Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv

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  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv




  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


    Whas in he Bag? 1

    Choosing Your ools . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Exposure 7

    Undersanding Exposure Mah . . . . . 8

    Variables o Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Meering Mehods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Conrolling Exposure: Blending

    Aperure and Shuter Speed . . . . . . . 16

    Exposure Compensaion . . . . . . . . .22

    ips & ricks 24

    Adding Film Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

    Correcing Lens Errors . . . . . . . . . .27

    Sof Edges or Vecor Masks . . . . . . .30

    Ediing Selecions . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

    Creaing Image Effecs wihGradien Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

    Saving and Exporing Images 36

    Major Graphic File Formas . . . . . . . 37

    Raser vs. Vecor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

    Preparing and Saving Images

    or he Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40


    Supplemen Conens

  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


    by Tim Grey

    Whats in the Bag?

  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


    One o he mos exciing and challenging

    aspecs o phoography is ha i enables you o

    employ such a wide variey o ools o creae

    he final image. Tese include he cameras,

    lenses, and accessories ha are used o capure

    he iniial image, as well as compuers and sof-

    ware ools ha help you manage and opimizehe image afer he capure.

    O course, a phoographic image sars wih an

    idea and a phoographic capure, so i makes

    sense o hink abou your equipmen beore

    you se ou o capure images. Ta includes

    boh wha equipmen you will use and how you

    will prepare ha equipmen.

    Each phoographer has a paricular se o ools

    a heir disposal or any given phoo shoo.

    While you migh consider purchasing or rening

    Choosing Your ools

    When you capure a phoographic image, i migh seem like here are a virually

    unlimied number o decisions o make. Wha lens will you use? Wha exposure

    setings? Where will you posiion he camera? How will you rame he subjec?

    Te lis goes on and on.

    addiional iems beore a phoographic oppor-

    uniy, ulimaely youre going o need o

    decide which pieces o equipmen youll bring

    wih you.

    Camera Bodies

    When i comes o he camera body, he deci-

    sion ends o be relaively sraighorward. Mos

    phoographers use one or wo camera bodies,

    and in mos cases you will end o bring all o

    he camera bodies you own. Afer all, i can

    be very helpul o have a backup camera wih

    you should anyhing go wrong. I is also useul

    in cerain siuaions o have wo bodies, wiha differen lens on each, so you can quickly

    swich cameras when you wan a differen lens,

    raher han needing o swich lenses on a single

    camera body.


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    I you have more camera bodies han youd like

    o bring along on a given rip, and hose bodiesare differen models, youll wan o hink abou

    he capabiliies o each camera body relaive o

    he subjecs you expec o phoograph. Some o

    he hings youll wan o hink abou are resolu-

    ion, ocusing speed, and weigh.

    Sensor and image resoluion in digial phoo-

    graphy are generally expressed in megapixels;

    each megapixel equals one million pixels.

    Higher resoluions allow larger phoo prins ,because he number o pixels in any given area

    is larger, meaning he raser is smaller. Only he

    physical pixels o he camera sensor are

    relevan o he qualiy o he prined image;

    resoluions blown up arificially by digial

    zooming or inerpolaion are meaningless.

    LensesI you have a relaively small number o lenses

    you migh consider bringing all o hem. Bu

    in some siuaions you will need o make a

    decision abou which paricular lenses o bring

    along. Here i is criically imporan ha you

    hink abou he subjecs you migh phoograph

    realizing ha someimes i can be difficul o

    anicipae wha opporuniies may arise.

    Focal lengh is he obvious consideraion ha

    probably eners your mind firs. How close will

    you be geting o your subjecs? I you will be

    ar away, do you need a long elephoo lens o

    do he subjec jusice? How wide will be wide

    enough i youll be capuring subjecs up close

    bu sill wan o include surrounding conex?Will prime lenses be adequae, or do you need

    he flexibiliy o a zoom lens?

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    My general approach o lens choice is o firs

    jus pack my sandard walkabou lens , which

    ends o be atached o my camera mos o he

    ime on ypical phoography ouings. For me

    ha is a 24-105mm lens atached o my Canon

    EOS 7D, bu your equipmen and preerences

    may vary. Nex I hink abou how much reach I

    migh need and wha ocal lengh would be

    adequae or ha purpose. Will a lens in he

    range o abou 200mm maximum ocal lengh

    do he rick, or do I need 400mm or beyond?

    Wihin he range o possibiliies or longer lens-

    es, i is imporan o hink abou overall weigh(i here are packing limiaions or i you migh

    be shooing handheld), as well as he wides

    possible aperure (i ocusing perormance or

    deph o field are chie consideraions).

    I hen conemplae he need or a wide-angle

    lens. I don capure wih especially wide-angle

    lenses all ha ofen, bu when I do I really enjoy

    he experience. So i he subjec mater migh

    lend isel o a wide perspecive, I ll hink abou

    a lens wih a shor ocal lengh.


    Once you have your camera and lens choices

    made, youll wan o hink abou addiional

    accessories. I realize ha many phoographers

    would reuse o admi hey ever capure images

    wihou a ripod, bu i you end no o use aripod and need o ravel ligh, perhaps you

    should jus leave he ripod a home. Wihou a

    ripod you won be able o easily capure com-

    posie panoramas, high dynamic range (HDR)

    images, ime-lapse images, or long exposures.

    And o course low-ligh phoography can be

    a challenge wihou a sable plaorm. So give

    careul hough o wheher or no you need o

    bring along a ripod. And i you are bringing aripod, be sure you have appropriae plaes on

    your cameras and longer lenses.

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    Depending on he ype o phoography you

    end o do, you may wan o hink abou acces-

    sories such as flash unis, oher lighing, and

    filers. I realize ha wih he adven o digial

    ools many phoographers don eel he need

    or filers anymore, bu hey can sill prove

    remendously useul. I nohing else, you migh

    consider a solid neural densiy filer o enable

    long exposures.

    Cerain accessoriesi hopeully goes wihou

    sayingshould always be in your ki or even

    he shores phoo ouing. Tese include, a a

    minimum, spare bateries and digial media

    cards. For longer rips youll also wan o

    include batery chargers, a digial media card

    reader, and perhaps a lapop or oher device or

    downloading your phoos, including an exernalhard drive i necessary.

