Business Research Methods EMBA-1 1. Business Research Methods EMBA-1 2 Measurement and Scaling...

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Business Research Methods EMBA-1 1 Slide 2 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 2 Measurement and Scaling Concepts & Attitude Measurement Slide 3 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 3 Introduction What is to be measured? And How to be measured? Slide 4 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 4 1. Quite tall for his age 2. Moderately tall for his age 3. About average for his age 4. Moderately short for his age 5. Quite short for his age What is to be measured? Suppose, height of a boy is to be measured If he is moderately tall for his age, his score is 2 Slide 5 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 5 We may compare height with other few children We may use conventional measuring unit (cm/ inch) We may categorize nice height, not so nice height What is to be measured? Suppose, height of a boy is to be measured In each of the above case, we will get different scores Slide 6 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 6 Careful conceptual definition Operational definition A system of consistent rules for assigning numbers What is to be measured? Many measurement scales used in business research are not directly comparable. A precise definition of the concept may require a description of how it will be measured There is frequently more than one way of measuring a concept. Slide 7 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 7 What is to be measured? Rules of Measurement An operational definition gives meaning to a concept by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure it. An operational definition tells the investigator do such-and-such in so-and-so manner. An example of a measurement rule might be: If the individual is an extremely brand loyal l, assign 1, if the individual is a total brand switcher with no brand loyalty, assign 7 and such. Operational definitions help the researcher specify the rules for assigning numbers. Operational Definitions Slide 8 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 8 Nominal scale Types of Scale A scale may be defined as any series of items that are progressively arranged according to value or magnitude into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. In other words, a scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories. The purpose of scaling is to represent, usually quantitatively, an items, a persons, or an events place in the spectrum. Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale Slide 9 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 9 The numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification. Types of Scale Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale Sex, Cast, Marital Status Slide 10 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 10 Types of Scale Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale This scale arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude. A typical ordinal scale may be, excellent, good, fair, or poor. We know that excellent is better than good, but we dont know by how much. Professional Rank Lt, Capt, Maj, Lt Col Excellent, Good, Fair Slide 11 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 11 Types of Scale Interval scales not only indicate order, they measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals. The location of the zero point is arbitrary. The classic example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit temperature scale. For most behavioral business research, interval scales are typically the best measurements Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale 30, 60 degree Slide 12 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 12 Types of Scale Ratio scales have absolute rather than relative scales. Both money and weight are ratio scales because they possess an absolute zero and interval properties. The absolute zero represents a point on the scale where there is an absence of the given attribute. Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale Slide 13 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 13 Descriptive Statistics for Types of Scales Types of Scale Numerical Operation Descriptive Statistics NominalCountingFrequency in each category, percentage in each category, mode OrdinalRank OrderingMedian, range, percentile ranking IntervalArithmetic operations on intervals between numbers Mean, Standard deviation, variance RatioArithmetic operations on actual quantities Geometric mean, coefficient of variation N.B: For all higher type scale, all lower statistics is possible Slide 14 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 14 Index Measure Attribute Index/ Composite Measure An attribute is a single characteristic or fundamental feature pertaining to an object, person, situation, or issue. Multi-itemed instruments for measuring a single concept with several attributes are called index measures, or composite measures. For example, index of social class may be based on three weighted averages: residence, occupation, and residence. Asking different questions in order to measure the same concept provides a more accurate cumulative measure than does a single-item measure. Slide 15 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 15 Reliability The ability of a scale or measuring instrument to measure what it is intended to measure Sensitivity refers to the ability of a instrument to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses. The degree to which measures are free from error and therefore yield consistent result. Validity Sensitivity Criteria for Good Measurement Slide 16 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 16 Techniques for Measuring Attitude Ranking Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent indicates the position on a scale(s) where he or she would rate an object Sorting might present the respondent with several product concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the product concepts Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurementit is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other(s) Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall preference on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus Rating Sorting Choice Slide 17 