Cambridge English Grammar....

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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH Language Assessment Part of the Umverstty of Cambridge Cambridge English Grammar. Vocabulary mRADVANCED with answers MARTIN HEWINGS SIMON HAINES Page 3

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  • CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

    CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH Language Assessment Part of the Umverstty of Cambridge

    Cambridge English

    Grammar. Vocabulary mRADVANCED

    with answers

    MARTIN HEWINGS

    SIMON HAINES

    Page 3

  • Introduction

    Exam summary

    Map of the book

    6

    8

    GRAMMAR SECTION

    Unit 1 Tenses 10 Unit 2 The future 17

    Unit 3 Modals (1) 25

    Unit 4 Modals (2) 32

    Unit 5 Nouns, agreement and articles 39

    Unit 6 Determiners and quantifiers 47

    Unit 7 Adverbs and adjectives 54

    Unit 8 Comparison 60

    Unit 9 Verb patterns (1) 66

    Unit 10 Verb patterns (2) 72

    Unit 11 Relative clauses (1) 80

    Unit 12 Relative clauses (2) 87

    Unit 13 Adverbial clauses 94

    Unit 14 Conditionals 100

    Unit 15 Participle, to-infinitive and reduced clauses 107

    Unit 16 Noun clauses 113

    Unit 17 Conjunctions and connectors 119

    Unit 18 The passive 126

    Unit 19 Reporting 134

    Unit 20 Substitution and ellipsis 140

    Unit 21 Word order and emphasis 148

    Unit 22 Nominalisation 154 Unit 23 It and there 161

    Unit 24 Complex prepositions and prepositions after verbs 168

    Unit 25 Prepositions after nouns and adjectives 174

    VOCABULARY SECTION

    Unit 26 Cities Unit 27 Personal history

    Unit 28 The arts

    179

    184

    188

    Unit 29 Migrations 192

    Unit 30 Risking it 196

    Unit 31 Gender issues 201

    Unit 32 Education 205

    Unit 33 Health 210

    Unit 34 Getting about 214

    Unit 35 Moods 218

    Unit 36 Fame and fortune 222

    Unit 37 Relationships 226

    Unit 38 'lime off 230

    Unit 39 Media 235

    Unit 40 The world of work 239

    Unit 41 Economics and business 243

    Unit 42 The living world 247

    Unit 43 Personal contact 251

    Unit 44 The environment 255

    Unit 45 Science and technology 259

    Answer key 263

    II Contents

    Page 6

  • What does the book contain? This book is updated for the new Cambridge English: Advanced examination introduced in 2015 and contains two sections: Grammar (Units 1-25) and Vocabulary (Units 26-45).

    What does the book aim to do? This book aims to provide complete coverage of the grammar and vocabulary needed for success in the Cambridge English: Advanced, also known as the Certificate in Advanced English (CAE). Regular exam practice is provided throughout the book.

    Units 1-25 present grammar in context followed by a detailed analysis of the language for advanced learners of English. Units 26-45 extend vocabulary knowledge - including of collocations and idioms - and introduce ways of studying vocabulary which will help you pass the exam.

    Who is the book aimed at? This book is for anyone preparing for success in the Cambridge English: Advanced. It is designed primarily for students working alone who want to revise, extend and practise their knowledge and understanding of grammar and vocabulary, but it can also be used on a Cambridge English: Advanced preparation course in the classroom, or can be set as homework by a teacher.

    How do I use the book? You can work through the units in any order, but we advise you to study every unit if you want to prepare thoroughly for the exam. It is best to work through a unit from beginning to end, as exercises may revise grammar or vocabulary from an earlier part of the same unit.

    Each of the 25 units in the Grammar section is divided into three sections. Context listening introduces the grammar of the unit in context to help you understand it more easily. Grammar provides detailed explanations of specific grammar points and includes Start points which act as a brief reminder of grammar you may already know. Grammar exercises provide practice of the grammar of each unit.