    Tere are many oher possibiliies you migh

    consider. For example, i you requenly capure

    composie panoramic images, you migh wan

    o bring along a bubble level ha fis in he ho

    shoe moun on your camera (unless your

    camera has a buil-in level eaure). I you plan

    o capure longer exposures or ime-lapse

    images, you may wan o bring a cable release.

    I you like o assign GPS coordinaes o your

    images, you may wan o bring along a GPS

    racking device. And o course, based on your

    pas experience, expecaions or your phoo-

    graphy ouing, and available equipmen, you

    migh wan o consider oher ools o bring


    Te poin is o hink abou wha subjecs you

    migh phoograph and wha equipmen you

    need. I can even be helpul o develop check-

    liss or differen ypes o phoography, o helpmake sure you remember everyhing you need

    Tis can be especially helpul or hose iems

    ha you end no o use all ha ofen and her

    ore migh orge o bring wih you.

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  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv



    by im Gre

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    Admitedly, mos o his mah happens behind

    he scenes, and heres no a remendous need

    o undersand he pariculars. For example, is

    here really a significan benefi o ully compre-

    hending how pixel values are being adjused as

    you increase he sauraion o a phoo? Cerain-ly he more you undersand whas going on,

    he beter equipped youll be o make he mos

    o your digial phoos, bu heres no quesion

    ha some o he mah you could undersand

    wouldn provide much benefi oher han he

    comor o acually knowing.

    Tere is one calculaion, however, ha affecshe qualiy o every phoograph you ake:


    Undersanding Exposure Mah

    Mos phoographers aren exacly big ans o mah. Quie ofen heir eyes sar o

    glaze over as soon as he subjec is raised. And ye, phoography in many respecs

    is all abou mah. From calculaions relaed o ocal lengh and deph o field, o

    exposure, o adjusmens applied using sofware ools afer he capure, here is a

    remendous amoun o mah going on.

    Te Value o Exposure Mah

    Considering ha he momen o exposure ruly

    defines he amoun and qualiy o inormaion

    conained wihin he phoographic image, i

    sands o reason ha exposure is criical. While

    odays digial cameras do a remarkable jobo calculaing proper exposure under a wide

    variey o lighing condiions, he phoographer

    mus ge direcly involved in evaluaing, and

    when necessary overruling, hose calculaions

    in order o produce he very bes image.

    Te Sop

    Te mah relaed o calculaing exposure

    revolves around he noion o he sop, which

    is ofen misundersood. We alk abou sops

    o ligh, and ye a sop isn exacly a uni o

    measure ha defines a specific quaniy o ligh.

    o be sure, a sop is used o measure ligh, bu

    no in a direc sense.

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    I is mos cerainly possible o measure ligh

    in erms o quaniy, which would largely be

    a mater o measuring he amoun o energy

    being emited by a par icular ligh source. For

    example, he lumen is a measure o he quaniyo ligh, and i has a fixed value.

    A sop, however, doesn have a fixed value in

    erms o quaniy o ligh; i is a relaive value.

    When we say were adding a sop o ligh, wha

    were acually saying is ha were doubling

    he amoun o ligh. wo sops would be our

    imes as much ligh, because weve doubled

    he amoun o ligh wice. Subracing one sop

    means were cuting he amoun o ligh in hal.

    So, here is obviously some mah involved

    when i comes o sops, bu ha mah is relaiv

    o a reerence poin. Ta reerence poin can

    generally be hough o as a proper exposure o

    he curren lighing condiions, bu he sop as uni o measure is relaive o a given reerence

    value, no a measure o a specific quaniy.

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    And o course, once all ha work is compleed,

    here is sill much more work or he camera,

    including measuring sensor values or each

    pixel, applying noise reducion i applicable,

    calculaing he values ha will be sored in he

    resuling file, wriing ha file o a digial media

    card, and a variey o oher asks.

    A he mos basic level, wih a camera se o

    ully auomaic mode, he phoographer simply

    poins he camera a a subjec and presses he

    shuter release, leting he camera do he res

    o he work. However, he phoographer can

    always choose o ge more involved, and o

    influence he final phoographic image in he

    process. Fundamenal o his noion is he ac

    ha a phoographer doesn adjus exposure

    by simply urning a dial up or down o affec

    overall brighness, bu raher by adjusing

    several individual conrols. Tose conrols

    are he aperure, he shuter speed, and he

    ISO seting.

    Variables o Exposure

    A digial camera is incredibly busy when capuring an image. Consider all he work

    ha has o be done or a ypical exposure. Te key subjec in he rame mus be

    idenified and he disance o ha subjec mus be deermined. Te exposure mus

    be calculaed based on he ambien ligh, he curren meering mode, and oher

    camera setings. Te mirror mus be moved up ou o he way o he image sensor,

    he aperure mus be closed down o he seting esablished wih he curren camera

    setings, and he shuter mus be opened or he proper duraion.

    Te Aperure

    A phoographic exposure is creaed by projec-

    ing ligh ono an image sensor (or film, or hose

    phoographers sill inclined o capure on film).

    Ta ligh passes hrough an aperure, which

    you can hink o as a gae or a hole; a series o

    blades allow you o adjus he size o ha hole.

    Te size o he aperure is measured as a raio

    relaive o he lenss ocal lengh. Te ocal

    lengh o he lens is divided by he diameer ohe curren aperure opening, and he resul

    provides he -number ha is used o describe

    he aperure seting. Tis relaionship is a com-

    mon source o conusion among phoographers,

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    because as he aperure becomes smaller, he

    number used o describe i grows larger.

    Te reason or his apparen dispariy is acually

    quie simple when you consider he mah. For

    example, i we assume a ocal lengh o 100mm

    and an aperure diameer o 4.5mm, he aperu-re value would be abou /22 (100/4.5 = 22.2).

    A larger aperure ha measures 18mm in dia-

    meer would yield an aperure value o /5.6

    (100/18 = 5.55).

    Tis relaionship beween lens ocal lengh and

    aperure diameer is he reason he aperure

    value is generally writen as a racion, such as

    /2.8 or /8. Tink o he as lens ocal lengh

    and he relaionship becomes quie clear, as

    long as youre able o hink a bi in erms o he

    mah involved.