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 17 Techniques for Measuring Attitude Ranking: Rating: Sorting: Choice: Rank order preference Estimates magnitude of a characteristic Arrange or classify concepts Selection of preferred alternative Slide 18 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 18 Rating Scales There are variety of rating scales. Effectiveness of such scales depend on situations. Few scales are: Category Scale Likert Scale Semantic Differential & Numeric Constant Sum Stapel Scale Graphic Scale Graphic with Picture Response Slide 19 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 19 Rating Scale Advantage Disadvantage ScaleSubject MustAdvantageDisadvantage Category Scale Indicate response category Flexible, easy to respond Items may be ambiguous with few categories Likert ScaleEvaluate statement on a scale Easiest to construct Hard to judge what single score means Semantic Differential & Numeric Choose points between bipolar adjectives Easy to construct, norms exist for comparison Bipolar adjectives must be found, data may be ordinal, not interval Constant Sum Divide constant sum Approx interval measure Difficult for respondent with low education level Stapel ScaleChoose point on a scale with adjective on center Easier to construct than semantic End points are numerical, not verbal, Labels Graphic Scale Choose a point on continuum Visual impactNo standard answers Graphic with Picture Response Choose a visual picture Visual impactHard to attach verbal explanation to response Slide 20 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 20 Selecting a Measuring Scale Is a ranking, sorting, rating or choice technique is best? Should a monadic or comparative scale be used? What type of category labels, if any, should be used? How many scale positions are needed? Should a balanced or unbalanced scale be chosen? Should respondent be given forces choice or unforced choice scale? Should a single measure or an index measure be used? Slide 21 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 21 Most scales has similarity You need to use your judgment and be creative Conclusion Slide 22 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 22 ? Any Question? Slide 23 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 23 Thanks for your contribution Slide 24 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 24 Remember about Assignment for Next Week Slide 25 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 25 You may just have a look for now Slide 26 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 26 Physiological Measure of Attitude Simple Attitude Scale: In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories; THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE______ DISAGREE Slide 27 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 27 Physiological Measure of Attitude How important were the following in your decision to visit Bandarbaan (check one for each item) VERYSOMEWHATNOT TOO IMPORTANTIMPORTANTIMPORTANT CLIMATE_________________________________ COST OF TRAVEL_________________________________ FAMILY ORIENTED_________________________________ EDUCATIONAL/ HISTORICAL ASPECTS _______________________________ FAMILIARITY WITH AREA_________________________________ n A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. n Questions working is an extremely important factor in the usefulness of these scales. Slide 28 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 28 Physiological Measure of Attitude Likert Scale An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree. It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match tan to play an easy one. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Slide 29 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 29 Physiological Measure of Attitude Semantic Differential A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as good and bad, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Complex Passive___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Active Slide 30 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 30 Physiological Measure of Attitude Numerical Scale Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than semantic space or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions). Exciting 7 : 6 : 5 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 : Calm Interesting 7 : 6 : 5 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 : Dull Simple 7 : 6 : 5 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 : Complex Passive 7 : 6 : 5 : 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 : Active Slide 31 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 31 Physiological Measure of Attitude Constant - Sum Scale Respondents are asked to divide a constant sum to indicate the relative importance of selected attributes. e.g., Divide 100 points among the following attributes according to its importance in case of a delivery service Accurate Invoicing ____________________ Delivery as Promised __________________ Lower Price __________________________ Slide 32 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 32 Physiological Measure of Attitude Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. Supervisors Name +3 +2 +1 Supportive -2 -3 Slide 33 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 33 Physiological Measure of Attitude n A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum. 3 2 1 Very Good Poor Slide 34 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 34 Physiological Measure of Attitude The behavioral differential instrument has been developed for measuring the behavioral intentions of subjects towards any object or category of objects. A description of the object to be judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjects indicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on a series of scales. For example: A 25-year old woman sales representative Would ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not Ask this person for advice. Slide 35 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 35 Physiological Measure of Attitude In paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer. Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2). If the number of comparisons is too great, respondents may fatigue and no longer carefully discriminate among them. Slide 36 Business Research Methods EMBA-1 36 See You Next Week