Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

of 707 /707
THE ኇNJ UPANIṢHAD by SWAMI KRISHNANANDA The Divine Life Society Sivananda Ashram, Rishikesh, India Website:

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

UPANIHAD Website: swami-krishnananda.orgABOUT THIS EDITIONCONTENTSFirst Bra hman a: The Universe as a Sacrificial Horse................ 36 Second Bra hman a: The Creation of the Universe ....................... 43 Third Bra hman a: The Superiority of the Vital Force Fourth Bra hman a: Creation from the Universal Self ............. 114 Fifth Bra hman a: Prajpatis Production of the World, Fourth Bra hman a: The Conversation of Yajnavalkya Fifth Bra hman a: Madhu-Vidya: The Honey Doctrine ............ 219 Sixth Bra hman a: The Line of Teachers and Pupils ................. 234 First Bra hman a: Sacrificial Worship and Its Rewards .......... 235 Second Bra hman a: The Man in Bondage and Third Bra hman a: The Resort of the Performers of Fourth Bra hman a: The Unknowability of Brahman .............. 267 Fifth Bra hman a: Renunciation, the Way to Sixth Bra hman a: Brahman, the Universal Ground .................. 274 Seventh Bra hman a: The Nature of the Inner Controller...... 278 Eighth Bra hman a: The Unqualified Brahman ........................... 290 Ninth Bra hman a: Many Gods and One Brahman ..................... 302 First Bra hman a: Inadequate Definitions of Brahman ........... 344 Second Bra hman a: Concerning the Soul ...................................... 361 Third Bra hman a: The Light of Man is the Self ........................... 373 Fourth Bra hman a:The Soul of the Unrealised After Death 433 Fifth Bra hman a: The Supreme Self and the Supreme Love 489 First Bra hman a: Brahman the Inexhaustible ............................ 491 Second Bra hman a: The Three Principal Virtues ..................... 497 Third Bra hman a: Brahman as the Heart ..................................... 505 Fourth Bra hman a: Brahman as the True or the Real ............ 508 Fifth Bra hman a: The Real Explained ............................................. 512 Sixth Bra hman a: The Divine Person ............................................. 527 Seventh Bra hman a: Brahman as Lightning ................................ 530 Eighth Bra hman a: The Veda Symbolised as a Cow ................. 532 Ninth Bra hman a: The Universal Fire ............................................. 535 Tenth Bra hman a: The Course After Death .................................. 537 Eleventh Bra hman a: The Supreme Austerities ........................ 544 Twelfth Bra hman a: The Via Media of Attitude ......................... 547 Thirteenth Bra hman a: Meditation on the Life-Breath .......... 550 Fourteenth Bra hman a: The Sacred Gyatr Prayer ................ 553 Fifteenth Bra hman a: Prayer to the Sun by a Dying Person 563 Bra hman a (continued)Sixth Bra hman a: The Threefold Character of the Universe 608 First Bra hman a: A Progressive Devinition of Brahman ...... 614 Second Bra hman a: The Vital Force Embodied in a Person 642 Third Bra hman a: The Two Forms of Reality ............................. 651:INVOCATORY PRAYERm pram adah, pram idam, prt pram udacyate; prasya pram dya pram evvasisyate. m ntih! ntih! ntih! PREFACEThe Bhada ran yaka Upanihad, or the great forest of life. The word Upanihad is supposed to connote a secret Upanihad is a record of the unfolding of the mystery that The subject of the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad rises into a Chapter of the Bhagavadgt, which blossoms gradually Bhada ran yaka Upanihad new visions through its different Upanihad till the Fifth Section of the First Chapter. Then, the of this Upanihad, though very interesting and even that this part of the Upanihad is not going to fit into the importance of the Pra n a and the functions of the different Panchgni-Vidy, which occurs also in the Chhndogya Upanihad. Since an entirely new publication, known as Vaihvnara-Vidy, expounded by the author, includes this up side by side with any standard edition of the Upanihad, INTRODUCTIONprinciple? We have in the Dharma-stras, or the law codes Smnya-Dharma and the Vis es ha-Dharma. Dharma means a And it is Smnya or Vis es ha, i.e., general as well as principle of life upon every individual is called Smnya-from one class to another class etc. is the Vis es ha-Dharma, recorded in the Vedas and Upanihads, and masters and given to us today in the form of what we call the Veda-Ri, The Veda-stra is classified into the exoteric and the Samhitas, the Bra hman as, the and the Upanihads. Bra hman as. So there are two further developments in the religious path of the Veda, known as the Bra hman as and the known as the Upanihads; and the Upanihads represent the from the body of wisdom Samhita, Bra hman a and The seers of the Upanihads were bent upon entering experienced. So, in a way, we may say that the Upanihad Upanihads. It is a very strange word, Upanihad, which is social regulations. Hence the Upanihad wisdom was kept The Upanihads, therefore, are mystical revelations, U pa ni hadthat is the literal meaning of the term, Upanihad. Sit near the one-ment of being. This is the peculiarity of Upanihad the Upanihad wisdom. It is a conversation between soul and students in a College. That is the speciality of the Upanihad Hence, the Upanihads were kept as greatly guarded secrets. The texts, known as the Upanihads, are spread out section of the Veda has its own Upanihad or Upanihads. We discussed aboutthe Bhada ran yaka Upanihadthe great everything there, as one finds in a forest. This Upanihad, it can be a sword in the hands of a child. So is this Upanihad merely a word that is spoken. Such is this Upanihad, the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad. This Upanihad, the Bhada ran yaka, the Purus ha-Skta. Some others have thought that it is an exposition of the principles of the Isavasya Upanihad. It may the inner significance of the Purus ha-Skta and, perhaps, also, of the Nsadya-Skta, where the Cosmic Person is The Upanihad begins with a startling exposition of the to mention to you, the method of the Upanihad is secret, the section known as the Bra hman as. The the contemplated side of the Bra hman as, and tell us that a logical limit in the Upanihads. Upanihads where the principle of being is expounded as Upanihads, expounding the character of being as one can understand a Upanihad unless one understands sense. This is called Samsra, the aberration of consciousness life; and this is the purpose of Upanihad. The difficulty of superpsychic technique known as Upanihadic The beginning of the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad is, thus, a sacrifice as advocated in the Bra hman as of the Vedas: What human action is not understood. The Upanihad is a of a variegated nature. The ritual of the Bra hman as is contemplated in the Upanihads. The Vedic sacrifice, or, for the Upanihad drives our minds. This departure is to be for us to understand; and the Upanihad explains it to bring The Upanihads are embodiments of different types of Bhada ran yaka Upanihad. The beginning of the Upanihad described in the Bra hman as, known as Avamedha Yaja. It enjoyment, etc., but, the Upanihad tells us that the proper Bra hman as, which is only symbolic, and there should be a external action of the Bra hman as. The sacrifice known as the Avamedha signifies the consecration of a horse in a large world and heavenly exaltation hereafter. The Upanihad The Upanihad promises us a freedom which is above the merely in this life. In fact, the Upanihad assures us that pleasure. This is what the Upanihads teach us; that is what the Bhada ran yaka contemplates in vast detail. The knowledge proclaimed in the Upanihad is a science sense of the science of the soul, the Upanihad is also called tma-Vidy or Adhytma-Vidy. It is different from other Vidys or learnings like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, sense, the perceived world. Adhytma-Vidy, or the science of the whole cosmos. Towards this end, the Upanihad takes important lesson we learn from the Upanihad. We do not whole matter, towards which the Upanihad is to take us. The Upanihad, to reiterate, is the science of the Self, spirit and removal of sorrow, utterly. The Adhytma-Vidy not a kind of Vidy, just one of the branches of learning, but The Bhada ran yaka Upanihad, particularly, attempts to study in the Upanihad, for the purpose of bringing to our This vicious circle of suffering is Samsra, the sorrow of The knowledge that is of the Upanihad is thus characteristic difference of the Upanihadic wisdom, the Adhytma-Vidy. It is not a knowledge that one acquires knowledge of Reality, Satta-Smnya, as it is sometimes knowledge announced in the Upanihad. It is not knowledge SatchidanndaExistence-Consciousness-Bliss. It is a individual form. The nature of Satchidannda about which are aware areareknowledge that the Upanihad promises to give us. It is, thus, something unique. Towards this end the Upanihad, the Bhada ran yaka girds up its loins. Avamedha Sacrifice by identifying the consecrated horse Upanihad, in its First Chapter, is very grand and Purus ha-Skta of the Veda, where the Cosmic Sacrifice, the Upanis had, and this is the mistake that we makethe Then we have, as the Upanihad proceeds, the main content of the Upanihad is in the First, the Third and higher meditations. The central portion of the Upanihad is the leadership of Sage Yjavalkya, touch upon almost every finally. This is the system followed in this Upanihad, spiritual field. This is the methodology of the Upanihad, the Bhada ran yaka particularly, in the central portion; and it conversation between Yjavalkya and his consort Maitrey, known as the Maitrey-Vidy, popularly, where a staggering discourses of Yjavalkya are incomparable in literary developed in the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad. We shall take up m pram adah, pram idam, prt pram udacyate; prasya pram dya pram evvasisyate:is recited at the beginning of this Upanis had. It is also Mantra, this chant, occurs in the Upanihad itself, a very reductio ad absurdumpramadah, pramidam:m ntih! ntih! ntihproblem is known as Tpatraya. If there is a heavy flood, or catastrophe is referred to as supernatural