    When you adjus he aperure or he lens,

    you are adjusing he amoun o ligh ha will

    be projeced or he final exposure. While he

    aperure numbers available o you migh seem

    somewha arbirary, hey are in ac based

    on he concep o he sop, which also helpsexplain why aperure setings are reerred o

    as /sops.

    Te /number or a given aperure seting

    relaes o he ocal lengh o he lens and he

    acual diameer o he aperure opening. Te

    differen aperure setings available relae o a

    doubling or halving o he amoun o ligh bein

    projeced. Les assume /8 as our saring poin

    I we waned o double he amoun o ligh, we

    would need o open he aperure even urher,

    specifically o an aperure o /5.6. I, on he

    oher hand, we waned o cu he amoun o

    ligh in hal, we would need o close he aper-

    ure somewha, o a seting o /11.

    Te move rom /8 o /5.6 is a change o one

    sop o ligh, because an aperure o /5.6 will

    allow wice as much ligh o pass hrough he

    lens compared o /8. Te move rom /8 o /1

    will allow hal as much ligh, and so ha oo is

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    change o one sop o ligh. When reducing he

    amoun o ligh (moving o a larger /number)

    we say ha we are sopping down he lens.

    When increasing he amoun o ligh we end o

    say we are opening up he lens aperure.

    Shuter Speed

    An image is capured by recording he ligh ha

    passes hrough he aperure and srikes he

    image sensor. In order o conrol he amoun

    o ligh acually recorded, and hus ensure a

    proper exposure, he exposure mus be imed.

    Tis is he job o he shuter mechanism, and

    he amoun o ime or which he shuter allows

    he ligh o srike he image sensor is he shuter

    speed. Tis is a simple measure o he duraion

    o ime expressed in seconds. For example, a

    as shuter speed migh be around 1/500h o

    a second, while a slow shuter speed migh be

    several seconds.

    Tere is a direchough inverserelaionshipbeween aperure and shuter speed. Te larger

    he aperure opening, he less ime he shuter

    mus remain open o ensure a proper exposure.

    Te smaller he aperure opening, he longer

    he shuter mus remain open.

    Measuring he shuter speed and undersanding

    ha measuremen are o course simpler han

    he conceps behind he aperure. However,

    like he aperure seting, shuter speeds are

    measured based on sops o ligh. We adjus

    shuter speeds in incremens ha relae o

    doubling or halving he amoun o ligh being


    For example, les assume a base shuter speed

    o 1/60h o a second, wih he assumpion ha

    a he curren aperure seting his will yield

    a proper exposure. I we wan o double heamoun o ligh we need o leave he shuter

    open wice as long. So insead o 1/60h o a

    second, we could use 1/30h o a second. Tis

    is double he duraion, and hus double he

    amoun o ligh, and ha means he resul is

    one sop more ligh, or a one-sop brigher


    By conras, i we waned o reduce he amoun

    o ligh, we would need o leave he shuteropen or a shorer duraion. So o reduce he

    amoun o ligh by hal, or one sop, we would

    open he shuter or hal as much ime. In he

    case o a 1/60h-second exposure, ha means

    using a shuter speed o 1/120h o a second.

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    (Mos cameras, or reasons o expediency

    relaed o oher shuter speed values, use

    1/125h o a second or his value.)

    Te ISO Seting

    Te aperure and shuter speed need o be

    adjused in concer wih each oher o produce

    a proper exposure. Bu wha abou siuaions

    where you can achieve a good combina-

    ion based on your phoographic needs? For

    example, i you wan o sop he lens down o

    increase deph o field (he range o deail ha

    is in ocus in he rame), bu he available ligh

    won le you use a as enough shuter speed

    o render a sharp image while you are hand-

    holding he camera, wha are you o do?

    Te answer is o adjus he ISO seting. A com-

    mon misconcepion is ha by increasing he

    ISO seting or your camera you are increasing

    he sensiiviy o he image sensor. Tis acuall

    isn he case. Based on is physical properies,

    an image sensor has a given sensiiviy o ligh

    you can change ha. Bu you can apply am-

    plificaion o he signal recorded by he image

    sensor, which produces a resul ha is similar

    an increased sensiiviy.

    Because increasing he ISO seting acually

    applies amplificaion, however, here is also

    a side effec ha can be quie problemaic a

    imes: noise. When you ampliy he signal,

    you aren somehow magically increasing heamoun o inormaion in he scene. In ac, by

    using a higher ISO seting youre acually inen

    ionally underexposing he image (capuring

    less ligh han you would or a proper exposure

    and hen applying amplificaion o he signal in

    order o brighen up he scene. Youre effecive

    ly rying o fill in inormaion where inormaio

    wasn capured. Te resul is random variaion

    in onal and color values or he pixels, which iwha we reer o as noise in he image.

    O course, in cerain cases youll need o make

    a compromise, risking noise in order o achiev

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    an adequaely as shuter speed based on

    he aperure you eel is necessary o produce

    adequae deph o field. When you do adjus

    he ISO seting, youre also making adjusmens

    based on sops o ligh.

    Te base ISO seting or mos digial camerasis 100. Wih film here were lower ISO values

    available (and some digial cameras do offer

    ISO setings below 100), bu a 100 ISO value

    has become somehing o a baseline sandard

    or digial exposure. Tis is he seting you use

    when you wan o capure an image based

    on he naural sensiiviy o ligh o he image


    I you wan o apply amplificaion in order

    o achieve a aser shuter speed (creaing he

    illusion o recording more ligh, effecively),

    you can increase he ISO seting o 200. Obvi-

    ously he number 200 is double 100, and in

    his case ha is no coincidence. A change rom

    100 ISO o 200 ISO applies amplificaion ha is

    equivalen o one sop o ligh. In oher words,increasing rom a seting o 100 ISO o 200 ISO

    is producing a resul ha will look (wih he

    excepion o he addiional noise) as hough you

    had recorded wice as much ligh.

    Going rom 200 o 400 ISO is anoher doubling

    o he exposure. And, o course, reducing ISO

    rom 200 o 100 produces a resul ha looks as

    hough you had capured hal as much ligh.

