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    Unit 1 : Introduction and Definition of Tourism ............ 3

    Unit 2 : Forms of Tourism ............................................... 32

    Unit 3 : Evolution of Tourism as a Business ................... 51

    National Law University, Delhi

    Sector-14, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078

    Centre for Environmental Law, WWF-India

    172-B, Lodi Estate, New Delhi-110003

  • November, 2012

    © CEL, WWF-India & National Law University Delhi, 2012

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any

    form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, mimeography or other electronic or

    mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the copyrighters, except in the case of

    brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by

    copyright law.

    Unit Compilation

    Ramya Iyer, CEL, WWF-India

    Course Advisor & Editor

    Moulika Arabhi , CEL, WWF- India

    Proofreading Laser Composition

    Neeru, Independent Consultant Tessa Media & Computers, New Delhi



    1. Introduction

    2. Characteristics of Tourism

    3. Significance of Tourism as an Industry

    4. Economic Significance of Tourism

    5. Economic Importance of Tourism Sector of a Country

    6. Tourism vs. Sustainable Development: The Unending Debate

    7. Tourism and Millennium Development Goals

    8. Summary


    Since the beginning of time, humans have travelled. Food, water, safety or acquisition of

    resources were the early travel motivations. However, early travellers cannot be classified

    as Tourists. This is because, during early ages travel was dangerous, expensive and time-

    consuming activity that was rarely undertaken unless for business, adventure, to flee disease

    or war and a few other reasons, none of which leisure. Nonetheless, the idea of travel for

    leasure, pleasure and exploration soon emerged.

    Tourism is generally thought of as an activity in which individuals explore a culture or

    an environment that is foreign to them. It is a travel taken up for recreational or leisure


    The conventional or world view of tourism as an industry is more west centric. Tourism’s

    past is dominated by the history of western cultural experience. Tourism starts with the

    wealthy, with images of prestigious visits to spas and seaside resorts, Grand Tours and the

    activities of business entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook, before it begins to filter down

    the social ladder. However, this does not mean that no attention should be paid to tourism’s

    past in non-western societies and cultures and to the more ordinary and routine practices of

    a wider cross-section of the population. It is too simplistic to portray tourism’s evolution as

    a geographical process of diffusion from one or two core areas and a social process of

    downward movement from the affluent.


  • Introduction to Tourism and Ecotourism: Global Context


    There have been various attempts to define tourism that have proved unsatisfactory. It is

    indeed difficult to see any common agreement between the numerous definitions that exist

    for this term. However, there are some widely accepted definitions that are recognised and

    followed universally.

    The World Tourism Organisation defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places

    outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours and not more than one

    consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an

    activity remunerated from within the place visited”.

    Hunziker and Krapf1 , in 1941, defined tourism as people who travel “the sum of the

    phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as

    they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity”.

    In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-

    term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and

    1 Werner Hunziker and Kurt (1942). Grundriss der allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre.; cf. Hasso Spode in

    Günther Haehling (ed.): Tourismus-Management, Berlin 1998.

    © Unknown illustration

  • Introduction and Definition of Tourism


    work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all

    purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined

    tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home2 .

    The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its “Recommendations on

    Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism”, which involves residents of the given country

    travelling only within this country; Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in

    the given country; and Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country.

    The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three basic forms of

    tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National

    tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and International tourism,

    which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism.

    Tourism has been pivotal in social progress as well as an important vehicle of widening

    socio-economic and cultural contacts throughout human history. A wide array of interests –

    entertainment, sports, religion, culture, adventure, education, health and business – drives

    tourism. With the advancement of transport, communication and improvement in general

    economic well-being, the demand for tourism has increased concomitantly. Tourism facilitates

    business contacts, widens markets and helps diffusion of growth impulses across territories

    to promote broad based employment and income generation. Investment in tourist

    infrastructure adds to economic growth, catalyses generation of income and employment,

    which in turn, leads to further growth in demand for tourism and stimulates subsequent

    rounds of investment in a virtuous circle.

    Tourist expenditure generates multiple effects with extensive outreach along its value chain.

    Adding to the demand for a variety of goods and services, tourism offers potential to exploit

    synergies across a large number of sectors such as agriculture, horticulture, poultry,

    handicrafts, transport, construction — the sectors, where growth of income has favourable

    impact on poverty alleviation.


    Tourism is a highly internationalised industry subject to globalisation tendencies, as is evident

    in respect of the media images which help shape the tourist gaze, and growth of multinational

    tourism companies. While most tourism involves activities within national borders, and

    few tourists have time and money to engage in a genuinely global scan of tourism destinations,

    globalisation processes are affecting even the most localised of tourism patterns. Not the

    least, they shape the expectations of tourists, and intensify place competition3 .

    2 Retrieved 2008-03-29. 3 A.W. Williams and Gareth Shaw, Tourism and Economic Development: European Experiences (Sussex, 1998).

  • Introduction to Tourism and Ecotourism: Global Context


    Tourism has now emerged the largest international industry. With the popular and extensive

    use of internet, tourism products and services are easily marketed directly to the consumers

    at a global level. One estimate4 puts one out of every nine workers in the world directly or

    indirectly employed in the tourism industry. As per the UNWTO5 Tourism Highlights 2000,

    “Tourism clearly counts as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of

    the last century. It undoubtedly will keep this position for the century to come. Every year a

    bigger portion of the world population takes part in tourism activity and for the majority of

    countries tourism has developed as one of the most dynamic and fastest sectors of economy.”

    Before we discuss the characteristics of tourism, let us examine the definitions of tourism.

    Basically, tourism is the business of providing tours and services for tourists. As mentioned

    earlier, UNWTO defines tourism as, “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling

    to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive

    year for leisure, business and other purposes”.

    Five main characteristics of tourism may be identified from the definition.

    1) Tourism arises from a movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations.

    2) There are two elements in all tourism: the journey to the destination and the stay

    including activities at the destination.

    3) The journey and the stay take place outside the usual place of reside