light weight and high moisture absorption make it become

extremely good cold-proof material; it is light and thin and cold-proof,

comfortable and healthy.


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3.Top grade underclothes :( milk fiber/cotton, cashmere )The milk protein has abundant amino acid and natural wet protecting gene; it

can moisten the skin and raise the skin, restrain the fungus and health care;

when close-fitting wearing, it will take good care of your skin, make you

younger, more beautiful.

4. Health care and body beauty : (Milk fiber/cotton, Leica )Fashion, soft and light, health care. It combines the beauty and health together;

reach the effect of beautifying body while being comfortable.

5. Home textile supplies: (Milk fiber/cotton, silk ) Milk fiber can regulate air quality, promote the human blood circulation, make

you feel like you're taking a shower in milk and return to nature; in the noisy

city, it is likely to open up a pure land, make the family life more warmhearted,

and full of interest and charm.

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Sohail et al. 2006 developed wax applied casein films to improve the

water barrier property. In order to improve the mechanical properties of

a polymer material, fibre reinforcements are commonly added. Cellulose

fibres, derived from trees or annual plants, have been investigated for

this purpose.

S. S. Sohail, B. Wang, M. A. S. Biswas, and J. H. Oh, J. Food Sci., 71, C255 (2006).

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The milk fiber currently offered by one international supplier, Doshi Group,

cannot be considered sustainable, even if waste milk is used, because the fiber

is blended with acrylic, a synthetic chemical requiring a dying process

potentially harmful to workers. A casein/ acrylic blend is more difficult to dye

than a natural protein fiber according to pro chemical dye company expert

Nancy Rodriguez because dying acrylics requires auxiliary processes that

require ventilation. Rodriguez explains that acrylic is often used in fabrics

because it is an inexpensive additive. Its use complicates the end of lifecycle

considerations, as well as environmental impact of casein fabrics.

Limitation of Milk Fibre Uses

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Though caseins can be laundered with care the same as wool, they loose

strength when wet and must be handled gently.

They cannot be kept damp for any length of time due to quick mildewing.

Aralac was blended with rabbit fur in making felt hats and with wool, mohair,

rayon and cotton in varying proportions for fabrics and garments. Although

clothing in this fiber was available as late as 1947, the impact of man-made

fibers following the war caused the demise of this fiber in 1948 as it could not

compete with the low price of new synthetics. Plus when damp, this fabric

smelled like sour milk, causing many consumer complaints, a quite common,

familiar ailment within the casein family.

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All through the years, experts have been devoted to the researches on improved fibers and at present they have succeeded in the development of the globally advanced milk protein fiber, a milestone in the international textile industry.

Being the optimal combination of nature and hi-tech, it is more accommodated to the needs of people’s modern lifestyle. So far clothing made from milk is expensive so it has a limited market however a handful of companies are experimenting with this fabric.Milk Fabrics are so skin-friendly that it itself makes us feel better.

Advances in science are also helping to fill the green wardrobe of tomorrow. Sweaters are knit from spun milk protein.

These textiles are where the future innovations are going to lie. It’s taking fashion to a whole new level where it never really existed before- where it’s not just about looking good. It’s about feeling good, too.

The milk protein fiber is a fresh product as a superior green, healthy and comfortable fiber, which will certainly become popular goods in the market.


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• Cyarn Textile Co., Ltd. • Contact: [email protected]

• Fabman Fabrics and Manufacture • Contact: [email protected] in


• Euroflax Industries (Imports of Textiles) • Contact:

[email protected]

• Shanghai Zhaokai Import & Export Co • Contact:

• China Xhmart Textile Co., Ltd.• Ningbo Guang Yuang Fabric Co, Ltd. •


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Casein fibers were commercially produced in various countries with trade

names such as :Aralac and Caslen (U.S.A)

Lactofil (Holland)

Cargan (Belgium)

Tiolan (Germany)

Silkool (Japan)

Fibrolane (England)

Lanital and Merinova in Italy.

Wipolan in Poland.


Milkofil® is used to make light weaves with a soft silky

aesthetics that allow the skin to breathe and humidity to

be absorbed. Milkofil® is a registered trade mark of

Filati Maclodio, who make a variety of yarns both pure

and in blend with cotton and Lenpur®.

Milkofil®, made from pure 100% milk fiber.