    When you adjus he ISO seting on your digial

    camera, he idea is generally no so much odouble (or halve) he amoun o ligh, bu raher

    o achieve a aser shuter speed. Bu has

    exacly when he noion o s ops relaed o ISO

    setings becomes so valuable. I you increase

    he ISO by one sop (or example, rom 100 ISO

    o 200 ISO), you can hen increase he shuter

    speed by one sop (or example, rom 1/30h

    o a second o 1/60h o a second). In siuaions

    where a aser shuter speed is criical (such aswhen you wan o reeze moion or o capure

    handheld in a low-lighing siuaion), increas-

    ing he ISO is a relaively easy way o make he

    mos o he curren limiaions.

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    Marix/Muli-Zone Meering

    With matrix- or multi-zone metering, you can

    achieve really precise results. In this metering

    method, the camera calculates an average

    exposure value for several small measure-

    ment fields distributed over the picture area

    (their number and shape can vary depending

    on your camera). As a rule of thumb, the

    more measurement fields there are , the

    more exact the global result will be.

    Some advanced metering systems also

    compare the measurement results from

    the individual fields with a built-in image

    database to improve the exposure.

    Cener-Weighed Average Meering

    This method gives the center of the image

    more weight in the calculationagain, the

    exact algorithm will vary depending on the

    camera model. On average, the center part

    of the image will determine 60-80% of the

    final metering result. In some situations,

    especially for portrait shots or if your

    main subject is in the dead center of yourframe, center-weighted metering can be

    the method of choice.

    Meering Mehods

    Te meering mehod ha your camera uses deermines how i calculaes exposure

    Mos cameras offer several meering mehods ha you can choose rom depending

    on he shooing siuaion; he mos common are marix or muli-zone meering,

    cener-weighed average meering, and spo meering.

    Spo Meering

    Te spo meering mehod is he mos selec-

    ive o all meering mehods, and i can yield

    very precise resuls i used properly, especially

    or images eauring mainly he midone range

    Spo meering measures only abou 15% o h

    image area. Some cameras use a fixed mea-suremen area in he image cener, while oher

    cameras use he acive ocus poin or measure

    men. Te advanage o spo meering is ha

    he measuremen won be influenced by brigh

    or dark areas ouside o he small measuremen

    field, allowing you o ge very precise exposure

    values or a cerain image area.

    :A gray card can be very helpul or spo

    meering. Place he card in your image rame

    and poin he measuremen spo a i. As soon

    as you have your reading, you can use he

    exposure values deermined by he camera or

    you can modiy hem by adjusing shuter spee

    and -sop values. Tis way, you will obain a

    very precisely exposed phoo o your subjec.

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    Boh he aperure and he shuter speed change

    he amoun o ligh recorded or a given ex-

    posure. I is imporan ha you have conrol

    over boh acors, raher han a single exposure

    adjusmen dial, because adjusing he aper-

    ure and shuter speed enable you o exerciseconsiderable creaive conrol over he phoo-

    graphic image.

    By adjusing he size o he lens aperure, you

    are also adjusing he deph o field. A very

    large aperure (small /number) will resul in a

    very narrow deph o field, while a very small

    aperure (large /number) will resul in a verylarge deph o field. O course, he poenial

    deph o field depends on a variey o acors ,

    including he disance o he subjec and he

    ocal lengh o he lens. Te poin is ha varying

    he aperure will vary he deph o field. I is

    Conrolling Exposure: Blending

    Aperure and Shuter Speed

    An undersanding o he variables ha relae o phoographic exposure wih a digial

    camera can be incredibly helpul, boh in erms o your phoographic knowledge andin erms o your abiliy o calculae he exposure setings ha will produce he bes

    resuls in a wide variey o siuaions.

    also imporan o keep in mind ha any given

    lens has minimum and maximum aperure sizes,

    which in urn affec your flexibiliy in erms o

    boh deph o field and exposure adjusmen.

    By adjusing he shuter speed, you deermine

    how moving subjecs (or camera moion) will

    affec he final image. Wih a very as shuter

    speed you can reeze moion, which can be

    useul or a wide variey o siuaions. Ta can

    mean boh reezing he moion o a subjec ha

    is acually moving and also reezing he moion

    o he camera when you are hand-holding

    he camera raher han using a ripod or oher


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    Te key o adjusing exposure is o keep he

    aperure and shuter speed in balance wih

    each oher. As you increase he amoun o ligh

    passing hrough he lens by opening up he

    aperure, youll need o reduce he lengh oime he shuter remains open. Conversely,

    i you wan o sop down he lens in order o

    reduce he amoun o ligh passing hrough he

    aperure, youll need o use a longer shuter

    speed in order o allow an adequae amoun o

    ligh o reach he image sensor.

    Boh aperure and shuter speed setings use

    incremens based on sops o ligh, which

    makes i relaively easy o deermine how o

    adjus one or he oher o ensure a proper

    exposure. For example, les posulae a siua-

    ion where a proper exposure will be achieved

    a an aperure o /8 and a shuter speed o

    1/250h o a second. I you decide you wan o

    open he aperure up a bi more in order o

    reduce he deph o field, you migh choose a

    seting o /5.6, which allows one sop more

    ligh (double he amoun o ligh) compared

    o /8.

    Ta means you also need o adjus he shuter

    speed, in his case reducing he exposure ime

    by hal o 1/500h o a second. Te aperure is

    allowing wice as much ligh o come hrough,

    bu he shuter speed is leting hal as muchligh reach he image sensor. So i you increase

    he amoun o ligh by one sop using he aper-

    ure and reduce he amoun o ligh by one sop

    using he shuter speed, he wo remain in

    balance and you sill have a proper exposure.

    In his way, you could cycle hrough a series o

    aperure and shuter speed combinaions, all

    o which would achieve he same exposure,

    bu wih differen dephs o field. I he larges

    aperure opening or a given lens is /2.8, and i

    you can achieve a proper exposure or he cur-

    ren lighing condiions by opening he shuter

    or 1/500h o a second, ha means you could

    also achieve a proper exposure by using /4 and

    1/250h o a second, or /5.6 and 1/125h o a

    second, or /8 and 1/60h o a second, or /11

    and 1/30h o a second, or /16 and 1/15h o

    a second. From he sandpoin o phoographic

    exposure, all o hese combinaions will

    produce he same resul.

