Carbon fibre final ppt

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  • COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite = Something made up of distinct parts(or constituents). A materials system composed of suitably arranged mixture or combination of two or more micro- or macro constituents with an interface separating them that differ in form and chemical composition and are essentially insoluble in each other.
  • What is Carbon Fiber ? Composed of carbon atoms bonded together to form a long chain. A super strong material that's also extremely lightweight. Five times stronger than steel , Two times stiffer , and about Two-Third times less in weight.
  • Carbon Fiber Thin strands of carbon- even thinner than human hair. Strands can be twisted together, like yarn- can be woven together, like cloth extremely lightweight.
  • How is Carbon Fiber Made? Production from two sources -: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Pitch The raw material used to make carbon fiber is called the precursor.
  • Precursors PAN PITCH PAN Filament PITCH Filament
  • In General Carbon fiber are produced in three processing stages: 1. Stabilization 2. Carbonization 3. Graphitization
  • PAN In the stabilization stage, the PAN fibers are first stretched to align the febrile networks within each fiber axis, and they are oxidized in air at about 200 to 220C while held in tension. In carbonization the stabilized PAN-based fibers are pyrolyzed (heated) until they become transformed into carbon fibers by the elimination of O,H & N from the precursor fiber.
  • The carbonization heat treatment is usually carried out in inert atmosphere in the 1000 to 1500C range. During the carbonization process, turbostratic graphite like fibrils or ribbons are formed within each fiber that greatly increase the tensile strength of the material. In the third stage , or graphitization treatment is used if an increase in the modulus of the elasticity is desired at the expense of high tensile strength. During Graphitization, which is carried out above about 1800C , the preferred orientation of the graphite like crystallites within each fiber is increased.
  • Pitch Carbon fiber are produced from Pitch precursor as well. Production of carbon fiber is initiate by process known as polymerization , when pitch is heated at 300C, several carbon aromatic rings chain combines with Each other & generate stable sheet type 2-D structure which is known as misophase of pitch. This mesophase of pitch is now wrapped around spinner while passing through die the misophase will aligned in the filament direction.
  • Filaments are cooled to freeze the molecular orientation again to stabilize the chain of the polymerized structure, it is heated in a range of 200C-400C. In an oxygen containing environment to stabilize the structure as well as to make them infeasible structure . In the next step the filaments are carbonized at the temp of 1000C in the presence of inert gas. Carbonization remove all the O,H & N atoms from the molecule of the pitch. Hence contained arranged atom only.
  • After carbonization if it is required to incraese mechanical property of this carbon fiber it can be again heat treated by process known as Graphitization. In Graphatization , it is heating carbonized carbomn fiber in the range of 200C or above in the vaccume. After graphitizaion the mechanical strenth capability is at maximum level which is a PAN carbon fiber can sustain.
  • Properties Carbon fiber has very high tensile strength. It has low thermal expansion. It is a light weight material having low density. It is a good conductor of electricity. It can wear a high resistance.
  • ADVANTAGES It has long working life. Its density is less than density of steel. It is insensitive to change in temperature. Its properties is much better than any of the other metals. Its compressive strength is greater than all the reinforcing material.
  • DISADVANTAGE It is very costly. It is little bit harmful for the human body as it cause some form of cancer of the lungs.
  • APPLICATIONS It is mostly used in the aerospace and aircraft industries.
  • It is used in making sports equipment such as light weight badminton rackets, golf stick etc.
  • Automotive body is also made up of the carbon fiber.
  • It is also used in civil engineering
  • Constructing up of wind mill blades.
  • It is used for building and construction material. Rechargeable battries and fuel cell electrodes. Portable powers.
  • Carbon Fiber Markets
  • Carbon Fiber Markets
  • India gets first carbon fiber plant May 9th 2010, Former President Dr A P J Abdul Kalam on Sunday inaugurated the country's first carbon fibre manufacturing facility. The Rs 250crore set up will produce lightweight material for use in defence, aerospace and infrastructure under technology transfer from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research's (CSIR) National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL), which had developed the ultralight material for the Light Combat Aircraft.
  • REFRENCES n_CarbonFiber_en.pdf sp