dhidaivika-Tpa. dhibhautika-Tpa. When troubles come from inside, such as by the name, dhytmika-Tpa. They merely appear to be the individual. May the Vidy, the Wisdom of the Upanihad The Upanihad proper begins with the contemplation of the sacrifice, Avamedha. The Veda, in the hymn called the Puruha-Skta, contemplates the Universe as a vast Sacrifice Original Sacrifice. The Purus ha, the Supreme Being, became of the Vednta, a distinction is drawn between this Universal between Brahman and shvara, spoken of in this philosophy. The Cosmic Sacrifice of the Puruha-Skta is an interpreted as a magnificent ritual. The Bra hman as of the Upanihads, and here it is that every kind of action is Consciousness. The Puruha-Skta tells us that God became puruha evedam sarvamYajenayajam-ayajanta devhin the Bhagavadgt, when it says that the Absolute is the (Brahmrpaam brahma havih, brahmgnau brahma hutam, brahmaiva tna gantavyam brahmakarma samdhina).which was originally initiated in the Puruha-Skta, as the with the sacrifice of what we are. This is the Jna-Yaja, or the knowledge-sacrifice that is spoken of in the Bhagavadgt and such other scriptures. The Puruha-Skta is, therefore, a contemplation of a Jna-Yaja as if performed by God the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad, where the Avamedha The Ava, or the horse, consecrated in the sacrifice, is identified with Prajpati, or the Creator of the Universe, the Virt or the Hirayagarbha of the later Vednta. And in the Upanihad, the details of the parts of the horse are identified Act, and the horse of the Avamedha Sacrifice is the Prajpati there is an externalisation of the Idea of Prajpati, as a Prajpati, the All-Being, the Creator, so that the Upsana (worship) becomes a Self-contemplation, Adhytma-Vidy, The Upanihad takes us from ritualistic concepts to beings; which the Upanihad would describe as Styasya The Upanihads do not regard anything as absolutely Upanihad have a strange way of envisaging things. The True Satyameva jayatenotnotUpanihad gospel, and it sees perfection everywhere. The entire process of Upanihad wisdom. CHAPTER IFIRST BRHMAA THE UNIVERSE AS A SACRIFICIAL HORSEThe commencement of the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad is a Upanihad, is ritualistic as it is characteristic of the Bra hman as in the Vedas, and this technique is supposed to is the horse of the Avamedha Sacrifice, which is the object of the items in the Avamedha Yaja, and it becomes a part of an external act, in the Upanihad it becomes a piece of Upanis hadto convert every act into a mode of Subject. This is the aim of the Upanihad finally; and for this here, in this Bhada ran yaka Upanihad, at its beginning, the 1. aum! u v avasya medhyasya ira, sryas caku, vta pra, vyttam agnir vaisvnara; savatsara tmvasya medhyasya, dyau pham, antarikam udaram, pthiv pjasyam, dia prve, avntaradia prava, tavgni, mss crdhams ca parvi, ahortri pratih, nakatrny asthni, nabho msni; vadhya sikat, sindhavo gud, yakc ca klomna ca parvat, oadhaya ca vanaspataya ca lomni, udyan prvrdha nimloca jaghanrdha, yad vijmbhate tad vidyotate, yad vidhnute tat stanayati, yan mehati tad varati; vg evsya vk. style of the Brhmaa portion of the Vedas. U v avasya medhyasya ira:technique adopted, which is known as the Nysa methodthe placement. Nysa means placement. The parts of the one. Such a Nysa is done here. The head of the sacrificial The Cosmic Wind, the Air that pervades, is the Pra n a within. We should identify the Pra n a within the horse with The mouth is the Agn Vaivnara. In some Upanihads, description where we are told that from the Cosmic Virt, identified with the cosmic fire which is Vaivnara. Vaivnara is a word which has two or three meanings. It is a Cosmic Being. Vaiva-Nara means the Cosmic-Man, and the derivative of this word is Vaivnara. The Vaivnara is the the mouth is to be identified with the Vaivnara, the Savatsara, or the year, is constituted of various seasons, the purpose of the Upanihad is to bring out the psychological Avamedha Sacrifice becomes an object of contemplation, 2. ahar v avam purastn mahim nvajyata. tasya prve samudre yoni, rtrir enam pacn mahim nvajyata, tasypare samudre yoni, etau v avam mahimnv abhita sambabhvatu hayo bhtv devn avahat, vj gandharvn, arvsurn, avo manuyn; samudra evsya bandhu, samudro yoni. Again, this is a ritualistic peculiarity of the Brhmaa, concerned with the Avamedha Sacrifice. Mahim is a term be compared, says the Upanis had, to the golden cup that is And the commentators, especially Achrya ankara, and others, tell us that the horse mentioned here is the Prajpati, respect of the ritual of the Avamedha Sacrifice. demi-gods, above the earth, it is called Vj, a peculiar name Ava, when it becomes the vehicle of human beings. The commentator, Achrya ankara tells us the ocean means the Samudra evsya bandhu, samudro yoni. SECOND BRHMAA THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSENow follow some very difficult symbols of the Upanihad. commencing from the Brhmaa, or the section of the Upanihad that we are to study now. 1. naiveha kicangra st, mtyunaivedam vtam st, aanyay, aany hi mtyu; tan manokuruta tmanv sym iti. sorcann acarat, tasyrcata. pojyanta, arcate vai me kam abhd iti; tad evrkasya arkatvam; ka ha v asmai bhavati, ya evam etad arkasya arkatva veda. there is this very same point reflected in the Nsadya Skta, Naiveha kicangra st: that anything was there. Aanyay is the hunger of the described in the Purnas, and in the Epics, as the This peculiarity, Vieshata, which characterises the called the akti in certain philosophies, the force, energy, that call it Mya, merely because they cannot understand what it is called Mtyu (death principle), that which destroys the aanyay hi mtyu?This struggle is Samsra, right from the original Creator, Brahma, down to a blade of grass. This Aanyay, the our value in quality. However, the Upanihad here mentions, Upanihad, or the Absolute of philosophy, is the assertion of for it. shvara is the word we use in the language of the Vednta. Such words do not occur in the Upanihads. They are all to be found in the later Vednta, but they are assumed In the Skhya and the Vednta cosmological Upanihads, it is better to understand the evolutionary principles as initiated in the Skhya and the Vednta. The Skhya tells us that there was an original condition where Prakiti in the Skhya language. Those of us who have studied the Skhya philosophy will know what is Prakiti, and how evolutes proceed, come out, from this Prakiti. Prakiti is only a Sanskrit term for the matrix of all things, the tan mano kuratathe Cosmic Mind. In the Skhya, we call it Mahat; and in the Vednta, we call it Hirayagarbha. This cosmic undeveloped state is sometimes called shvara. Now, shvara is not Sahasramusamaprabhm. How can we call it darkness? But, the Hirayagarbha principle of the Vednta, coming from the shvara principle, or Mahat coming from Prakiti. Then, there is the Ahamkra proceeding from Mahat, the Self-sense of the cosmos. This is how the Skhya would describe the Prakiti. Then, there is the distinction between the subject universe is constituted of the Tanmtrasabda, Spara, Rpa, Rasa, Gandha, which become concretised by a process individuals with the five KohasAnnamaya, Prnamaya, Manomaya, Vijnamaya and nandamaya. These Kohas are called the five Kohas. And within these Kohas we have the Pras, the senses of perception and action, and the mind, So, this is how the Skhya would describe the process of Vednta also, with only a distinction in definition. Instead of the terms; Prakiti, Mahat, Ahamkra, we have the terms; shvara, Hirayagarbha, Virt. described here in this Brhmaa, which says that originally Cosmic Mind, Hirayagarbha. Upanihad, very hard, indeed, to understand, conveys a This Upanis had, in this one single sentence, tells us what Mityu. The death of something becomes the birth of says this Upanis had, by a strange phenomenon that should described here as Mityu. And Mityu, here, does not mean desire. Achrya ankara, and such other thinkers, tell us that mentioned, also, in this Upanihad. The cosmic waters, thinkers like Achrya ankara. We find it in the Brahma-Stras, especially, mentioned in a very concise form. Perhaps, this doctrine is based on the Upanihads, which are more Katha Upanihad as to what happens in creation. There is a Mityu, or destruction, or death, here. Well, it is destruction tmanv sym iti.The Cosmic Mind, Hirayagarbha, as we call it in the Vednta, is the Cosmic I-Am. It is Self-Consciousness, Pure even of the Hirayagarbha. We are much less than that. We are far down below the condition of Hirayagarbha and Virt, for reasons we shall see shortly. For the time being, it is There was a destruction, a Mityu, a complete abolition of Reality, which is what the Skhya calls Prakiti, the Vedntins call Maya, Mula-Prakiti, etc., the Potential Being, Cosmic Ahamkra. The Vednta calls them Hirayagarbha and Virt. Sorcann acarat, tasyrcata. pojyanta, arcate vai me kam abhd iti; tad evrkasya arkatvam; ka ha v asmai bhavati, ya evam etad arkasya arkatva veda.shvara; we call Hirayagarbha; we call Virt, in the various became the energy of the universe. It became Vaivnara. Hirayagarbha and Virt are potential diversities, no doubt, place yet. There is no sorrow in Virt, Hirayagarbha and shvara, though there is a potency for diversity. The reason is connectedness of things in Virt and above, and this 2. po v arka. tad yad ap ara st, tat samahanyata, s pithivy abhavat, tasym armyat. tasya rntasya taptasya tejo raso niravartatgni. S pithivy abhavat:passage in a text of the Vednta, known as Panchadai, written by Sage Vidyraya, who describes this in one Sloka: Iksnadi-pravent htirena kalpit. Jgraddi-vimokhantah samsro jivkalpita. Upanihad, and such other passages are given their meaning in this verse of the Panchadai. From the Cosmic Will down to Divine Immanence, it is shvaras creation. From walking till liberation, it is the individuals creation. shvaras creation process of Mokha, or liberation, is not Gods creation, because God has no Mokha. He is always in the state of Mokha only. The process of bondage and liberation, the to the point of the Virt manifestation. Sorrow starts after responsibility of the Jva, the individual, not of shvara. of Virt. Tejo raso