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    O course, rom a more complee phoographic

    perspecive here may be some very significan

    differences among hese exposures. For a ypi-

    cal lens he difference in deph o field beween

    /2.8 and /16 is raher significan. A /2.8 a verysmall range o he scene will be in ocus. A /16

    mos o he scene may be rendered in sharp

    ocus. As a phoographer you can make an aes-

    heic decision based on he subjec mater and

    your own preerences.

    Te shuter speed may play less o a role in he

    final resul, depending on he subjec. I you arephoographing a landscape wihou any moving

    subjecs, and he camera is firmly mouned on

    a ripod, you may no see any difference relaed

    o he shuter speed a all. However, i you are

    phoographing handheld or here are moving

    subjecs in he scene, he shuter speed can pla

    an imporan role.

    As a general rule, when shooing handheld

    you should aim o use a shuter speed wih a

    reciprocal ha maches he lens ocal lengh.

    For example, i you are using a 100mm lens, yoshould use a shuter speed o a leas 1/100h o

    a second, so wih mos cameras you would op

    or a shuter speed o 1/125h o a second or

    aser. Wih a 500mm lens, i you were shoo-

    ing handheld (which calls or srong arms in

    addiion o a seady hand), you would wan o

    use a shuter speed o 1/500h o a second or

    aser. Te reason a longer ocal lengh lens

    requires a aser shuter speed, by he way, isha he smaller field o view o a longer lens

    will effecively magniy any moion. A aser

    shuter speed is necessary o compensae or

    ha magnified moion.

    When shooing wih he camera mouned on

    a ripod, he quesion o shuter speed relaive

    o ocal lengh is no longer relevan. However,

    shuter speed can sill be very much an issue

    when a subjec in he rame is moving, and her

    again you are able o exercise creaive conrol.

    A ypical example would be a phoograph ha

    includes moving waer. Based on he ambien

    lighing condiions and he range o aperures

    suppored by he lens youre using, youll have

    a range o shuter speeds o choose rom. A as

    shuter speed would be able o reeze he

    moion o he waer, showing a very briemomen in ime. A slow shuter speed would

    resul in an image where he waer is a silky blu

    in he rame. Boh can be very impacul im-

    ages, and i is up o you o decide which

    approach is more appropriae based on he

    scene and your inen.

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    O course, you need o ake ino consideraion

    he balance beween he effecs o shuter

    speed and aperure size. I youre rying o

    achieve a deep deph o field in conjuncion

    wih a as shuter speed, you may have a chal-

    lenge on your hands. For example, les consid-

    er a siuaion where a proper exposure would

    be achieved a an aperure o /8 and a shuter

    speed o 1/125h o a second. o achieve he

    desired deph o field, les assume you need o

    sop down by wo sops o /16. However, ha

    also means you need o use a slower shuter

    speedslower by wo sopsin order o bal-

    ance he exposure. Ta would require a shuter

    speed o 1/30h o a second in his example.

    Bu i you are including a relaively as-moving

    sream in he scene, you migh need a much

    aser shuter speed in order o reeze he mo-

    ion. For example, you migh need a shuter

    speed o 1/500h o a second in his case.

    o achieve a 1/500h o a second shuter speed

    while mainaining he /16 aperure, youll need

    o increase he ISO seting. In his example,

    going rom a shuter speed o 1/30h o a

    second o 1/500h o a second means you need

    o adjus he shuter speed by a oal o our

    sops. In effec, ha means he exposure would

    be underexposed by our s ops, using an aper-

    ure o /16 and a shuter speed o 1/500h o a

    second, when ha aperure under he curren

    lighing condiions would normally call or a

    1/30h o a second shuter speed.

    I is hereore possible o balance he exposureusing an aperure o /16 and a shuter speed

    o 1/500h o a second by increasing he ISO

    seting by our sops. Ta means going rom

    an ISO seting o 100 o an ISO seting o 1600

    (rom ISO 100 o 200 is one sop, rom 200 o

    400 is one sop, rom 400 o 800 is one sop,

    and rom 800 o 1600 is one sop).

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    As a resul, you would have reduced he avail-

    able ligh by our sops by changing he shuter

    speed, bu hen compensaed by applying am-

    plificaion equivalen o our sops by increasing

    he ISO value.

    In any given phoographic siuaion, you areprobably ocused primarily on eiher deph o

    field or shuter speed as your prioriy. In oher

    words, youre hinking primarily abou eiher

    a deep or narrow deph o field or managing

    shuter speed o deal wih a moving subjec (or

    handheld camera). However, someimes boh

    o hose acors will be high on your prioriy lis,

    and you may need o employ a differen ISO

    seting o achieve your goals.

    Hal Sop vs. One-Tird Sop

    Tus ar he discussion o sops has been limied

    o ull sops, i.e., eiher doubling or halving

    he amoun o ligh using he aperure, shuter

    speed, and ISO setings. However, mos camer-

    as allow you o exer a higher degree o conrol

    han is possible wih one-sop incremens.

    In general, mos digial cameras allow you o

    adjus exposure in hal-sop incremens. For

    example, changing he aperure rom /5.6 o /8

    means sopping down one sop, which will cu

    he amoun o ligh in hal. However, by working

    in hal-sop incremens you could also adjus

    he aperure o /6.7. Assuming a scene would

    be properly exposed wih an aperure o /5.6

    and a shuter speed o 1/125h o a second, you

    could sop down by one-hal sop o /6.7 and

    hen increase he shuter duraion by one-hal

    sop o 1/180h o a second. Anoher hal-sop

    would ake you o /8, wih a shuter speed o

    1/250h o a second.

    Mos digial cameras will also enable you o

    adjus exposure in one-hird-sop incremens.Tis provides a higher degree o precision in

    erms o exposure conrol, which can be helpu

    in cerain siuaions. When adjusing he expo-

    sure setings using one-hird-sop incremens,

    insead o moving wo seps or each sop (or

    example, rom /5.6 o /6.7 and hen o /8),

    you would ake hree seps (or example, rom

    /5.6 o /5.3 o /7.1 and hen o /8).

    For mos phoographers, adjusing exposurein hal-sop incremens provides more han

    enough conrol. Working in hal-sop incre-

    mens also provides he advanage o working

    wih aperure setings ha are more amiliar.