    Each of the 20 units in the Vocabulary section is bawd on a general topic (e.g. Cities) and presents general exercises on vocabulary for two areas within the main unit topic (e.g. Urban growth and Urban living).

    Each unit of the book includes an Exam practice section which provides practice of the types of tasks you will face in the Reading and Use of English, Writing and Listening sections of the Cambridge English: Advanced examination. Note Some of the Exam practice tasks test mainly the grammar or vocabulary taught in the same unit, to give extra practice. However, in the real exam each question tests a different grammar/vocabulary point or a different aspect of language.

    The Answer key contains answers to all the exercises in the book, including alternative answers where more than one correct answer is possible.

    What does this s mbol mean? This symbol appears in the Error warning boxes of the Vocabulary section and indicates that the errors were found in the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a database made up of many thousands of exam scripts written by students taking Cambridge English exams around the world. The exam practice tasks have been informed by the English Vocabulary Profile. The English Vocabulary Profile is an online resource with detailed and up-to-date information about the words, phrases, phrasal verbs and idioms that learners of English know at each of the six levels of the Common European Framework (Al to C2), which guarantees suitable treatment of words, phrases and phrasal verbs at Cl level.

    When should I use a dictiona ? L To get the most out of the Vocabulary section, you will need a good dictionary. Use the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary or another suitable monolingual dictionary. You should try to do each vocabulary exercise without a dictionary first, then use your dictionary to help you with answers you didn't know. Use the Answer key as a final check. When you see the dictionary symbol, you are advised to use a dictionary to complete the exercise. I

    What material can I find online? The following material for use with this book can be found online at www.cambridge.org/grammarvocabadvanced:

    Audio recordings for all listening exercises and for exam practice Listening tasks Complete Recording scripts for each audio file Reference notes which give further information and support on the grammar and vocabulary in this book Wordlists for key items in the Vocabulary section Model answers to the Exam practice Writing tasks Parts 1 and 2

    II

    Introduction

    5

    Page 7

  • II

    Exam summary

    Reading

    Part

    and Use of

    What are the tasks?

    Willi WigIllijill English (1 hour 30 minutes)

    • 11111tilhildr

    1

    What do I have to do? How many

    questions?

    Multiple-choice doze You read a text with eight gaps. For each gap you choose the

    correct word from one of four possible answers (A, B, C or D). 8

    2 Open doze You read a text with eight gaps. You must write one word in each

    881). 8

    3 Word formation You read a text with eight gaps. For each gap you write the

    correct form of the word at the end of each line. 8

    Key word

    transformation

    You are given a complete sentence and a second gapped

    sentence. You complete the second sentence so that it has the

    same meaning using a given 'key word. 6

    5 Multiple choice You read a text and answer six multiple-choice questions.

    You choose from four possible answers (A, 8, C or D). 6

    Cross-text multiple

    matching You read four short texts on the same topic. You have to match

    each question to the correct text. 4

    7 Gapped text

    You read a text from which paragraphs have been removed and

    put in a jumbled order. You have to choose which paragraph fits

    into which space. There is a paragraph which does not fit into any space.

    6

    8 Multiple matching You scan a text or several short texts and decide which part of a

    text or text each question refers to. Some questions may refer to

    more than one part of a text or text, 10

    Writing

    Part

    (1 hour 30 minutes)

    What are the tasks?

    rip* woo:

    • IIIIIIILIIPOIIIL

    What do I have to do? How many

    questions?

    1 Write an essay You plan and write an essay on the topic given in the question

    paper. Your essay must be 220-260 words. 1

    2 Write a text of a

    particular type

    You choose, plan and write only one of the following possible text

    types: a letter, a proposal, a report or a review. Your text must be

    relevant to the situation described in the question. Your text must

    be 220-260 words.

    1 from a

    choice of 3

    Page 8

  • Listening (40 minutes)

    rilkiii /1114U7

    10101.4

    What do I have to do? How many Part What are the tasks? questions?