niravartatgni:Vaivnara or Virt. Then what happens? We are slowly to division of the Virt into the Tripartite Being, known in technical language as Adhytma (subject), Adhibhta thing as Adhytma, Adhibhta, Adhidaiva in the Virt. All the 3. sa tredhtmna vyakuruta, ditya ttyam, vyu ttyam, sa ea pras tredh vihita. tasya prc dik ira, asau csau cairmau; ath asya pratc dik puccham, asau csau ca sakthyau; daki codc ca prve, dyau pham, antarikam udaram, iyam ura, sa eopsu pratihita, yatra kva caiti tad eva pratitihaty eva vidvn. ditya ttyam, vyu ttyam, sa ea pras tredh vihita: Here Pra n a means the Cosmic Pra n a, Hirayagarbha, or we may say, Virt. He assumed a threefold (Adhibhta) and the subjective (Adhytma). Prior to this, This Cosmic Pra n a, Hirayagarbha, or Virt, assumed a threefold aspectAdhibhautika, Adhytmika and Here again the Upanihad brings us back, by a Simhvalokana, as it were, a retrospective look, to the unity that of the horse in the Avamedha Sacrifice, and also in Avamedha Sacrifice, viz. the shape of a bird. The sacrificial of a bird, or of this Avamedha Sacrificial horse; of this, the cosmic condition. This Virt description is to be found in the sacrificial diagrams of the Avamedha Sacrifice, as also in constructed in the shape of the Virt. The Holy of Holies inside is the head of the Virt, which is represented by a to the nandamaya Koha (causal sheath) which is dark, but illumined by the tman within, and encompassed by seven to the five Kohas or vestures of the bodyAnnamaya, Pramaya, Manomaya, Vijnamaya, nandamayathe body of the Virt, you have to offer yourself first; otherwise, no entry is possible. You have to pay a fee to the Virt before Avamedha Sacrifice. That pattern is described here in its 4. sokmayata dvityo ma tm jyeteti, sa manas vcam mithuna samabhavad aany mtyu, tad yad reta st, sa savatsaro bhavat; na ha pur tata savatsara sa. tam etvanta klam abhibha. yvn savatsara, tam etvata, klasya parastd asjata; ta jtam abhivydadt, sa bh akarot saiva vg abhavat. transparently present in this creation. The Universal tman which an ordinary Jva, or individual, is conscious of an organically one. This relation is called ariri-arira-Bhva, philosophy of the Vednta. These three selfs are the three Mukhya-tman, the Mithya-tman and the Gauna-tman, in Sanskrit. The Mukhya-tman is the primary Self, which is the Absolute Self. That is called the Mukhya-tman. There is also the Gauna-tman, or the secondary self which is actions. This body also is an tman for us. We love it Self. So it is called the Mithya-tman. Thus, the threefold distinction of the tman is made in this mannerthe Mukhya-tman, the Gauna-tman, the Mithya-tmanthe is, perhaps, the meaning of this passage of the Upanihad. the Word was God. Something like this is what the Upanihad that Prajpati, the Creator, conceived the whole cosmos in the pattern of Om, or the Praava. The Praava, or Omkra, Om. Eka eva pur vedah praavah sarva-vngmayah, says Yajur, Sman and Atharva. They were classifications made later on by Sage Veda-Vysa. Om is supposed to be a Prajpati, got united with this Word, which means to say, are told that Praava splits itself into the VyhitisBhh, supposed to contain the inner content of the Praava. And themselves into the three Pdas, or the quarters of the Gyatri Mantra which is supposed to be expounded in a greater detail in the three sections of the Puruha-Skta. These three parts of the Puruha-Skta become the three VedasRik, Yajur and Sman, and in all their multiplications. Sa manas vcam mithuna samabhavad aany mtyu:Here the word aany mtyu is repeated once again in Savatsara, the time-cycle. Savatsara is the principle of the Na ha pur tata savatsara sa: or cosmological descriptions given in the Puras, etc. tell us Virt assumes a complete Form, and time which has not yet control of things. In Virt, time is controlled by the consciousness of Virt, but subsequently time becomes the as Mityu, was not satisfied with creation up to the point of Virt, and wanted to engulf Virt itself in its bosom, so that creation would end with Virt; but, it did not end with Virt. manifestation of Virt. The One has to become the many, further down. Well, the Virt is the many, no doubt; manifold expression is there in this Body of the Virt; everything can wanted to swallow the Virt itself in its all-consuming mouth, the Virt resented, as it were. It is symbolic, of course; not manifestation of Virt. It became more and more violent as it The Virt resented the onrush of the urge for creation, which should end with Virt. The Virt manifested Himself further down, and his resentment is the Vc, which means to say, the Creative Force; and all that Omkra, or Praava, symbolises. 5. sa aikata: yadi v imam abhimasye, kanyonna kariya iti: sa tay vc tentmaneda sarvam asjata yad ida ki ca, co yaji smni chandsi yajn praj pan. sa yad yad evsjata, tad tad attum adhriyata; sarva v attti tad aditer adititvam, sarvasyaitasytt bhavati, sarvam asynnam bhavati, ya evam etad aditer adititva veda. as it were: Why should I swallow this Virt and end creation Virt, so that multiplicity should exceed, the multiplicity as is available in Virt. There should be real multiplicity, not apparent multiplicity as in Virt. So the rush for creative Virt takes place into the Adhytma, the Adhibhta and the three, and the three become many. So, the Virt did not Sman, tharva. Yajn praj pan:Sa yad yad evsjata, tad tad attum adhriyata:grasps them in a variegated manner, right from the Virt the case of Virt, they are both identical; the object and The desire of every individual is to become the Virt. This become everything, says the Upanihad, which is a great Upanis had to everyoneKnowing is Being6. sokmayata, bhyas yajena bhyo yajeyeti; sormyat, sa tapotapyata: tasya rntasya taptasya yao vryam udakrmat. pr vai yao vryam; tat pretkrnteu arra vayitum adhriyata, tasya arra eva mana st. Prakiti, and thus the universe assumed life, as if it is individual case, the Cosmic Act is described in the Upanis had 7. sokmayata, medhyam ma ida syt, tmanvy anena sym iti; tatova samabhavat, yad avat, tan medhyam abhd iti tad evva-medhasyva-medhatvam; ea ha v ava-medha veda, ya enam eva veda. tam anavarudhyaivmanyata; ta savatsarasya parastd tmana labhata: pan devatbhya pratyauhat. tasmt sarva-devatya prokitam prjpatyam labhante; ea ha v ava-medho ya ea tapati: tasya savatsara tm, ayam agnir arka, tasyeme lok tmna; tv etv arkvamedhau. so punar ekaiva devat bhavati, mtyur eva; apa punar-mtyu jayati, nainam mtyurm pnoti, mtyur asytm bhavati, ets devatnm eko bhavati. Idam medhyam syt, tmanvy anena sym iti:the moment life enters into it. This is the Ava; this is the horse of the Avamedha Sacrifice, says the Upanihad, again, to go back to the great symbology of the Avamedha Sacrifice. The Ava is very holy, highly sanctified. It is sanctified for the purpose of the Avamedha Yaja, and in Tatova samabhavat, yad avat, tan medhyam abhd iti tad evva-medhasyva medhatvam:Avamedha Sacrifice is philosophically and spiritually Ea ha v ava-medha veda:Avamedha Sacrifice, Sacrifice, knows God also; that is, one Ea ha v ava-medha veda, ya enam eva veda:the Avamedha, knowing this horse, knowing this universe, is Avamedha Sacrifice. Here, the Second Brhmaa of the Upanihad concludes become the Self of Mityu, or Death? We have to become one activity can become the tman, provided the tman is felt to this Avamedha Sacrifice, the beginning and the ending of the process of the Avamedha, how the horse came about, which process of the Creative Will, he becomes the tman of the Upanis had. THIRD BRHMAA THE SUPERIORITY OF THE VITAL FORCEAMONG ALL FUNCTIONSdemons, which we hear of in the Epics and the Puras and also in the Sixteenth Chapter of the Bhagavadgt, entitled the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad, by way of an allegorical children of Prajpati, a conflict between the elders and the 1. dvay ha prjpaty, dev csur ca. tata knyas eva dev, jyyas asur, ta eu lokev aspardhanta, te ha dev cu, hantsurn yaja udgthentyaymeti. 2. te ha vcam cu, tva na udgya iti, tatheti: tebhyo vg udagyat. yo vci bhogas ta devebhya gyat. yat kalya vadati tad tmane; te vidur, anena vai na udgtrtyeya ntti tam abhidrutya ppmanvidhyan, sa ya sa ppm yad evedam apratirpa vadati, sa eva sa ppm. 3. atha ha pram cu, tva na udgya iti, tatheti: tebhya pra udagyat. ya pre bhogas ta devebhya gyat, yat kalya jighrati tad tmane, te vidur anena vai naudgtr tyeyantti. tam abhidrutya ppmanvidhyan, sa ya sa ppm yad evedam apratirpa jighrati sa eva sa ppm. 4. atha ha cakur cu, tva na udgya iti tatheti: tebhya cakur udagyat. ya cakui bhogas ta devebhya gyat, yat kalya payati tad tmane; te vidur anena vai na udgtrtyeyantti. tam abhidrutya ppmanvidhyan, sa ya sa ppm yad evedam apratirpam payati, sa eva sa ppm. 5. atha ha rotram cu, tva na udgya iti, tatheti: tebhya rotram udagyat. yah rotre bhogas ta devebhya gyat, yat kalya oti tad tmane; te vidur anena vai na udgtrtyeyantti. tam abhidrutya ppmanvidhyan; sa ya sa ppm yad evedam apratirpa oti, sa eva sa ppm. 6. atha ha mana cu, tva na udgya iti, tatheti: tebhyo mana udagyat. yo manasi bhogas ta devebhya gyat, yat kalya sakalpayati tad tmane; te vidur anena vai na udgtrtyeyantti. tam abhidrutya ppmanvidhyan; sa ya sa ppm yad evedam apratirpa sakalpayati, sa eva sa ppm; evam u khalv et devat ppmabhir upsjan, evam en ppmanvidhyan. 