    Mos phoographers who have been working

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    wih a digial SLR or any period o ime (or who

    have ever aken a phoography class or read an

    insrucional phoography book) are probably

    amiliar wih he common aperure setings

    such as /5.6, /6.7, /8, /9.5, /11, and so on.

    When working wih one-hird-sop incremens

    he numbers beween he primary aper ure

    setings are differen, which can someimes

    prove conusing.

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    In general, you would apply exposure compen-

    saion when you eel (or know) he cameras

    ligh meer isn providing you wih he mos

    accurae inormaion or he scene. For exam-

    ple, when you phoograph a scene ha is

    dominaed by a brigh subjec, he camerasmeer assumes ha he overall scene needs o

    be darkened down. In effec, he camera is

    rying o make brigh whie areas appear as

    middle gray. In ha case you would wan o

    apply exposure compensaion o brighen

    he scene beyond wha he camera hinks is

    appropriae. For example, when phoograph-

    ing a snow-filled scene, you will likely need o

    increase he amoun o ligh capured by he

    camera by abou one sop o compensae or

    how he cameras meer hinks he scene

    should be rendered.

    When working in one o he auomaic exposure

    modes, such as aperure prioriy (Av, or Aper-

    ure value) or shuter prioriy (v, or ime

    value), exposure compensaion is a way o

    aking advanage o he cameras abiliy o

    calculae exposure and adjus he shuter speedor aperure auomaically while leaving he

    value youve se or he aperure (in Av mode)

    or shuter speed (in v mode) unchanged.

    When working in manual mode, exposure

    compensaion is applied by simply adjusing

    he exposure as desired, using he cameras

    exposure meer as a reerence, and using

    setings ha shif he exposure o be darker

    or ligher relaive o wha he exposure meer

    is showing you.

    In eiher case, exposure compensaion allows

    you o deal wih siuaions where he camera

    migh no undersand exacly wha youre ryin

    o accomplish as a phoographer.

    Exposure Compensaion

    Anoher ool available o he phoographer when calculaing and adjusing exposure

    is exposure compensaion. Here again, he uni o measure is he sop. You can

    compensae exposure up or down (brigher or darker) using sops o ligh, and

    depending on how youve configured your camera, by hal-sop or one-hird-sop

    incremens as well.

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    Teres a lo o mah being done inside your

    camera beore, during, and afer he process o

    capuring a phoographic exposure. While much

    o ha mah migh be beter lef a mysery in

    order o avoid overloading your brain, heresno quesion ha having an undersanding o

    how exposure is measured and calculaed can

    help you work more quickly and inelligenly as

    a phoographer.

    Some o he mah migh involve menal gym-

    nasics, bu in general he basic conceps are

    relaively sraighorward. I you pay atenion

    o your camera setings and how hey are being

    adjused while capuring a variey o images,

    he conceps relaed o exposure calculaion

    will become easier o undersand, and youll ge

    much beter a achieving he exac exposure

    you wan in your phoographs.

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    Tips & Tricks

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    25 IPS & RICKS

    Opening JPEG and IFFImages in Camera Raw

    In addiion o handling RAW image files, you

    can also open and manipulae JPEG and IFF

    images in Camera Raw by ollowing hese seps:

    1. Go o he Camera Raw preerences (Phoo-

    shop/Edi > Preerences > Camera Raw) and

    make sure Auomaically open JPEGs/IFFs

    wih setings is seleced in boh drop-down

    menus in he JPEG and IFF Handling secion

    a he botom.

    2. Selec he JPEG or IFF image in Adobe


    3. Righ-click or Crl-click and choose Open

    in Camera Raw rom he conex menu (oralernaively, you can press Crl/Command+R

    on your keyboard).

    Your file will be opened in he Camera Raw

    plug-in and you can use is ools or your

    correcions and image ediing.

    Adding Film Grain

    From he CS5 version on, Camera Raw has eaured an Effecs ab, allowing you

    o give your digial image he look and eel o an analog film exposure, o age i

    arificially, and so on. In he pas i may have been difficul o add realisic film grain

    o an exising image, bu now his has become very easy.

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    Using he Effecs ab

    High-qualiy digial phoographs end o have

    a polished, smooh appearance ha migh no

    be beneficial or every subjec. Many phoogra-

    phers miss he graininess o classic film, which

    can add a special ouch o images.

    o add graininess o your digial images, look

    a he upper par o he Effecs ab. You can use

    he Amoun, Size, and Roughness sliders o add

    a vinage film grain effec o your image. Noe

    ha you can save your setings wih he panel

    menu and reload hem a a laer ime o apply

    he same effecs o an enire se o images.

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    27 IPS & RICKS

    Exploring he Lens Correcion Filer

    Te Lens Correcion filer (Filer > Lens Correc-

    ion) conains wo abs, Auo Correcion andCusom.

    Swich o he Auo Correcion ab o perorm

    an auomaic lens correcion using a pre-

    defined lens profile. Phooshop comes wih a

    preinsalled selecion o profiles or common

    lenses. I he lens profile or your image isn

    auomaically recognized or you can find i

    in he lis, you can swich o Cusom mode

    or ry o creae your own profiles using hecomplimenary Lens Profile Creaor uiliy.

    :Te Lens Profile Creaor uiliy is available

    or download a htp://

    downloads/lensprofile_creaor.hml. Prin ou

    he checkerboard emplae provided wih he

    program and ake phoographs o i using he

    lens you wan o profile rom predefined posi-

    ions using even lighing. Save hese shos using

    he DNG orma and load hem ino he LensProfile Creaor o generae he profile.

    In he Cusom ab you can apply cusom lens

    correcion setings.

    Correcing Lens Errors

    In addiion o is many oher image-opimizaion eaures, Phooshop also offers

    advanced opions or correcing he mos common lens-relaed errors. ypical

    examples would be he collapsing lines in archiecural phoos o all buildings, or

    barrel or pincushion disorions ha resul in he images edges being ben ouward

    or inward. Oher common lens errors include vigneting (where he images corners

    are darker han he cener) and chromaic aberraion (where color ringes appear on

    he objecs edges).

