CARE OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: CYPRU’S NATIONAL APPROACH

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International Conference at International Conference at ESEP ESEP 1

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CARE OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: CYPRU’S NATIONAL APPROACH. International Conference at ESEP. Cyprus : The land of the lemon tree, the pine, and the cypress, land of love and dreams and joy , a golden brown, leaf floating in the sea. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of CARE OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: CYPRU’S NATIONAL APPROACH

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International Conference at International Conference at ESEPESEP

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Cyprus: The land of the lemon tree,the pine, and the cypress,land of love and dreamsand joy, a golden brown,leaf floating in the sea

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Location: in the extreme northeast corner of the Mediterranean

Capital: Nicosia Climate: temperature; Mediterranean

with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Population: 775,927 Government: Republic Official language is Greek The island’s main economic activities

are tourism, clothing and crafts exports and merchant shipping.

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Cyprus because of its strategic location, has been claimed over the centuries by most of her neighbours and strong nations of various times such as:

– Pheenecians– Agyptians – Assyrians– Persians– Romans– Venetians– Ottomans and– British

Cyprus gained its independence in 1960. People lived in harmony and good prosperity until 1974.

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Once again however a foreign

invasion brought an abrupt end to the

island’s prosperity. As a result of the

Turkish invasion in 1974 more than

50% of the industrial infrastructure

and productive capacity was lost.

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“If Turkish invasion had not taken place no measures would be needed for the care of elderly people in Cyprus”

Dr. Rudd 1976 (W.H.O. consultant)

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Reasons which created the need for the provision of services for the elderly

• Turkish invasion which forced people out of their home and split families

• The rise in the population´s life expectancy

• the integration of women in Labour market

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• The ageing of population is projected to become an issue of concern by 2030. Hence, ageing has only recently been mainstreamed in policies such as economic, social protection, labour market and health.

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Ageing situationThe population of Cyprus estimates at 766.400 at the end of 2005, an increase of 2,3% since 2004. An ageing trend in the population is shown by the proportion of children below 15 which decreased to 18,4% compared to 25,4% in 1992. The proportion of persons 65+ years increased to 12,1% (2006) compared to 11% in 1992. The proportion of the population 65+ years is projected to increase to 17,6% by 2008 and to 26,2% by 2050.

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Ageing situationLife expectancy at birth is at 77,0 for males and 81,7 for females for the period 2004/2005 (compared with 76,1 and 81,0 respectively in the period 2000/2001) and is projected to increase by 2050 to 81,9 years for males and 85,1 years for females

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Female: 81,7

Male: 77,0

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Ageing situationCyprus shows high levels of educational attainment in the population. For the ages 25-64 years, 65,3% have completed at least Upper Secondary level compared to an average of 68,9% in the 25 Member States of the European Union (EU-25). For the ages 25-64 years, 29,4% have tertiary education qualifications compared to an average of 21,9% in the EU-25.

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Social and political situation: influence ageing issues

• Families in Cyprus are changing in size and structure. One to two-person households have increased from 30% in 1982 to 37% in 1992 and 43% in 2001. The total divorce rate has increased sharply in the last decade from 7,3 (1990) to 23,3 (2005). The percentage of single parents, however, shows only a slight increase from 4,2% in 1992 (3,7% single mothers – 0,5% single fathers) to 5,7% in 2001 (5,0% single mothers – 0,7% single fathers).

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Social and political situation: influence ageing issues• As a response to a weakening informal care

and an increasing participation of women in the labour market, new forms of formal care and other family support services have been developed in recent years. The current social trends suggest that there is a need for continuous development and adjustment of measures at all levels of prevention, including measures reconciling work and family life. The Government, the social partners and civil society are involved in the development of these measures.

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• The national focal point on policies concerning older persons: is the social Welfare Services which belong to the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance)

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• The Supreme Policy Making body on Issues Concerning Older Persons, established in 2000. this Body has been set up by the Council of Ministers to advise on the formulation of comprehensive policies for older persons and to coordinate relevant services and programmes. It is chaired by the Minister of Labour and Social Insurance and it is composed of the Permanent Secretaries of the Ministries of Finance, Health, Labour and Social Insurance and the Planning Bureau.

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• Cyprus uses several mechanisms in order to take into account the views of older persons on the services provided to them.

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• The Pancyprian Volunteerism Coordinative Council (PVCC) as the umbrella organisation of all voluntary organisations has an advisory role in the planning of social policy, including issues concerning older persons.

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The Coordinating body for Older Persons

• This body, also chaired by the Minister of Labour and social Insurance, has an advisory role on policy issues with special emphasis on matters related to social services, health services and special privileges which can be granted to facilitate the access of older people to different sites and services. Government departments as well as trade unions, NGOs and older persons themselves are represented on this Body.

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The Advisory Board• The Advisory Board is appointed by the

Minister of Labour and Social Insurance, under the law regulating the establishment and operation of homes for older persons and persons with disabilities. The role of the Board is to advise the Minister on the implementation and the improvement of legislation related to older persons. Governmental departments, NGOs, local authorities and older persons themselves are represented on the Board.

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Elders´ Parliament• The Elders´ Parliament was established

in 1999 during the International Year of Older Persons. It consists of 56 members representing various non-govermental organisations dealing with matters related to older persons. The general aim of the body is to bring up issues and recommendations relevant to older citizens.

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Cyprus has undertaken several measures to recognise, encourage and support the contributions of older people to society (e.g. Media campaigns, school curricula).Intergenerational understanding is encouraged through the following activities in the school curriculum:•Students´ visits to adult day care centres or residential homes,•Older persons´ visits to schools and•Organisation of common recreational activities between students and older persons.