7. atha hemam sanyam pram cu, tva na udgya iti, tatheti: tebhya ea pra udagyat; te vidur anena vai na udgtrtyeyantti. tam abhidrutya papmanvidhyan; sa yath amnam tv loo vidhvaseta, eva haiva vidhvasamn vivaco vineu, tato dev abhavan, parsur; bhavaty tman parsya dvian bhrtvyo bhavati ya eva veda. exponent Achrya ankara tells us that the gods are always material element, but by mere thought, viz., the Udgtha, the weapons, such as Brahmstra, Nryastra, Psupatstra, contemplated to be employed by the Devas, was the Udgtha-Sman, a Mantra of the Sma-Veda which is called the Udgtha. We chant, recite, and generate energy, so that we Srya, of the nose are Avin Kumaras, of the ears are the Dig-Devatas, of the taste principle is Varua, of the touch principle is Vyu, and there are Agn, Indra, Vihnu, Prajpati, Mityu, presiding over the organs of action, the Moon over the ego, and Vihnu over the subconscious and the the chant of the Sman was wrongly recited. The speech principle was asked to chant the Sman, that is the Udgtha. The gods asked the speech: You chant the Veda, the Sman, the Udgtha, and the speech rose up into action and chanted the Sman. The gods were very much pleased that the Sman speech, afflicted the speech with evil, so that the Sman may gods: You will chant the Sman for us. The eye rose up into Then they asked the internal unifying Pra-akti, ultimately: Can you chant the Sman Mantra, Udgtha, for Sman, namely the Pra. The Pra does not belong to any is the Pra, no sense-organ can functionthe eye cannot what is indicated by the word, Pra here. And the Pra n a was requested by the gods: Will you chant the Sman, Udgtha, attacked the Pra, what happened? They could not overcome the Pra. They were thrown back and broken to Upanis had. A little ball of dry earth, if thrown against a hard hit this inner akti the Power, the Pra. Then, there was the Aitareya Upanihad, we have a more clear exposition of Being, Vaivnara, or Virt. The five elements stand in the are not their objects. The mouth of the Virt is supposed to with the Virt Himself, the Fire principle becomes an object Fire principle, as it is not the case in Virt where Speech is Virt are causes, rather than effects. And, in our case, they are no more angels in heaven. We hear in the Puras, original position, as they had in the being of the Virt, if the are obviated by the operation of the Pra. It was the Pra They can never have a unifying capacity. But the Pra is a unifying force. This Pra, here, is represented by Hirayagarbha in the cosmos. So, this section in the Upanis had really deals with Pra-Vidy, or meditation on the Cosmic Pra, Hirayagarbha, for the purpose of which the other divinities. The Pra mentioned here is not merely translate Pra as breath; but it is not just that. It is the Pra in the whole system. Really, the body is not one whole, is due to the Pra n a which is the immediate manifestation of the tm-akti within us. Ultimately, it is the tman which is percentage may be regarded as a manifestation of the tman. The Pra n a-akti is regarded as an immediate expression of tm-akti within us, and correspondingly in the cosmos, we may say, Hirayagarbha is the reflection of the Absolute Thus, this section of the Upanihad is a continuation of section. The Pra n a is the only unifying principle within us, not the sense-organs. The contemplator on the Pra n a the Upanihad tells us. We achieve and get endowed with a contemplator on the Hirayagarbha Pra n a is a powerful In the Chhndogya Upanis had also, we have a very Hirayagarbha Pra n a. There was a simple person who was very poor, but a meditator on the Cosmic Pra n a, Hirayagarbha, and he was begging for food, asking for alms, moving from place to place. One day, he went to a Yajala, a sacrificial ground, where Bra hma n as were performing food; you are refusing food to the Cosmic Pra n a. The very The vibration of the meditator of the Cosmic Pra n a is a individual Pra n a from the Cosmic Pra n a. The Cosmic Pra n a same manner, the Pra n a that is within us is the same as the Cosmic Pra n a called the Stra-tman, or Hirayagarbha. But, our own. We begin to say, my mind, my Pra n a, my limbs, my is broken, the wall that separates us from the Cosmic Pra n a is lifted by a contemplation which is called the Udgtha-Vidy, meditation on the Stra-tman. As long as this art of meditation on the Stra-tman is not learnt, we feel impotent in every respect. The contemplator on the Stra-tman is an all-powerful being. Pra n a. It is a statement on the powers of everything that is within us. The Pra n a is the most forceful principle in the the senses, like the Pra n a, should be placed in their proper described here, in this context of Pra n a-Vidy, is the placing of the mind, the Pra n a and the senses in their proper places. that are within. So, the contemplation of the divinity, Devat-Dhyna, is the attunement of the sense-powers with the of the Virt. Every god is a limb of the Cosmic Virt, and so, place, in its identity with the Virt, the Virt begins to work beings as limbs of the Virt, to regard everyone as a self, Upanis had, also. Yacched v manas prjas tad yacchej jna-tmani jnam tmani mahati niyacchet, tad yacchec chnta-tmani. The principle of the Pra n a was considered by the powers overcoming Mityu, death, evil. This is the moral that we 8. te hocu, kva nu sobhd yo na ittham asakteti, ayam syentar iti, soysya girasa, agn hi rasa. Pratva, is designated Aysya girasa. The word girasa Agnm hi rasa:present in its manifested form as Pra n a, by the power of syentar iti.does not represent the whole of the Pra n a; it has many other we call Pra n a, in ordinary language. But it is only a symbol of a larger reservoir of Pra n a-akti, which is the Cosmic Stra-tman, or Hirayagarbha, the connection with whom at once 9. s v e devat dr nma, dra hy asy mtyu, dra ha v asmn mtyur bhavati ya eva veda. This great principle is Maha-Pra, the Great Power, which is mystically designated in the Upanis had as Dr, a peculiar nickname given to it. What is the meaning of Dr? Dra ha v asmn mtyur bhavati: Mtyu is Dra, or far from this. Therefore, it is called Drdestruction is removed Therefore, it is called Dr, mystically, symbolically, as a Dra ha v asmn mtyur bhavati ya eva veda:nature of this Pra n a will be free from fear. And, as it has been Pra, Stra-tman, for the principle of desire in the senses controlled by the Supreme Virt, or Hirayagarbha. The The contemplation on Hirayagarbha, which is the subject of this discourse in the Upanis had here, is the art of 10. s v e devataits devatnm ppmnam mtyum apahatya, yatrs dim anta, tad gamaycakra, tad s pmano vinyadadht, tasmn na janam iyt, nntam iyt, net ppmnam mtyum anvavynti. is that this Pra, the moment it took up the charge of the this Pra, the evil of the senses was driven out of the corner of a distance. And, the Upanis had tells us not to go to In the Kena Upanihad we are told that even the gods can go the Kena Upanis had, we are instructed that even the gods 11. s v e devataits devatnm ppmnam mtyum apahatya athain mtyum atyavahat. took refuge in the Maha-Pra. The Hirayabargha-Pra n a is Mityu, or death, is like a condiment to this great All-consumer, says the Kaha Upanihad. Death consumes all, but 12. sa vai vcam eva prathamm atyavahat, s yad mtyum atyamucyata, sognir abhavat, soyam agni parea mtyum atikrnto dpyate. 13. atha pram atyavahat, sa yad mtyum atyamucyata, sa vyur abhavat. so'ya vyu parea mtyum atikrnta pavate.14. atha cakur atyavahat, tad yad mtyum atyamucyata, sadityobhavat, sosv ditya parea mtyum atikrntas tapati.15. atha rotram atyavahat, tad yad mtyum atyamucyata, t diobhavan, t im dia parea mtyum atikrnt. Speech, in the Virt, is the highest principle, superior to the far below the principle of Fire, here. Fire (Agn) is the Devat, cause. But in the Virt, it is an effect of the principle of speech. From the mouth of the Virt, Fire came, says the Aitareya Upanis had, and certain other passages in the Bhada ran yaka Upanis had. light of the Upanis had. And this contemplation, this meditation on Hirayagarbha, which is actually the subject of limb, of the Universal Being, who is the Virt, just as the of the Virt. Thus, what happened when the principle of the deity of fire, Agn-Devata, who is the mouth of the Virt, reality in its own pristine glory. And if we read the Puras and Epics, we shall find that whenever the Virt-Purus ha is Fire came out from His mouth. And, in the Upanis had also, Virt, and so on every sense-organ is thus described as mind, became integrated in the body of the Virt, while they disintegrating itself, gets integrated in the Virt and moves 16. atha manotyavahat, tad yad mtyum atyamucyata, sa candram abhavat, sosau candra parea mtyum atikrnto bhti, eva ha v enam e devat mtyum ativahati, ya eva veda. The Divine Pra n a carried the mind, too, beyond death, in the mind of the Virt. Even as the mind and the senses are be freed from the evil of death, says the Upanis had. It is a 17. athtmanenndyam gyat, yadd hi ki cnnam adyate, anenaiva tad adyate, iha pratitihati. Whatever is done in this body is done by the Pra n a. For sense-organs into the organism is done by the Pra n a. It is by the Pra n a that the senses draw food into the system, and it is the Pra n a that digests the food, absorbs it into the organism. If the eyes see anything, it is the Pra that sees. If the nose smells, it is the Pra that smells. If the ears hear, it is the Pra that hears. If anything happens, it is done by the Pra. mutual dependence of the senses and the Pra. The Pra-akti within and the activities without are interconnected, are interconnected in the Body of the Virt. One is dependent demoniacal elements. Then they tell the Pra, Wonderful is 18. te dev abruvan, etvad v ida sarva yad annam, tad tmana gs, anu nosminn anna bhajasveti, te vai mbhisaviateti; tatheti: ta samantam pariyavianta, tasmd yad ananennnam atti, tenaits tpyanti; eva ha v ena sv abhisavianti, bhart svn reha, pura et bhavaty anndodhipati, ya eva veda; ya u haivavida sveu pratipratir bubhati, na haivla bhryebhyo bhavati; atha ya evaitam anubhavati, yo vaitam anu bhryn bubhrati, sa haivla bhryebhyo bhavati. proclaim to the Pra. What did they say? All this food is individuals as we have been upto this time. The Pra said, Pra, the Pra will feed the senses, but if they are connection. If the Pra is satisfied, every sense is satisfied. If Pra in the manner in which the senses connected themselves with the Pra. He becomes the lord of all; he come to him, as everything automatically comes to the Pra, unasked. One who is in union with this Pra is the lord of all what the Upanihad means. If you try to compete, in any 19. soysya girasa, agn hi rasa, pro v agn rasa, pro hi v agn rasa, tasmd yasmt kasmc cgt pra utkrmati, tad eva tat uyati; ea hi v agn rasa. This great master principle in us, which is Pra, is the girasa. Pra is the essence of the limbs of the body, of all the senses, and so he is called girasa. If Pra departs There is no vitality in that part of the body from which Pra is withdrawn. So, life is Pra; Pra is life. 20. ea u eva bhaspati, vg vai bhat tasy ea pati, tasmd u bhaspati. This Pra which is girasa, is also Bihaspati. Why? Speech is Bihati, and the lord of Bihati, or the Pati of Bihati, is Bihaspati. Therefore, Pra is Bihaspati, as it is known as the Bihati, or metre of the sacred Mantra. The Bihati is the longest Mantra in the Veda, and therefore Bihati is regarded as symbolising the principle of speech function of the Pra, was the lord thereof. Pra is, thus, regarded as Bihaspati. 