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    Manually Correcing Lens Disorions

    When you phoograph a all building, i ofen

    seems o il backward in he image. Tis is due

    o he lower par o he building being much

    closer o he camera and hereore appearing

    much larger han he upper par. Te LensCorrecion filer allows you o fix his problem

    very easily. Jus drag he slider in he ransorm

    par o he dialog box o adjus he perspecive.

    :Make sure you don overdo his effec

    and make he building appear wider in is upper

    par. Tis would resul in an exremely unreal-

    isic appearance. Addiionally, exremely high

    buildings like skyscrapers phoographed rom

    heir base shouldn be correced, as our eyes

    are used o his perspecive.

    Manually Correcing ChromaicAberraion Errors

    Chromaic aberraion becomes eviden in a

    phoograph when rays o ligh wih differen

    wavelenghs (or colors) are reraced differenly

    by a lens, and hereore can say bundled and

    do no hi he same poin on he camera sensor.

    Tese errors can be obser ved as colored ringes

    and uzziness , especially along conrasing


    o manually correc chromaic aberraion, drag

    he appropriae Fringe slider unil he ariacs

    have disappeared.

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    29 IPS & RICKS

    Manually Correcing Vigneting Errors

    Using he sliders a he botom o he Lens

    Correcion filer, you can also correc anoher

    ypical lens error: lens vigneting.

    Vigneting occurs when he images corners

    appear darker han he res o he image. Tis

    error occurs requenly when you shoo images

    using wide-angle lenses. o manually correc

    vigneting, drag he Amoun slider lef or righ

    and adjus he Midpoin slider.

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    Creaing a Shape Layer

    o creae a shape layer:

    1. Deermine he desired oreground color (his

    will firs be used o fill he orm) or choose

    a syle rom he Opions bar. Te color and

    syle will be applied o all elemens creaedin he shape layer.

    2. Selec one o he drawing ools, such as he

    Recangle or Cusom Shape ool.

    3. Click he Shape Layers buton in he Opions

    bar or he seleced ool.

    4. Now you can creae he desired shape wih

    he seleced drawing ool. Noe ha a new

    layer is creaed in he Layers panel.

    5. I you wish, you can add more shapes o he

    layer by drawing more elemens or edi he

    pah o he exising shape.

    Sof Edges or Vecor Masks

    One advanage o shape layers is ha your objecs always remain ediable using

    anchor poins and Bzier curves. In addiion, hey are resoluion independen, so

    you can scale hem up wihou losing qualiy. Shape layers also pose a comorable

    alernaive o pixel layers or asks requiring mainly geomeric shapes.

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    31 IPS & RICKS

    Applying Sof Edges

    In mos applicaions, vecor masks always have

    hard edges. In Phooshop CS6 you can also

    apply sof edges o shape layers.

    1. o do so, simply acivae he shape layer and

    drag he Feaher slider in he Masks panel o

    he righ. In his panel, you can also reduce

    he densiy o he mask: Te lower he value,

    he ainer he mask will become, allowing

    he color o spread ino he remaining image

    areas in a semiransparen ashion.

    2. In his panel, you can also reduce he Densiy

    o he mask: Te lower he value, he ainer

    he mask will become, allowing he color o

    spread ino he remaining image areas in a

    semiransparen ashion.

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    You can find he Refine Edge command in he

    Opions bar or any selecion ool. In Phooshop

    CS6 his eaure has improved edge deecion

    echnology and auomaic color deconamina-

    ion. Creaing precise image selecions and

    masks o even complex subjecs like hair or

    ur has never been so easy.

    Te Selec menu conains addiional useul

    eaures or working wih selecions.

    Choose he Modiy > Border menu command

    o creae a rame-shaped selecion wih a

    widh ha you define in he dialog box.

    Use he Modiy > Expand or Modiy > Con-

    rac menu commands o enlarge or shrink

    your selecion by he pixel value specified in

    he dialog box.

    For he Selec > Grow command, heres no

    dialog box; i simply selecs adjacen areas

    o similar color. Which areas will be added

    o your selecion depends on how he Magic

    Wand ool opions have been se.

    Ediing Selecions

    Even pros someimes sruggle o ge a perec selecion. Luckily, here are easy-o-

    use ools ha can help you improve exising selecions.

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    33 IPS & RICKS

    Te Selec > Similar command also selecs

    areas o similar color. However, in his case

    he areas don need o be adjacen o each

    oher; all areas o similar color hroughou

    he image will be added o he selecion.

    Te Selec > ransorm Selecion commandallows you o modiy he shape o your

    selecion rame wihou affecing he selec-

    ed pixels. For example, i you have rouble

    creaing a circular or ellipical selecion a

    exacly he righ posiion, creae your ellipi-

    cal selecion in any shape and posiion, hen

    use Selec > ransorm o scale and posiion

    he selecion. Press he Reurn/Ener key o


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    o apply a gradien map,

    1. Choose Layer > New Adjusmen Layer >

    Gradien Map.

    2. Click he color bar in he Properies panel

    and choose he desired gradien. Te colors

    on he lef side o he bar will be assigned o

    he dark onal values o your images, and he

    colors on he righ correspond o he brigheronal values.

    :Tis dialog box conains all he

    gradiens available or he Gradien ool.

    3. When you are saisfied wih your gradien

    composiion, click OK.

    4. I needed, you can sill inver your gradien

    by acivaing he Inver checkbox.

    5. Confirm wih OK o apply he Gradien Mapo your image.

    :More ways o achieve grea colorizaion

    effecs are shown in he able below.

    Effec Procedure

    Inver image colors Choose Layer > New Adjusmen Layer > Inver.

    Reduce he colorsin your image o asmall number oeye-caching colors

    Choose Layer > New Adjusmen Layer > Poserize. Use he slider or he inpu field o speciyhow many colors he images colors should be reduced o.

    Conver dark oneso black and brighones o whie

    Choose Layer > New Adjusmen Layer > Treshold and speciy he onal disribuion wihhe slider.

    Creaing Image Effecs wih Gradien Maps

    Te Gradien Map is a powerul image colorizaion eaure, allowing you o apply a

    gradien o he onal range o your image. Gradien Maps yield he bes effecs or

    images wih disinc edges and prominen subjecs o high visual ineres.

