BLOCK 1 : INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM AND ECOTOURISM: GLOBAL Introduction to Tourism and Ecotourism:...
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COURSE 1: INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM
BLOCK 1 : INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM AND
ECOTOURISM: GLOBAL CONTEXT
Unit 1 : Introduction and Definition of Tourism ............ 3
Unit 2 : Forms of Tourism ............................................... 32
Unit 3 : Evolution of Tourism as a Business ................... 51
National Law University, Delhi
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Centre for Environmental Law, WWF-India
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Ramya Iyer, CEL, WWF-India
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UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF TOURISM
2. Characteristics of Tourism
3. Significance of Tourism as an Industry
4. Economic Significance of Tourism
5. Economic Importance of Tourism Sector of a Country
6. Tourism vs. Sustainable Development: The Unending Debate
7. Tourism and Millennium Development Goals
Since the beginning of time, humans have travelled. Food, water, safety or acquisition of
resources were the early travel motivations. However, early travellers cannot be classified
as Tourists. This is because, during early ages travel was dangerous, expensive and time-
consuming activity that was rarely undertaken unless for business, adventure, to flee disease
or war and a few other reasons, none of which leisure. Nonetheless, the idea of travel for
leasure, pleasure and exploration soon emerged.
Tourism is generally thought of as an activity in which individuals explore a culture or
an environment that is foreign to them. It is a travel taken up for recreational or leisure
The conventional or world view of tourism as an industry is more west centric. Tourism’s
past is dominated by the history of western cultural experience. Tourism starts with the
wealthy, with images of prestigious visits to spas and seaside resorts, Grand Tours and the
activities of business entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook, before it begins to filter down
the social ladder. However, this does not mean that no attention should be paid to tourism’s
past in non-western societies and cultures and to the more ordinary and routine practices of
a wider cross-section of the population. It is too simplistic to portray tourism’s evolution as
a geographical process of diffusion from one or two core areas and a social process of
downward movement from the affluent.
Introduction to Tourism and Ecotourism: Global Context
There have been various attempts to define tourism that have proved unsatisfactory. It is
indeed difficult to see any common agreement between the numerous definitions that exist
for this term. However, there are some widely accepted definitions that are recognised and
The World Tourism Organisation defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places
outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours and not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an
activity remunerated from within the place visited”.
Hunziker and Krapf1 , in 1941, defined tourism as people who travel “the sum of the
phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as
they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity”.
In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-
term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and
1 Werner Hunziker and Kurt (1942). Grundriss der allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre.; cf. Hasso Spode in
Günther Haehling (ed.): Tourismus-Management, Berlin 1998.
© Unknown illustration
Introduction and Definition of Tourism
work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all
purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined
tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home2 .
The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its “Recommendations on
Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism”, which involves residents of the given country
travelling only within this country; Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in
the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country.
The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three basic forms of
tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National
tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and International tourism,
which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism.
Tourism has been pivotal in social progress as well as an important vehicle of widening
socio-economic and cultural contacts throughout human history. A wide array of interests –
entertainment, sports, religion, culture, adventure, education, health and business – drives
tourism. With the advancement of transport, communication and improvement in general
economic well-being, the demand for tourism has increased concomitantly. Tourism facilitates
business contacts, widens markets and helps diffusion of growth impulses across territories
to promote broad based employment and income generation. Investment in tourist
infrastructure adds to economic growth, catalyses generation of income and employment,
which in turn, leads to further growth in demand for tourism and stimulates subsequent
rounds of investment in a virtuous circle.
Tourist expenditure generates multiple effects with extensive outreach along its value chain.
Adding to the demand for a variety of goods and services, tourism offers potential to exploit
synergies across a large number of sectors such as agriculture, horticulture, poultry,
handicrafts, transport, construction — the sectors, where growth of income has favourable
impact on poverty alleviation.
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM
Tourism is a highly internationalised industry subject to globalisation tendencies, as is evident
in respect of the media images which help shape the tourist gaze, and growth of multinational
tourism companies. While most tourism involves activities within national borders, and
few tourists have time and money to engage in a genuinely global scan of tourism destinations,
globalisation processes are affecting even the most localised of tourism patterns. Not the
least, they shape the expectations of tourists, and intensify place competition3 .
2 http://www.aiest.org/org/idt/idt_aiest.nsf/en/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 3 A.W. Williams and Gareth Shaw, Tourism and Economic Development: European Experiences (Sussex, 1998).
Introduction to Tourism and Ecotourism: Global Context
Tourism has now emerged the largest international industry. With the popular and extensive
use of internet, tourism products and services are easily marketed directly to the consumers
at a global level. One estimate4 puts one out of every nine workers in the world directly or
indirectly employed in the tourism industry. As per the UNWTO5 Tourism Highlights 2000,
“Tourism clearly counts as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of
the last century. It undoubtedly will keep this position for the century to come. Every year a
bigger portion of the world population takes part in tourism activity and for the majority of
countries tourism has developed as one of the most dynamic and fastest sectors of economy.”
Before we discuss the characteristics of tourism, let us examine the definitions of tourism.
Basically, tourism is the business of providing tours and services for tourists. As mentioned
earlier, UNWTO defines tourism as, “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling
to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive
year for leisure, business and other purposes”.
Five main characteristics of tourism may be identified from the definition.
1) Tourism arises from a movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations.
2) There are two elements in all tourism: the journey to the destination and the stay
including activities at the destination.
3) The journey and the stay take place outside the usual place of reside