21. ea u eva brahmaas-pati, vg vai brahma, tasy ea pati, tasmd u brahmaas-pati. Pra is also Brahman as-pati. Why? The Vedas are the Brahma. The lord of it is Pra Therefore it is called Bra hman as-pati. A EULOGY OF THE CHANT ON BREATH22. ea u eva sma, vg vai sma, ea s cmaceti, tat smna smatvam; yad veva sama plui, samo maakena, samo ngena, sama ebhis tribhir lokai, samonena sarvea, tasmd veva sma, anute smna syujya salokatm, ya evam etat sma veda. Bihati stands for the g Veda, and Brahma stands for the Yajur-Veda, and the third one is Sma mentioned here. The speech and the Pra are regarded here as S and Ma. The union of them is Sma, the harmony of the system. This equalising Pra, which is the harmonising principle present equally in all beings. This Pra is not only in human It is not the breath that we speak of as the Pra here. It called here, Pra, that is, Hirayagarbha, or Virt, that is In all the Upanihads, we will find a passage ending with ya eva vedathis is the truth made out in all the Upanihads. In the Upanihad is identical with the being of the object that is connected with that knowledge, and therefore the Upanihad ya eva veda. 23. ea u v udgtha; pro v ut, prena hda sarvam uttabdham, vg eva gth, uc ca gth ceti, sa udgtha. This Pra n a is the propeller (Ut) of speech (Gth). Hence, Pra n a is the Udgitha Chant, together with the speech. The 24. taddhpi brahmadatta caikitneyo rjna bhakayann uvca, aya tyasya rj mrdhna viptayatt, yad itoysya girasonyenodagyad iti, vc ca hy eva sa prena codagyad iti. This is a peculiar way of the Upanihad that, whenever it Here is one instance of the glorification of the Pra. There declared in this manner: This Maha-Pra, the Supreme Pra, is the one that chanted the Udgtha; it is the one that the cause of freedom from death, and if yasya ngirasa chanted the Udgtha through any other means, may such a the Upanihad. 25. tasya haitasya smno yah sva veda, bhavati hsya svam; tasya vai svara eva svam; tasmd rtvijyam kariyan vci svaram iccheta; tay vc svara-sampannayrtvijya kuryt; tasmd yaje svaravanta didkanta eva; atho yasya sva bhavati; bhavati hsya svam, ya evam etat smna, sva veda. The Sma Mantra is told here again in the context of the glorification of the Udgtha. One who chants Sma in the manner it was chanted by the Pra for the freedom of the of oneself and, here, in the Sma, the technique of becoming adept in the chanting of the Udgtha, or the Svaram of the Sma, i.e., the intonation of the Mantra, is stated. Emphasis is laid on the method of chanting the Sma, or rather, any recitation, and the power of the Sma depends upon the way itself the glory of the Sma. What is the glory of Sman? well-equipped with this art of properly chanting the Sman is desired in all Sma-Yajas, which are called Soma-Ygas. And the performers of the Sma-Yajas always look for one who has a clear capacity to intonate the Mantras of the Sma, so which are the deities of Sma-Mantras, and all glory comes to So, the glory of the Veda, the glory of the Omkra, Praava which is the Udgtha, the glory of the Pra n a, and the described in concise in this passage of this Brhmaa. 26. tasya haitasya smno ya suvaram veda, bhavati hsya suvaram, tasya vai svara eva suvaram, bhavati hsya suvaram, ya evam etat smna suvara veda. 27. tasya haitasya smno ya pratih veda, prati ha tihati, tasya vai vgeva pratih, vci hi khalv ea etat pra pratihito gyate. anna ity u haika hu. In connection with the meditation on the Sma, and the harmony between the Pra and speech, it was said that the intonation in the chant of the Veda, which is Sma, is very This is the resting place, or establishment, of the Pra. By this, one gets established in the power that is Sma, which is, again, the unity between the Pra and the power of speech, general sense, the harmony between the Pra and all the the meditation on the Sma. One who knows this, obtains a the Pavamn Abhyroha. The Abhyroha, here, means the called Pavamn. 28. athta pavamnnm evbhyroha, sa vai khalu prastot sma prastauti, sa yatra prastuyt, tad etni japet: asato m sad gamaya, tamaso m jyotir gamaya, mtyor mmta gamaya iti, sa yad ha, asato m sad gamaya iti, mtyur v asat, sad amtam, mtyor mmta gamaya, amtam m kurv ity evaitad ha; tamaso m jyotir gamaya iti, mtyur vai tama, jyotir amtam, mtyor m amta gamaya, amta kurv ity evaitad ha; mtyor mmta gamaya iti, ntra tirohitam ivsti. atha yntari stotri, tev tmanenndyam gyet; tasmd u teu vara vta, ya kma, kmayeta, tam, sa ea eva-vid udgttmane v yajamnya v ya kma kmayate ta gyati; taddhaital loka-jid eva, na haiv lokyaty sti, ya evam etat sma veda. The Udgt, known as the presiding intelligence over the chant of the Sma, sings the Abhyroha, the holy and edifying recitations of the Sma, and recites the Mantra repeatedly in Asato m sad gamaya, tamaso m jyotir gamaya, mtyor mmta gamaya. the three Pavamn-Mantras, the purifying chants, and their Brhmaa. These three recitations are supposed to be familiar with this chant, but the Upanis had takes up its discussion in the context of the Sma and the Pra n a Vidy of this Brhmaa, and tells us that these are highly purifying recitations. They are Pavamn-Abhyroha. Asatom sad gamaya:Real, the Noumenon. Here, the Upanihad tells, also, what the are living is the world of death. It is called Mityuloka, the famous analogy given to us in the Vednta scriptures is that there is what is known as Adhysa, or the reading of the Asato m sad gamaya:amaso m jyotir gamaya:Upanis had, that all forms of life are forms of death only. They tamaso m jyotir gamaya.Mtyor mmta gamaya:is simultaneously Sat, Jyotir and AmitamExistence, Light, When the chant is taken up in the Yaja, by the Sma Veda Udgt, he assumes a power and a capacity to bestow when the Udgt, in the Soma Yga, chants these Mantras, the Yajamna, or the one who is responsible for the performance section of the Bhada ran yaka Upanis had, which is concerned with the Pra-Vidy, the methodology of contemplation on the Universal Pra through the individual Pra and the nowthe Pavamn Abhyroha. FOURTH BRHMAA CREATION FROMTHE UNIVERSAL SELFPassing on to the Fourth Brhmaa, we actually go to a sense, the Fourth Section, which is called the Puruhavidha-Brhmaa, is a quintessential teaching, of which everything 1. tmaivedam agra st puruavidha, sonuvkya nnyad tmanopayat, soham asmty agre vyharat; tatoha nmbhavat, tasmd apy etarhy mantrita; aham ayam ity evgra uktv, athnyan nma prabrte yad asya bhavati. sa yat prvosmt sarvasmt sarvn ppmana auat, tasmt puruah; oati ha vai sa tam, yosmt prvo bubhati, ya eva veda. tman alone was, because the tman was inclusive of all Satyasya Satyam, as the Upanihad will tell us. That alone Inasmuch as the tman is the Absolute, and we cannot conceive of a relation of the tman to space, time and cause, the Upanihad uses the word, Puruhavidha, i.e., we have to world, the Supreme Person, Puruhavidha. tman. Upanis had, that even today people refer to themselves as I. This Supreme Person is called the Puruha. Why is He called the Puruha? What is the meaning of the word? Puruha, here, says the Upanis had, means someone who has there was no externality in the One Puruha. The evil of else, therefore it is called the Puruha. And so is the case with ya eva vedalike that, says the Upanihad, assuring us that we can also be like this Puruha, and destroy all evil. The evil of contact can is an injunction to meditation on the Supreme Puruha, the ascent to the state of the Puruha whose manifestations, This section of the Upanihad deals with the story of which is Brahman, Puruha, the Absolute I. The first concept Adhytmika and the Adhidaivika features, mentioned before. incomplete. No single aspect of the Puruha can be regarded Then the Upanihad, in this section, goes on to describe arrangements is described in the Upanihad as a device section of the Upanis had. tman. All achievements in this world are going to be dust Universal Principle, the tman. Where such knowledge is was made with the declaration that, originally, the tman it is called Puruha, or Puruhottama sometimes. 2. sobibhet, tasmd ekk bibheti, sa hyam k cakre, yan mad anyan nsti, kamn nu bibhemti, tata evsya bhaya vyy vyya kasmd hy abheyat, dvityd vai bhaya the Supreme Aloneness of shvara, is the cause of the dissatisfaction. It is only a point that the Upanihad urges actually understand what it finally means, because, as the g-Upanihad, that the Universal Aloneness became a sort of scriptures like the Brahma-Stra tell us that if at all we have Upanis had in a single passage, where it is said that it was Now, the Upanihad proceeds: 3. sa vai naiva reme; tasmd ekk na ramate; sa dvityam aicchat; sa haitvn sa yath str-pumsau samparivaktau; sa imam evtmna dvedhptayat, tata pati ca patn cbhavatm; tasmt idam ardha-bgalam iva sva, iti ha smha yjavalkya; tasmd ayam ka striy pryata eva. t samabhavat, tato manuy ajyanta. milkcurd.not a Parima, or a complete internal transformation of the apparentBut the Upanihad is an authority, and it tells us that It did the subject of the chant in famous hymn of the g-Veda known as the Nsadya-Skta, the hymn of creation. minute part of the entire Body of the Virt began to throb reallyoutsideparexcellencethe Upanis had tell us that the contradiction was, perhaps, species in creation. That is what the Upanihad makes out Yjavalkya, the sage, says, every individual is only a half; everythingeverythingpsychological structures of individuals. Yjavalkya manuy ajyanta4. s heyam k cakre, katha nu mtmna eva janayitv sambhavati, hania tirosnti; s gaur abhavat, abha itaras t sam evbhavat, tato gvo jyanta; vaavetarbhavat, ava-va itara, gardhabhtar gardabha itara, t sam evbhavat, tata eka-apham ajyata; ajetarbhavat, vasta itara, avir itar, mea itara, t sam evbhavat, tatojvayo jyanta; evam eva yad ida ki ca mithunam, -piplikbhya tat sarvam asjata. Now, the Upanihad in this section tells us that all fulfilled in the way in which the Upanihad will describe 5. sovet, aha