C. operant learning

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Transcript of C. operant learning

  • 1.PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING Chapter III: Associative Learning

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

  • Operant Learning is a kind of associative learning whereby behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences.

9.

  • Animals have the capacity to reason by presenting logical argument and conclusion to problems.

10.

  • Can animals really think?

11. 12.

  • A behavior has typically one of thetwo kinds of consequencesor effects:
  • Satisfying state of affairs; and
  • Annoying state of affairs.

The Law of Effect 13.

  • The termOPERANT LEARNINGindicates that the individual operates the environment.

14. 15. In the attempt of perfecting Thorndikes study on animal intelligence, Skinner developed what came to be the Skinners box. He was then regarded as the founding father of operant conditioning. 16. 17. 18.

  • Classical conditioning has the tendency to be passive in terms of learning

CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS) 19.

  • CONSEQUENCES

INDIVIDUAL (perceiving the situation andACTINGon it) MANIPULATING the ENVIRONMENT for our own BENEFIT ENVIRONMENT (presenting situation ) POSITIVE RESULTS (strengthening behavior) NEGATIVE RESULTS (weakening behavior) 20.

  • A concept referring to an increase in the strength of behaviour due to its consequences.

21.

  • Behaviour must have a consequence;
  • Behaviour must increase in strength; and
  • Increase in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence.

22.

  • If I do X, then Y.

YOU HAVE TO TAKE YOUR MEDS DAD . CANT TALK RIGHT NOW. IM BLOGGING THIS! If the tendency to do X has not been strengthened because of the Y, then, there is no REINFORCEMENT. CAUSE EFFECT 23.

  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement

increases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. 24.

  • Primary Reinforcers are stimuli that naturally or innately reinforcing behaviour.

25.

  • Secondary Reinforcers are reinforcing stimuli dependently associated with other reinforcers.

26.

  • States that human behaviour ismotivated by our needs.

27. 28.

  • Response Deprivation Theory states that behaviour becomes reinforcing when the organism is prevented from engaging in it at its normal frequency.

29. The natural tendency of an organism to eat. 30.

  • Study the following:
  • Punishment
  • Kinds of punishment
  • Contingency and Contiguity
  • Theories of Punishment

31.

  • Punishment is a kind of stimulus that aims to decrease the strength in behaviour due to its consequence.

32.

  • Behaviour must have a consequence;
  • Behaviour must decrease in strength; and
  • Decrease in strength of behaviour must be the result of the consequence.

33.

  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment

decreases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. decreases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the removal of a pleasant stimulus. 34.

  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement

increases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. increases the probability ofbehaviour's occurrence due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. 35. IncreasesDecreases Stimulus is presented Stimulus is removed POSITIVEREINFORCEMENT Strength of Behavior POSITIVEPUNISHMENT NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT 36. POSITIVEREINFORCEMENT 37. 38. 39. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT 40. POSITIVE PUNISHMENT 41. 42. NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT 43. 44.

  • Contingency
  • Contiguity
  • Intensity of Punishment
  • Introductory Level of Punishment
  • Reinforcement of the Punished Behaviour

45.

  • The degree to which punishment weakens a behaviour varies with the degree to which a punishing event is dependent on that behaviour.

46.

  • The interval between a behaviour and a punishing consequence has a powerful effect on learning. The longer the delay, the slower the learning.

47. 48. 49. 50.