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The curriculum of our school includes a module for elderly people: 98 hours of theory and 280 hours clinical practice.The Cultural Services (Ministry of Education and Culture) provide older persons with the services presented below:reduced tickets for all events organised by the Cultural Services,monthly ex gratia allowance for creators of over 63 years old poets, novelists, actors, musicians etc) who require financial support andannual honorary grant for creators (poets, novelists, actors musicians etc) of over 63 years old who have accomplished an invaluable contribution in the domain of culture.

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• Cyprus encourages the participation of older persons in society, culture, and economy.

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• Long-term care is the right of every resident, who is unable to secure is by own means. For eligible persons, this care is provided directly by the Social Welfare Services, NGOs, local authorities and private institutions with state financing. Long-term care services include home care, day care and residential care. The following care services and support schemes are provided for older persons with the aim of enhancing their quality of life and participation in social life.

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Home care• It includes home cleaning, help in personal

hygiene, shopping, reading of newspaper etc.

Day care• Day Care Centres for Adults may offer

breakfast, lunch, laundry services and a range of activities such as handcrafting, cooking, discussion groups, excursions, group games etc.

Residential care• Residential homes for older persons provide

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Subsidisation of Holidays for Older Persons and Persons with Disabilities Scheme•Persons 63 years of age or older who are public assistance beneficiaries are eligible for holiday allowance which covers hotel accommodation in Cyprus for a specified period throughout the year.Self-Employment Scheme for Older Persons•The scheme aims to encourage self-employment in persons 63 of age or older (e.g. In handcrafting, writing, drawing etc)

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In the area of education, the Adult Education Centres (Ministry of Education and Culture) implement the following programmes:•Special educational programmesWithin the general government policy for lifelong learning, Adult Education Centres provide free educational programmes for persons aged 65 and over. Programmes cover a wide array of subject areas.•LecturesThe Adult Education Centres in cooperation with schools offer a series of lectures for older persons. 30

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• Social cardThe Social Card is granted to all

persons aged 63 years and over. It entitles them to attend social and cultural events and enjoy several benefits such as free transportation by bus in rural and urban areas.

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• Policies and programmes have been adopted to improve the housing and living environment of older persons especially in rural areas:

• Persons who cannot secure their basic and special needs (including accommodation and hygiene utilities) are entitled to public assistance. Furthermore, the following schemes aim to improve older persons´ living conditions.

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• Scheme for the Improvement of Housing Conditions

This is a scheme which aims to improve the living conditions of public assistance recipients or persons who would be eligible for public assistance should rent be added in their special needs. The scheme provides for house repairs and house extensions.

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• Family Support Scheme for the Informal Care of their Elderly and Disabled Members

This scheme aims to promote independence and prevent institutionalisation. It provides financial support to individuals and families who provide care and accommodation to a family member or a friend for the following purposes: house extensions or house adjustments or purchase of house equipment necessary for the beneficiary (e.g. Special bed/mattress) 34

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• Scheme of Incentives for Co-habitation of first degree Family Members

This scheme targets low-income parents living alone (irrespective of age). It provides financial support for house extensions with an aim to facilitate parents who wish to co-habit with their children provided that the parents or the children own the house where the parent(s) intend to reside.

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• The Government encourages the development of care services on a local level to support families for reconciling work and family life and older persons to remain in their communities for as long as possible. Through the Grants-in-Aid Scheme, the government subsidises social care services (e.g. Childcare, home care, day care and residential care), run by Community Volunteerism Councils and voluntary organisations, especially in disadvantaged or remote communities.

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• Older persons tend to spare more time in volunteerism. They usually engage in voluntary sector decision making processes as board members in voluntary organisations.

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Cyprus has taken several steps to achieve a sufficient income for all older persons:•Old-age pensionAll employed and self-employed persons are compulsorily insured under the Social Insurance Scheme. Upon reaching the age of 65, they are entitled to old-age pension provided they satisfy the relevant contribution conditions. However, entitlement may commence at the age of 63 for persons who have completed a period of insurance specified in the legislation.

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Widow´s pension• Widow´s pension is payable to a widow

of an insured persons who, at the time of his death, was a beneficiary of old-age pension or satisfied the contribution condition for the payment of old-age pension and at the time of his death she was living with him or was wholly or mainly maintained by him.

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Social pension• This pension is financed by general

taxation and is paid to persons who have completed the age of 65 and are not entitled to a pension from any other source.

Special Allowance• A special allowance is payable to every

pensioner with an annual pension income not exceeding CYP6,500 without any test of income from employment or other sources.

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Public assistance• Public Assistance ensures the right to a

decent standard of living through the provision of financial assistance and/or social services to persons, whose resources are not sufficient to meet their basic and special needs as determined by legislation.

Social Card• What policies has it adopted to address on

time the needs of older persons for a variety of social and health services, including sheltered housing and long-term care

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Some other steps Cyprus has taken to develop a regulatory framework for occupational and private pension provision are:•The Government employees Pension SchemeThe Government Employees Pension Scheme provides supplementary retirement and servivors´ pensions for permanent civil servants and members of the educational service, the police and the armed forces.•The Semi-government Employees Pension SchemesThe Semi-government Employees Pension Schemes provide supplementary pensions to the permanent employees of the publicly utility corporations of local authorities and of other public law authorities.42

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Home care

It aims to support vulnerable groups of people in order to enable them:•To live at home

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Home care

•To develop their personal skills•Support the family unit accommodate the family`s elderly members.

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Home care service provides

• Personal hygiene• House cleaning• Washing clothes• Cooking• Payment of bills• Shopping e.t.c.

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Day care

• It offers the elderly the opportunity to live at home for as long as possible.

Residential care:• Is provided to people where their

individual needs can not be met on a 24 hours basis by their family or others supporting services.

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• The SWS are responsible for the registration and supervision of the privately owned and community residential Homes for elders.

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