vva sir asmi, aha hda sarvam askti; tata sir abhavat, sy hsyaitasym bhavati ya eva veda.The process of creation is complicated. The Upanihad, and scriptures like the rimad Bhgavata Mhapura, throw are true. That is, there was a fiat of God, shvara; He Willed to The Upanihad, here, mentions that creation began in a other Upanihads, also. Agn, Indra, Vasu and Phanthese The Puras go into greater detail and tell us that the find in the Upanihad here. A little indication of it is given in first chapter of the Manusmiti, also. The One Being produced an image which is called the Brahmnda, or the Hirayagarbhanda, as Brahmnda. And, this Cosmic Egg split split parts are called, in the Puras, Manu and atrpa, the a further detail in the Upanihad. Cosmic Being, who has been designated as Puruha-vidha, is now said to be the Origin of the Principle of Fire (Agn-tattva) 6. athety abhyamanthat, sa mukhc ca yoner hastbhy cgnim asjata, tasmd etad ubhayam alomakam antarata, alomak hi yonir antarata, tad yad idam ur amu yaja, amu yajety ekaika devam, etasyaiva s visi, ea u hy eva sarve dev. atha yat ki cedam rdram, tad retaso asjata, tad u soma. etvad v ida sarvam anna caivnnda ca, soma evnnam, agnir annda. sai brahmaotisi, yac chreyaso devn asjata: atha yan martya san amtn asjata, tasmd atisti. atisya hsyaitasy bhavati ya eva veda. Upanihad tells us: neither inside the mouth, nor on the palm centres. Even when we conduct the Pra or energy, for the Thus summing up, as it were, the Upanihad says that the Virt Puruha. Whenever people say, worship this deity, as the Upanihad puts it in its own language, are this God presence of this objectAnna and Anndaboth these are Aham annam annam adantam admi, says the Taittirya Upanihad: I am the food, and I am the eater of food. I, who enigmatic statement of the Taittirya Upanihad? All these we call Paramevara, the Supreme Being. Anna (food) and Annda (eater of food)both these are He. Here, Agn-Soma, a combination of two principal in every way, and it is well-conceived. Sukatam (well done), says the Taittirya Upanihad. It is said that God created the portion of its Nsadya Skta. Such is the miraculous, So, my dear friend, says the Upanihad, here you have the Upanihad tells us that every form in this world is an 7. taddheda tarhy avyktam st, tan nma-rpbhym eva vykriyata, asau nma, ayam ida rpa iti, tad idam apy etarhi nma-rpbhym eva vykriyate, asau nma, ayam ida rpa iti. sa ea iha pravia nakhgrebhya yath, kura kuradhne vahita syt, vivam-bharo v vivam-bhara-kulye, ta na payanti. a-ktsno hi sa, prann eva pro nma bhavati, vadan vk, paya caku, van rotram, manvno mana, tny asyaitni karma-nmny eva. sa yota ekaikam upste, na sa veda, aktsno hy eota ekaikena bhavati, tmety evopsta, atra hi ete sarva ekam bhavanti. tad etat padanyam asya sarvasya yad ayam tm, anena hy etat sarva veda, yath ha vai padennuvindet. eva krti loka vindate ya eva veda. It was Avykitaunrevealed, unmanifest, undiversified appel.variety which is twofoldNma-Rpaname and form. Now, the Upanihad tells us, taking us back to its Samsra (worldly involvement) is not actually taking of birth Samsra, or bondage, is not the perception of the world but What we call the vital principle, Pra, is He only operating as the Pra. When He functions as the vital energy, we call Him Pra. When He articulates in a Upanis had makes out that the Supreme Being is not merely wrong notions about the presence of God, the Upanihad tmetyevopsta. It is a little hard for the mind to conceive identical. The Upanis had says that one should adore the Beingness of objects, the Selfhood of thingstmatvaof Atra hi ete sarva ekam bhavanti.8. tad etat preya putrt, preyo vittt, preyonyasmt sarvasmt, antarataram, yad ayam tm. sa yonyam tmana priyam bruvam bryt, priya rotsyatti, varo ha tathaiva syt. tmnam eva priyam upsta, sa ya tmnam eva priyam upste na hsya priyam pramyukam bhavati.body, inner to the Pra, inner to the senses and the mind, forms in spite of the desire for them. Hence, the Upanihad tmanam eva priyam upasta:9. tad hu, yad brahma-vidyay sarvam bhaviyanto manuy manyante, ki u tad brahmvet, yasmt tat sarvam abhavad iti.It is said that people who acquired Brahma-Vidy as their knowledge? What do we mean by Brahma-Vidy? What is the science of the Self, or tma-Vidy? The Upanihad again 10. brahma v idam agra st, tad tmnam evvet, aham brahmsmti: tasmt tat sarvam abhavat, tad yo yo devnm pratyabubhyata, sa eva tad abhavat, tath m, tath manuym. taddhaitat payan ir vma-deva pratipede, aham manur abhava srya ceti, tad idam api etarhi ya eva veda, aham brahmsmti sa ida sarvam bhavati; tasya ha na dev ca nbhty ate, tm hy e sa bhavati. atha yo any devatm upste, anyosau anyo ham asmti, na sa veda; yath paur, evam sa devnm; yath ha vai bahava paavo manuyam bhujyu, evam ekaika puruo devn bhunakti; ekasminn eva pav dyamnepriyam bhavati, ki u bahuu? tasmd em tan na priyam yad etan manuy vidyu. Brahma-Vidy. God knowing Himself is the final aim Brahma-Vidy. in one sense. When God knows Himself, what does He know? That is the Goal of tma-Vidy. What God knows tell us? To this question, which the Upanihad raises, it itself anything other than He could be there. Brahma-Vidy. is the tadtmnam evvetthe Pramt (knower) and the Prameya (known). As they say, there is no Pram (knowing) linking the two together. what the Vednta terminology often designates as Satchidnanda, i.e., Pure Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. thus, becomes the All. This is the essence of Brahma-Vidy, Here is the intention of the Upanis had in making a dhytma-Vidy, or Brahma-Vidy is the science of Divine Knowledge. And the Upanihad tells us that such was He knewonly Himself.answer of the Upanihadtad tmnam evvet. I am theAll:The Upanihad says: be not afraid that only gods are fit to Sa eva tad abhavat, tath m, tatha manuyam: reference is made in the g Veda, Aham manur abhava sryas ca, is a Mantra, the beginning of a Skta, a hymn in the g Veda, and the Upanis had points to that Mantra of the Veda, and says: Rishi Vmadeva had this knowledge, and Divine Status, Vmadeva began to proclaim his experience realise his Cosmic Existence. That is, his Prrabdha was the feelings of his, as mentioned in the g Veda Mantra, sky, felt Vmadeva within the womb. I am not a small baby of this world. I was the sage Kakshvn. I was many things. experience recorded in the Upanihad, with reference to Vmadeva, the great Master. ancient times during the time of Vmadeva. Even this day it Upanihad. If you are not cautious, you may get bound. What Upanihad; that is the difficulty. You have been given a prescribed in this Upanihad, there would be no difficulty, of help us. That is the caution. And so, the Upanis had says; if The Upanihad says: a person who has no knowledge, the Upanis had, these deities do not want you to reach the mentioned in the Epics and the Puras, that when you 11. brahma va idam agra asit, ekam eva; tad eka san na vyabhavat. tac chreyo rpam atyasjata katram, yny etni devatr katri, indro varua somo rudra parjanyo yamo mityur na iti. tasmt katrt para nasti, tasmt brhmaa katriyam adhastd upste rjasye, katra eva tad yao dadhti; sai katrasya yonir yad brahma. tasmd yady api rj paramatm gacchati, brahmaivntata upanirayati svm yonim. ya u ena hinasti, sv sa yonim cchati, sa ppyn bhavati, yath sreysa hisitv. shvara, here we have psychic individuals manifesting themselveswe call them the Jvas. The mind begins to Upanihad. The intention of the Upanihad is to tell us what been called Vara, or characterisations of human society, in The Upanihad gives the rationality behind this social social groups. These forms or classes are called, Brhmaa, Kshatriy, Vaisy, and Sudr. We are told, in the Mahbhrata and certain other scriptures, that during the golden age of creation, Kta-yuga, principle is the Khatra, or the ruling power, which the Upanis had mentions here. The Upanis had tells us that knowledge, which is the endowment of the Brhmaa, was when Treta-Yuga came, as we hear from the Puras. In the Kta-Yuga, no such need was there, but in Treta, the Khatra principle arose. And the Khatriya is adored in the Rajasuya, for instance, as a deity, and even the Brhmaa adores him as a need of human existence. Khatra, or the king, is seated on a throne, on an elevated place, in the Rjsya ceremony, and the Brhmaa sits below him. Where the need for the Khatra,-Dharma is felt, it becomes as important as the Brhmaa-Dharma. But, there is an interdependence of this truthimmediately the Upanihad is careful to add a It is very important to remember, as the Upanihad the Brhmaas wisdom should be the guiding principle of Khatriyas law. The rule of law should be guided by the Yoni, the abode of power. The power of the Khatra is rooted Though the Upanihad tells us the Khatra, or the ruling Rjasya ceremony, or in the coronation ceremony, yet the Brhmaa, and he will not act contrary to the advice that is manifestation of Khatra. The Upanihad admonishes that knowledge and power constructed as necessary features of the creation by shvara. 