    1

    1 Multiple choice

    You hear three short extracts and have to answer two multiple-

    choice questions on each extract. For each question you choose

    one of three possible answers (A, B or C).

    6

    2 Sentence completion You use information you hear to complete sentences with gaps. 8

    3 Multiple choice You hear a recording with six multiple-choice questions. For each

    question you choose one of four possible answers (A, EI, C or D). 6

    4 Multiple matching

    You hear five short themed monologues with multiple-matching

    questions. You match a statement or opinion from a list of six

    options for each speaker.

    10

    Speaking (15 minutes) 1*1t

    What do I have to do? How long is

    each part? I

    Part What an the tasks?

    1 General conversation You answer questions about general topics such as your daily life,

    your interests or your experiences. 2 minutes

    2 Individual long turn

    You talk about a set of three pictures on your own for around a

    minute. Then you listen to your partner talk about a different set

    of pictures before commenting on what they have said.

    4 minutes

    3 Discussion You and your partner are given some written instructions for a

    discussion task 4 minutes

    4 Discussion You and your partner discuss topics related to the task in Part 3. 5 minutes

    7

    Page 9

  • Map of the book GRAMMAR 10.4111111

    Unit Title Topics Exam practice

    1 Tenses Simple and continuous tenses; perfect tenses; present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous

    Reading and Use of English Part 2

    2 The future Will, be going to + infinitive, shall; present tenses for the future; future continuous, future perfect and future perfect continuous; be to + infinitive; future in the past

    Reading and Use

    of English Part 8

    3 Modals (1) Ability; possibility; conclusions, willingness, habitual events; necessity. deduction; 'not necessary'; obligation Listening Part 1

    4 Modals (2) Complex modal forms; dare and need; had better; be allowed to; be supposed to; other verbs with modal meanings

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    5 Nouns, agreement and articles

    Compound nouns and noun phrases; subject—verb agreement; countable and uncountable nouns; articles

    Reading and Use of English Parr 2

    Determiners and

    quantifiers No, none, flora, not any; much, many, a lot of, lots of; all, both, whole; every, each; (a/the) few, little; less, fewer (than); much, many, etc. t (of)

    istening Part 2

    7 Adverbs and adjectives

    Position of adverbs; quite, rather, already, yet, still, even, only, malls position of adjectives; gradable adjectives; patterns after adjectives

    Reading and Use of English Part 3

    8 Comparison Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs; comparisons with as ...; comparisons with so ..., too ..., enough

    Reading and Use

    of English Part 3

    9 Verb patterns (1) Verbs with two objects; verb + object + adjective; verb + reflexive pronoun; verb + each other/one another

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    10 Verb patterns (2) Verb + to-infinitive / -ing, verb + (object) + bare infinitive; verb + object + to- infinitive / -ing verb + object / possessive + -ing other patterns after verbs

    Reading and Use of English Part S

    11 Relative clauses (1) Defining and non-defining relative clauses; relative pronouns; other words beginning relative clauses; prepositions in relative clauses

    Reading and Use of English Part 1

    12 Relative clauses (2) Participle clauses; to-infinitive clauses; adjective phrases; prepositional phrases oR fe a d English

    in g a npda rUt sse

    13 Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses including time clauses, contrast and concession clauses, reason clauses, purpose and result clauses

    Reading and Use of English Part 2

    14 Conditionals Real and unreal conditionals; if ... not and unless; even and even though; if only and wish; other conditional expressions Listening Part 4

    15 Participle, to- infinitive and reduced clauses

    Participle clauses including present participle (-ing) clauses, past participle (-ed) clauses, participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions, to-infinitive clauses, reduced clauses

    Reading and Use of English Part 3

    16 Noun clauses That-noun clauses; wh-noun clauses; whether and ] Reading and Use

    of English Part 1

    17 Conjunctions and connectors Before, hardly, first (1y), however, even so, on the other hand, etc.

    Reading and Use of English Part 6

    18 The passive Using the passive; active and passive verb forms; passive forms of verbs with two objects; get + past participle; get/have + object + past participle