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    Saving and Exporting Images

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    Major Graphic File Formas

    Commercial Prining Web Video and Visual Effecs Phoos Word/PowerPoin


    IFF GIF Cineon IFF BMP



    DCS DICOM (Medical Devices)


    Camera Raw

    PSB (Large DocumenForma)

    Exporing rom Phooshop

    Phooshop offers several commands or exporing files in he File > Expor menu.

    Command Descripion

    Pahs o Illusraor Wih his command you can expor all pahs or seleced pahs in he documen as a newIllusraor file.

    Render Video Expors an animaion creaed in Phooshop as video.

    Zoomiy Tis command helps you creae high-resoluion screen presena ions or he Inerne hausers can zoom ino. In addiion o he required image file you will also ge he associaedHML code.

    :Beore exporing documens conaining ex or use in video clips, make sure he ex is con-

    ained wihin he ile sae area. ile sae reers o he area where all visual elemens conaining

    essenial inormaion or he viewer should be placed o ensure ha i remains visible on all screens

    and in all viewing ormas. On older ube elevisions, or example, he edges o he video will ofen

    be closer in, cuting off elemens placed oo close o he edge. On modern flascreen elevisions, ile

    sae issues are rare, bu i s sill bes o make sure he maerial can be easily viewed on all screens.

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    Raser Images

    Raser images, ofen called bimap images, are

    made up o pixels and are commonly used or

    coninuous-one images such as phoographs or

    digial ar. Te pixels are arranged in a recan-

    gular grid; you can acually see he rows and

    columns o pixels i you zoom in close enough.

    Te word pixel is shor or picure elemen,which is he smalles uni o inormaion in a

    raser image. Pixels are he building blocks o an

    image, and one raser image conains many o

    hem. Te more pixels an image is made up o,

    he more deail he image conains. Te image

    shown here is one inch wide and one inch all,

    and i has a resoluion o 72 pixels per inch

    (ppi). So you can lierally coun 72 pixels in each


    Low Resoluion

    Tis rose image has a resoluion o 72 ppi and i

    is currenly displayed a 100%. When you view

    an image a 100%, youre viewing he acual

    pixels. Because raser images are resoluion-

    dependen, his rose canno be enlarged wih-

    ou a loss o qualiy.

    Raser vs. Vecor

    Tere are wo differen ypes o compuer graphics ha Phooshop can manage

    raser and vecorand is imporan or you o undersand wha hey are and how

    hey uncion differenly.

  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv



    High Resoluion

    Te nex rose image has a resoluion o 300 ppi.

    Tere are many more pixels han in he 72 ppi

    version, so he pixels need o be much smaller

    o fi. Tis increases he image qualiy and you

    can zoom in much closer now beore losingqualiy.

    Vecor Graphics

    Vecor graphics like his Adobe Illusraor file

    are made up o poins, lines, and mahemai-

    cally defined curves. Tey are resoluion-

    independen, so you can scale hem wihou

    he edges ever becoming jagged.

    Is also very easy o edi vecor graphics. Wih

    he Direc Selecion ool you can access he

    individual poins ha make up he objec s

    pah. ry i yoursel by clicking and dragging he

    handles. Vecor graphics are ideal or logos and

    illusraions ha need o be oupu in differen


    :Te File > Expor > Pahs o Illusraor

    command allows you o save Phooshop pahs

    as Illusraor files (.ai). In he process, he

    posiioning o he pah relaive o he image

    will remain unouched; Illusraor displays he

    ormer image boundaries as crop marks. You

    can also use he copy-and-pase echnique

    (Edi > Copy/Pase) o copy maerial beween

    Phooshop and Illusraor. Alernaively, you can

    selec he Pen ool in Phooshop and hold down

    he Al and Crl/Command keys while click-

    ing he desired pah (hus selecing all anchor

    poins) and dragging i ino an open Illusraor

    window. Tis mehod is also reerred o as he

    drag-and-drop mehod.

  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


    General Rules or File Size and Formas

    When creaing images or he web, here are

    a number o rules ha you need o observe.

    Web images mus be small in boh pixel size (so

    hey fi on he screen) and file size (so hey load

    quickly). Te documen size or he acual prin

    size o he image is irrelevan. Te color space

    mus be sRGB and any layers mus be flatened.

    Only hree file ormas are permited: JPEG, GIF,

    and PNG. Each o hese file ormas is designed

    o reduce he size o he image so ha i can be

    quickly loaded on a web page.

    Te Save or Web Command

    Te Save or Web Command ound in he File

    menu akes care o hese requiremens. Tis

    command always saves a copy o he image,

    leaving he original inac. By properly combin-ing he setings in his huge dialog, you can per-

    ecly opimize an image or he web. Choose

    he 2-up view rom he regisers above and lef.

    Tis way you have he original PSD file on he

    lef, and on he r igh side a copy o he file as i

    will look as an opimized GIF.

    Preparing and Saving Images or he Web

    In his secion, you will learn how o save an image or he web. Well cover some

    general rules or web images, he Save or Web command, and file ormas.


  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv



    Using he GIF Forma

    Sar a he op by choosing he GIF orma.

    GIF is commonly used o display graphics ha

    have large areas o solid color, such as logos, an

    illusraions, or ex. Te GIF orma suppors a

    maximum o 256 colors including ransparency.Te bes way o reduce he file size o a GIF is

    o reduce he number o colors in i; however,

    evenually you will sar seeing diher paterns.

    Anoher way o reduce he file size is o reduce

    he diher amoun.

    Using he PNG Forma

    PNG was developed as an alernaive o GIF and

    is paen-ree. In mos cases, when saving non-

    coninuous-one graphics, he PNG orma is

    your bes choice, offering a smaller file size han

    GIF wih he same qualiy setings.

  • 7/22/2019 Booklet Supplement Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Lbv


    Using he JPG Forma

    JPEG is bes or coninuous-one images such as

    phoographs. When you save a JPEG file, here

    is always a radeoff beween file size and

    qualiy, so he key is o find he swee spo.

    Selec he 4-up opion o compare our differ-en versions o he same image, each one wih

    differen opimizaion setings. Te main way

    o reduce he file size is o vary he Qualiy

    seting. You can also ry slighly increasing he

    blur seting o improve compression. Reducing

    he pixel size will significanly reduce file size.

    For he bes qualiy, choose one o he bicubic

    mehods and don go oo small.