12. sa naiva vyabhavat, sa viam asjata, yny etni devajtni gaaa khyyante, vasavo rudr dity vivedev maruta iti.13. sa naiva vyabhavat, sa audra varam asjata paam, iya vai p, iya hda sarva puyati yad ida ki ca. ultimate cause that requires to be satiated. The Upanihad, in So now, in this section of the Upanihad, we are told that manifest in a form of variety. So, the Master Will of shvara Sa naiva vyabhavat:14. sa naiva vyabhavat. tat chreyo-rpam atyasjata dharmam; tad etat katrasya katra yad dharma, tasmd dharmd para nsti: atho abalyn balysam asate dharmea, yath rj evam. yo vai sa dharma satya vai tat; tasmt satya vadantam hu, dharma vadatti, dharma v vadantam, satya vadatti, etad hy evaitad ubhaya bhavati. Chreyo-rpam atyasjata:chreyo-rpam atyasjata dharmam. Tad etat katrasya katra: This is the Khatra of the Khatra; this is the Ruler of the rulers. That is called yad dharma.tadetat katrasya katra yad dharma.Tasmd dharmd para nsti: atho abalyn balysam asate:athoabalyn balysam asate dharmea. Yath rj evam. yo vai sa dharma satya vai tat: Upanihad. So, Dharma may be said to be the form of Truth. Satynnsti paro dharma:yo vai sa dharma satya vai tat. Tasmt satya vadantam hu, dharma vadattiDharmam v vadantam, satya vadatti: Etad hy evaitad ubhaya bhavati:15. tad etad brahma katra vi dra. tad agninaiva deveu brahmbhavat, brhmao manuyeu, katriyea katriya, vaiyena vaiyah, sdrea dra; tasmd agnv eva deveu lokam icchante, brhmae manuyeu, etbhy hi rpbhy brahmbhavat. atha yo ha v asml lokt sva lokam adtv praiti, sa enam avidito na bhunakti, yath vedo vnankta anyad v karmktam. yad iha v apy anevavid mahat-puya karma karoti, taddhsyntata kyata evatmnam eva lokam upsta; sa ya tmnam eva lokam upste, na hasya karma kyate, asmdd hy eva tmano yad yat kmayate tat tat sjate. Tad etad brahma katra vi dra. tad agninaiva deveu brahmbhavat, brhmao manuyeu, katriyea katriya, vaiyena vaiya, sdrea dra; tasmd agnv eva deveu lokam icchante, brhmae manuyeu, etbhy hi rpbhy brahmbhavat: brahmbhavat.Atha yo ha v asml lokt sva lokam adtv praiti, sa enam avidito na bhunakti:proclamation of the Upanihad, after having said all this. It is important statement of this Upanihad, that anything that Yath vedo vnankta anyad v karmktam:it is a trouble. Therefore be cautious, says the Upanis had. It is Yad iha v apy anevavid mahat-puya karma karoti, taddhsyntata ksyata eva:mahat-puya karma karoti, taddhsyntata kyata eva. tmnam eva lokam upsta: tmnam eva lokam upsta: Upanihad tries to inculcate and propound. The world that think it to be. It is the tman manifest. It is the Supreme Plan of shvara that is before you in the form of this variety. It Selfhood of the world will also be missed, because shvara, tmnam eva lokamupsta: Na hsya karma kyate:knowledge? It is, as I mentioned in the light of the Upaniad, Asmdd hy eva tmano yad yat kmayate tat tat sjate:Asmdd hy eva tmano yad yat kmayate tat tat sjate:16. atho aya v tm sarvem bhtn loka. sa yaj juhoti yad yajate, tena devn loka. atha yad anubrte, tena ri; atha yat pitbhyo nipti yat prajm icchate, tena pitm; atha yan manuyn vsayate, yad ebhyoana dadti, tena manuym; atha yat paubhyas todaka vindati, tena panm; yad asya gheu vpad vaysy piplikbhya upajvanti, tena te loka; yath ha vai svya lokyriim icchet, eva haiva vide (sarvad) sarvi bhtny ariim icchanti. tad v etad viditam mmsitam. Atho aya v tm sarvem bhtn loka:Carta, you may call it, of the great Upanihad which is the Bhada ran yaka. This tman is all the world, and whatever you expect from this world is an expression of the tman. He the tman than your own mother, and more capable is the tman than your mother is. More resourceful is the tman everything that you are and wish to be is the tman, and Aya v tm sarvem bhtn loka:world is this which the tman embodies? In what way are we to recognise the presence of this tman in all the worlds? tman? That is answered in the following passages. It is not humanly possible to think the tman as It is, in miracle as the Upanihad mentions, of knowing the Self as all tman. So, the Upanis had tells you that you cannot jump off the Upanihad tells us, you try to feel for others first and Sa yaj juhoti yad yajate, tena devn loka:Atha yad anubrte, tena ri:Atha yat pitbhyo nipti yat prajm icchate, tena pitm:will of the forefathers, the Pits, as they are called, the takes various shapes. One of them is what they call Shrddha, That would be called Pit-Yaja. Atha yam manuyn vsayate yad ebhyoana dadti, tena manuym:them their needs. That is called Manuya-Yaja. For instance, with their Being. This is called Manuya-Yaja. Atha yat paubhyas todaka vindati, tena panm:Yad asya gheu vpad vaysy piplikbhya upajvanti, tena te loka: The Upanis had goes further then. You have piplikbhyasingle manifestation which is the form of shvara, and determine the extent of our success in life. The Upanihad merely to humans. Thus it is that the Upanis had makes out coming to us from every side. The Upanihad tells us that we Yath ha vai svya lokyriim icchet, eva haiva vide (sarvad) sarvi bhtny ariim icchanti: sarvabhta-hite-rata.Tad v etad viditam mmsitam:17. tmaivedam agra st, eka eva; sokmayata, jy me syt atha prajyeya; atha vittam me syd, atha karma kurvyeti. etvn vai kma: neccha ca na ato bhyo vindet. tasmd apy etarhy ekk kmayate, jy me syt, atha prajyeya, atha vitta me syd atha karma kurvyeti. sa yvad apy etem ekaikam na prpnoti, a-ktsna eva tvan manyate. tasyo ktsnat: mana evsya tm, vg jy, pra praj, cakur mnua vittam, caku hi tad vindate, rotra daivam, rotrea hi tac chot, tmaivsya karma, tman hi karma karoti. sa ea pkto yaja, pkta pau, pkta purua, pktam ida sarva yad ida ki ca. tad ida sarvam pnoti, ya eva veda. tmaivedam agra st, eka eva; sokmayata, jy me syt atha prajyeya; atha vittam me syd, atha karma kurvyeti. etvn vai kma: neccha ca na ato bhyo vindet. tasmd apy etarhy ekk kmayate, jy me syt, atha prajyeya, athavitta me syd atha karma kurvyeti: Now the Upanihad turns of the urge of the Cosmic Being Himself, as the Upanis had Here, the Upanihad tells us that desires are many. They stated here in the Upanis had, that the one wish, as it were, is Upanihad. Even if you wish, you cannot have more than Sa yvad apy etem ekaikam na prpnoti, a-ktsna eva tvan manyate:a-ktsna eva tvan manyate. Tasyo ktsnat: mana evsya tm, vg jy, pra praj, cakur mnua vittam, caku hi tad vindate, rotra daivam, etc: Now, the Upanihad tells us that by a method of is equivalent to consciousness, and the Pra or the impulse the mind and the speech and the Pra, symbolised by addition to the faculties of mind, speech and Pra, so that rotrea hi tac chot, tmaivsya karma, tman hi karma karoti. sa ea pkto yaja, pkta pau, pkta purua, pktam ida sarva yad ida ki ca. tad ida sarvam pnoti, ya eva veda:speech, Pra, eye and earsuch a person, who has the FIFTH BRHMAA PRAJPATIS PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD,AS FOOD FOR HIMSELFUpanihad, is generally called food. It is a peculiar term used in the Upanihads only. Anna is the word that is used in the Upanihad. Anna means food, or a diet of the senses. So, the principle. Prakiti is the food of Puruha, you may say. Now, these are, the Upanis had answers in the following section. 1. yat saptnnni medhay tapas janayat pit, ekam asya sdhraam, dve devn abhjayat; try tmane kuruta, paubhya eka pryacchat. tasmin sarvam pratihitam, yac ca priti yac ca na. kasmt tni na kyante adyamnni sarvad? yo vaitm akitim veda, sonnam atti pratkena; sa devn apigacchati, sa rjam upajvati. Iti lok. Yat saptnnni medhay tapas janayat pit:There are seven kinds of food, says the Upanis had. The seven Ekam asya sadharanam. Dve devn abhjayat:Try tmanekuruta: Paubhya eka:Tasmin sarvam pratihitam:Yac ca priti yac ca na:Kasmt tni na kiyante adyamnni sarvad? yo vaitm akitim veda, sonnam atti pratkena:not exhausted. Why is it so, is the question of the Upanihad. Sonnam atti pratkena; sa devn apigacchati:Sa rjam upajvati. iti lka: 2. yat saptnnni medhay tapas janayat pit iti medhay hi tapasjanayat pit. ekam asya sdhraam iti. idam evsya tat sdhraam annam, yad idam adyate. sa ya etad upste na sa ppmano vyvartate, mira hy etat. dve devn abhjayat iti, huta ca prahuta ca; tasmd devebhyo juhvati ca pra ca juhvati, atho huh, darapramsv iti; tasmn nei-yjuka syt. paubhya ekam pryacchat iti. tat paya, pato hy evgre manuy ca paava copajvanti. tasmt kumra jta ghta vai vgre pratilehayanti, stana vnudhpayanti: atha vatsam jtam hu, atda iti; tasmin sarva pratihitam yac ca priti yac ca na iti, payasi hda sarvam pratihitam, yac ca priti yac ca na. tad yad idam hu savatsaram payas juhvad apa punarmtyu jayatti, na tath vidyt. yad ahar eva juhoti, tad aha punarmtyum apajayaty eva vidvn; sarva hi devebhyonndyam prayacchati. kasmt tni na kyante adyamnni sarvad iti, puruo v akiti, sa hdam annam puna punar janayate. yo janayate. yo vai tm akiti veda iti, puruo v akiti, sa hdam anna dhiy dhiy janayate karmabhi, yaddhaitan na kuryt kyeta ha. sonnam atti pratkena iti, mukham pratkam, mukhenety etat. sa devn apigacchati, sa rjam upajvati iti praas. Yat saptnnni medhay tapas janayat pit iti medhay hi tapasjanayat pit:of the statements of the Upanihad are difficult to consciousness. This is what the Upanihad tells in this Upanihads that the creation of God is an austerity on the medhay hi tapasjanayat pit. Ekam asya sdhraam iti. idam evsya tat sdhraam annam, yad idam adyate:sa ya etad upste na sa ppmano vyvartate.and the Upanis had tells us that one who commits that Mira hy etat. dve devn abhjayat iti, huta caprahuta ca; tasmd devebhyo juhvati ca pra ca juhvati, atho huh, darapramsv iti:oblations, Darha and Purnmaha, according to ancient oblations offered during Darha and Purnmaha sacrifices Tasmn nei-yjuka syt:sacrifice for selfish purposes, says the Upanis had. May it be a Paubhya ekam pryacchat iti:Tat paya, payo hy evgre manuy ca paava cpajvanti: Tasmt kumra jta ghta vai vgre pratilehayanti, stana vnudhapyanti: atha vatsam jtam hu atda iti:Upanis had, that milk sustains people right from childhood Tasmin sarva pratihitam yac ca priti yac ca na iti, payasi hda sarvam pratihitam, yac ca priti yac ca na. tad yad idam hu savatsaram payas juhvad apa punarmtyu jayatti, na tath vidyt: Upanihad. You cannot become immortal merely by offering immortality of the soul. In certain other Upanihads, such as the Chhndogya, we have more detailed descriptions of this single object of contemplatione.g., the Vaivnara-Vidy So, the Upanihad tells us that immortality is not the fruit Kasmt tni na kyante: Adyamnni sarvad iti, puruo v akiti: Sa hdam annam puna punar janayate:Yo vai tm akiti veda iti, puruo v akiti, sa hdam annam dhiy dhiy janayate karmabhi:sa hdam anna dhiy dhiy janayate karmabhi. Yaddhaitan na kuryt kyeta ha:kyeta ha.Sonnam atti pratkena iti, mukham pratkam, mukhenety etat. sa devn apigacchati, sa rjam upajvati iti praas:meaning which is called the Adhytmika meaning; and it has Upanihad has a threefold meaning. So, I have tried to give Chapter which is known as the Maitrey Brhmaa. This is one of the most important sections in the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad. It may even be regarded as the topmost discussion that we have in the Upanihad, comparable only CHAPTER IIFOURTH BRHMAA THE CONVERSATION OF YAJAVALKYAAND MAITREY ON THE ABSOLUTE SELF the Sage Yjavalkya and his consort Maitrey. 