    Reading and Use of English Part 7

    19 Reporting Structures in the reported clause that-clause, to-infinitive and -ing verb tenses in reporting modal verbs in reporting reporting questions; should in that- clauses

    . . Listening Part 4

    Substitution and

    ellipsis 20 Listening

    One/ones; so + auxiliary verb + subject; neither, nor, not.., either; do so; leaving out words after auxiliary verbs and after to Part 3

    21 Word order and emphasis Fronting cleft sentences; inversion; inversion in conditional sentences

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    22 Nominalisation Nominalised forms; do, give, have, make, take + noun Reading and Use of English Part 8

    23 It and there Introductory it as subject and object; there; common expressions with it's no ... and there's no ...

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    8

    Page 10

  • 4

    Complex prepositions and prepositions after verbs

    1 Complex prepositions; verb + preposition: common patterns; phrasal verbs: word order Listening Part 1

    ,

    25

    Unit

    VOCABULARY

    Prepositions after nouns and adictiv

    Title

    Noun + preposition: related verbs and adjectives; noun + preposition + -ing or noun + preposition + noun; noun + of +-ing or noun + to-infinitive; noun + in or noun ofi aclective + preposition

    ir .o.dikr.Zb a _ Sall

    Reading and Use of English Part 1

    —dik Topics Exam practice

    26 Cities Urban growth Urban living

    Reading and Use of English Pans

    27 Personal history Ancestry Autobiography

    Writing Part 1 An essay

    28 The arts Arts events Reviews

    Reading and Use of English Part 1

    29 Migrations Departures Personal stories Listening Part 2

    30 Risking k Extreme sports Reading and Use Risk-taking of English Part?

    31 Gender issues Language Gender in sport

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    Reading and Use of English Part 6

    32 Ed ucation Learning l'iailin

    33 Health World health Water and health

    Writing Part 2 A report

    34 Getting about Private journeys Public transport Listening Part 1

    35 Moods Attitudes Memory

    Reading and Use of English Part 1

    36 Fame and fortune Celebrity culture Reality television

    Reading and Use of English Part 2

    37 Relationships Families Friends Listening Part 3

    38 Time off Holidays Enjoying exercise

    Finding and Use of English Parts

    39 Media News and information Press freedom

    Reading and Use of English Part 4

    40 The world of work Employment patterns Economic migration

    Reading and Use of English Part 3

    41 Economics and business

    Economic problems Business tips

    Writing Part 1 An essay

    42 The living world Animal life Trees and plants Listening Part 4

    43 Personal contact Social networking Letter writing

    Reading and Use of English Part?

    44 The environment Issues Protection

    Reading and Use of English Part 3

    45 Science and technology

    Discovery Solutions

    Writing Part 2 A letter

    9 Page 11

  • Tenses Simple and continuous tenses; perfect tenses; present perfect continuous and past perfect continuous

    t.tv

    Context listening En You are going to hear part of a radio phone-in programme. Before you listen, look at the photos. What do you think the topic of the phone-in is?

    EIE Listen and check whether you were right. As you listen, answer the questions. Which of the callers, Karen, Uam, Sahar or Lula ...

    1 ... lost something on the train one day? Salierr

    2 ... travels to work by bus?

    3 ... works at home permanently?

    4 ... may buy a motorbike?

    5 ... has always liked travelling by train?

    6 ... used to catch the train at a quarter past seven in the morning?

    7 ... is working at home temporarily?

    8 ... has never owned a car?

    Listen again and fill in the gaps.

    1 I coronae& to London for over ten years.

    2 I over an hour when they announced that the train was cancelled.

    3 1 of buying a motorbike.

    4 1 at home while our office block is being renovated.

    5 1 to her only a couple of times before then.

    6 1 travelling by train ever since I was young.

    7 1 to phone in to your programme for the last half hour.

    all my work by 2.30 pm.

    Identify the tenses you used in 1.3.

    1 - past simple

    8 Yesterday, 1

    1.4

    to

    Page 12

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