1. maitrey, iti hovca yjavalkya, ud ysyan v are ham asmt sthnd asmi; hanta hanta, te nay ktyyanynta karavti. Maitrey, iti hovca yjavalkya:Yjavalkya speaks to Maitrey: ud ysyan v are ham asmt sthnd asmi; hanta hanta, te nay ktyyanynta karavti.Ktayni before taking to the final stage of life, the life of renunciation. This is the expression of Sage Yjavalkya to his consort Maitrey. Between Maitrey and Ktayni, two wise Maitrey. She queries, You speak of entering the fourth Maitreys question. The intention of Yjavalkya to leave secular property to 2. sa hovca maitrey, yan nu ma iyam, bhago, sarv pthiv vittena pr syt, katha tenmt sym iti. na, iti hovca yjavalkya; yathaivopakaraavat jvitam, tathaiva te jvita syd amtatvasya tu nsti vitteneti. Sa hovca maitrey, yan nu ma iyam, bhago, sarv pthiv vittena pr syt, katha tenmt sym iti: Na, iti hovca yajavalkya:Yjavalkya. You cannot be happy. You will be very Amitatvasya tu nsti vitteneti:3. sa hovca maitrey, yenha nmt sym, kim aha tena kurym, yad eva bhagavn veda tad eva me brhti. Sa hovca maitrey, yenha nmt sym, kim aha tena kurym:Yad eva bhagavn veda tad eva me brhti:Yjavalkya was highly pleased with this query. I never 4. sa hovca yjavalkya, priy bata are na sat priya bhase; ehi, ssva, vykhysymi te; vycakasya tu me nididhysasva iti. Sa hovca yjavalkya, priy bata are na sat priya bhase; ehi, ssva:Vykhysymi te; vycakasya tu me nididhysasva iti: passage, Yjavalkya tells us: 5. sa hovca: na v are patyu kmya pati priyo bhavati, tmanas tu kmya pati priyo bhavati: na v are jyyai kmya jy priy bhavati, tmanas tu kmya jy priy bhavati; na v are ptr kmya putr priy bhavanti, tmanas tu kmya putr priy bhavanti; na v are vittasya kmya vittam priyam bhavati, tmanas tu kmya vittam priyam bhavati; na v are brahmaa kmya brahma priyam bhavati, tmanas tu kmya brahma priyam bhavati; na v are katrasya kmya katram priyam bhavati tmanas tu kmya katram priyam bhavati; na v are lokn kmya lok priy bhavanti, tmanas tu kmya lok priy bhavanti; na v are devn kmya dev priy bhavanti, tmanas tu kmya dev priy bhavanti; na v are bhtn kmya bhtni priyi bhavanti, tmanas tu kmya bhtni priyi bhavanti; na v are sarvasya kmya sarvam priyam bhavati, tmanas tu kmya sarvam priyam bhavati; tm v are draavya rotavyo mantavyo nididhysitavya: maitrey tmano v are daranena ravaena maty vijneneda sarva viditam. Sa hovca: na v are patyu kmya pati priyo bhavati, tmanas tu kmya pati priyo bhavati, etc.:confusion in the mind. This is what the Sage Yjavalkya friend, says Yjavalkya, nobody is dear. No object can be What youlove is only the condition that you imagine to be present in thestate of the possession of the object.Yjavalkya goes on with his exposition to Maitrey: Neither Yjavalkya says, nothing external can give you happiness, na v are sarvasya kmya sarvam priyam bhavati, tmanas tu kmya sarvam priyam bhavati:appears to be desirable. Here, the word tman is to be tmanas tu kmya jy priy bhavati. tm v are draavya rotavyo mantavyo nididhysitavya: O, Maitrey, it is the tman that is to be beheld; it is the tman that is to be known; it is the tman that is to be searched for; it is the tman which is to be heard about; it is the tman which is to be thought in the mind; it is the tman which is to be meditated upon. There is nothing Maitrey tmano v are daranena ravaena maty vijneneda sarva viditam:significance of what this tman is, you have known 6. brahma tam pardd yonyatrtmano brahma veda. katra tam pardd yonyatrtmana katra veda. loks tam pardur yonyatrtmano lokn veda. devs tam pardur yonyatrtmano devn veda. bhtni tam pardur yonyatrtmano bhtni veda. sarva tam pardd yonyatrtmano sarva veda. idam brahma, ida katram, ime lok, ime dev, immi bhtni, ida sarvam, yad ayam tm. Finally the Upanihad says; sarva tam pardd yo nyatrtmano sarva veda:Yo nyatrtmano sarva veda. idam brahma, ida katram, ime lok, ime dev, imni bhtni, ida sarvam, yad ayam tm: So, Maitrey, says Yjavalkya, It is the tman that independent entities. The tman is the one Reality that own being, then the realisation accrues. This tman is allida sarva, yad ayam tm. 7. sa yath dundubher hanyamnasya na bhyn abdn aknuyd grahaya, dundubhe tu grahaena dundubhy-ghtasya v abd ghta. 8. sa yath akhasya dhmyamnasya na bhyn abdn aknuyd grahaya, akhasya tu grahaena akha-dhmasya v abd ghta. 9. sa yath vyai vdyamnyai na bhyn abdn aknuyd grahaya, vyai tu grahaena v-vdaya v abd ghta. By these three illustrations, sage Yjavalkya tells us that To understand this, the great Master Yjavalkya gives us world, is the conclusion of Sage Yjavalkya. The sage Yjavalkya says that the nature of effects something, somethingcosmic conditions. The point made out in the Upanihad, in 10. sa yathrdra-edhgner abhyhitt pthag dhm vinicaranti, eva v aresya mahato bhtasya nisvasitam, etad yad gvedo yajurveda smavedotharvgirasa itihsa puram vidy upaniada lok strny anuvykhynni vykhynni: asyaivaitni sarvi nivasitni. illustrations, and the Upanis had employs here the Sa yathrdra-edhgner abhyhitt pithag dhm vinicaranti:Eva v aresya mahato bhtasya nisvasita:Etad yad gvedo yajurvedasmavedotharvgirasaitihsa puram vidy upaniada,the Itihss, Puras, Vidy, all arts and all branches of Asyaivaitni sarvi nivasitnisubstantiality of that magnificent BeingMahato bhtasya nisvasitam. The breath, as it were, of this eternal, breathless 11. sa yath sarvsm apm samudra ekyanam, eva sarve sparnm tvag ekyanam, eva sarvem sarve gandhn nsike ekyanam, eva sarve rasn jihv ekyanam, eva sarve rp cakur ekyanam, eva sarvem sarve abdn rotram ekyanam, eva sarve sakalpn mana ekyanam, eva sarv vidyn hdayam ekyanam, eva sarv karma hastv ekyanam, eva sarv nandnm upastha ekyanam, eva sarvem sarve visargm pyur ekyanam, eva sarve adhvanm pdav ekyanam, eva sarve vedn vg ekyanam. Sa yath sarvem apm samudra ekyanam:Eva sarve sparnm tvag ekyanam:Eva sarvs rasn jihv ekyanam:Eva sarvs gandhn nsike ekyanam:Eva sarvs rp cakur ekyanam:Eva sarvs abdn rotram ekyanam: Eva sarvs sakalpn mana ekyanam:Eva sarvs vidyn hdayam ekyanam: Eva sarvs karma hastv ekyanam:12. sa yath saindhava-khilya udake prsta udakam evnuvilyeta, na hsya udgrahayeva syt, yato yatas tv dadta lavaam eva, eva v ara idam mahad bhtam anantam apra vijna-ghana eva; etebhyo bhtebhya samutthya, tny evnuvinayati; na pretya sajsti, iti are bravmi, iti hovca yjavalkya. Sa yath saindhava-khilya udake prsta udakam evnuvilyeta:Na hsya udgrahayeva syt, yato yatas tv dadta lavaam eva eva v ara idam mahad bhtam anantam apra:Idam mahad bhtam anantam apra vijna-ghana eva:vijna-ghana eva.Etebhyo bhtebhya samutthya, tny evnuvinayati; na pretya sajsti:the Jva, or a particular finite body. It arises in this form and which is called the Jva. When this consciousness gets na pretya sajsti.Yjavalkya tells Maitreybluntly says Yjavalkya, without commenting on the na pretya sajsti. Iti are bravmi, iti hvca yajavalkya:Maitrey, this I tell you. Try to understand it. 13. sa hovca maitrey, atraiva m bhagavn ammuhat, na pretya sajstti. sa hovca, na va areham moha bravmi, ala v are ida vijnya. Maitrey is surprised: How is it? You are saying that It is understand what I say, tells Yjavalkya to Maitrey. I have So, Yjavalkya tells us: Your notion of knowledge is 14. yatra hi dvaitam iva bhavati, tad itara itara jighrati, tad itara itaram payati, tad itara itaram roti, tad itara itaram abhivadati, tad itara itaram manute, tad itara itara vijnti. yatra tv asya sarvam tmivbht, tat kena ka jighret, tat kena kam payet, tat kena ka uyat, tat kena kam abhivadet, tat kena kam manvta, tat kena ka vijnyt? yenedam sarva vijnti, ta kena vijnyt, vijtram are kena vijnyd iti. Yatra tv asya sarvam tmivbht: therefore it is, O Maitrey, that I said no such thing as Sarvamtmivbht:Tat kena ka jighret, tat kena kam payet, tat kena ka uyat, tat kena kam abhivadet, tat kena kam manvta, tat kena ka vijnyt?Yenedam sarva vijnti, ta kena vijnyt:then as knowing. Therefore, as I told you, Maitrey, it is not vijtram are kena vijnyd iti.Now, this subject is continued later on in the Yjavalkya Kanda of the same Upanihad. It abruptly stops here, and Yad vai tan-na payati, payam vai tan-na payati, etc. Yjavalkya will be speaking to the Yjavalkya in the particular Brhmaa known as the Maitrey rhmaa. aspect of the Bhada ran yaka knowledge called the Madhu-Vidy, which is supposed to be given by Sage Dadhya. FIFTH BRHMAA MADHU-VIDY: THE HONEY DOCTRINE people. And Indra got this knowledge from Sage Dadhya. the Avinisthey are the twin celestial physicianswanted thisthe Madhu-Vidy. So they came and said: Will you teach us Madhu-Vidy? The Guru Dadhya tharvaa Rishi anything. That was a very good idea. Then Sage Dadhya began to speak and the Avinis cut off his head and kept it Immediately the horse started speaking the Madhu-Vidy, imparting the Madhu-Vidy. He went and cut off that head he found on the sages neckthe horses head. Then the Avinis So, this is the interesting story behind the Vidy called Madhu-Vidy. But whatever the story is behind this enunciation of the Vidy, it is a magnificent statement of the Upanihad, where it tells us that everything is organically the Bhada ran yaka Upanihad. No wonder Indra was very 1. iyam pthiv sarve bhtnm madhu, asyai pthivyai sarvi bhtni madhu; ya cyam asym pthivy tejomayomtamaya purua, yas cyam adhytma rras tejomayomtamaya purua, ayam eva sa yoyam tm, idam amtam, idam brahma, ida sarvam. Iyam pthiv sarve bhtnm madhu:Asyai pthivyai sarvi bhtni madhu; ya cyam asym pthivy tejomayomtamaya purua, yas cyam adhytma rras tejomayomtamaya purua: tejomayo mritamayahpurusah. He is called the Puruha because the Purus ha is Universal Body. In either case it is known as the Puruha. It may be the Puruha that is individual when we merely call it the Puruha, otherwise we call it Puruhottamaya cyam sv apsu tejomayomtamaya purua. Ayaeva sa yoyam tm:is what is called Purus ha. The Being that is between the two sa yoyam tm. This is the tman ida sarvam.Brahma, and that is the tman or the Self of all beingsidambrahma, ida sarvam.2. im pa sarve bhtnm madhu, sm ap sarvi bhtni madhu, ya cyam sv apsu tejomayomtamaya purua, ya cyam adhytma raitasas tejomayo mtamaya puruaa; ayam eva sa yoyam tm; idam amtam, idam brahma, ida sarvam. Im pa sarve bhtnm madhu, sm ap sarvi bhtni madhu:sm ap sarvi bhtni madhu, ya cyam:Tejomayomtamaya purua, ya cyam adhytma raitasas:a single Being, the Immortal tman, the Self of all which is, 3. aya agni, sarve bhtnm madhu; asygne sarvi bhtni madhu; ya cyam asminn agnau tejomayomtamaya purua, ya cyam adhytma v-mayas tejomayomtamaya purua, ayam eva sa yoyam tm, idam amtam, idam brahma, ida sarvam. Ay