Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors...

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Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Biomes
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Transcript of Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors...

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  • Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Biomes Biotic & Abiotic Factors Terrestrial Biomes Aquatic Biomes
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  • A. Biomes Major types of terrestrial ecosystems. Distribution of biomes largely depends on climate (temperature & rainfall). Climate is determined by the Earths tilt & uneven heating of Earths surface. A. Biomes Major types of terrestrial ecosystems. Distribution of biomes largely depends on climate (temperature & rainfall). Climate is determined by the Earths tilt & uneven heating of Earths surface. Tilt produces seasons in northern & southern hemispheres.
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  • Earths tilt produces?
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  • Unequal heating causes air movements that distribute moisture. Altitude influences climate - conditions usually become drier & colder as altitude increases.
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  • Air circulation & biomes Note the closed air cells? Wind patterns distribute suns heat=?? Ocean currents too related to weather?? Note the closed air cells? Wind patterns distribute suns heat=?? Ocean currents too related to weather??
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  • Elevation & biomes
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  • Rain shadow effect
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  • Earths major biomes
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  • Biome Biome: a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plant and animal communities
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  • Biotic & Abiotic Factors
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  • Biotic Factors Biotic Factors: the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Birds, Trees, Mushrooms, Bacteria Biotic Factors: the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Birds, Trees, Mushrooms, Bacteria
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  • Abiotic Factors Abiotic Factors: physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems Climate (temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc.) Wind, Nutrient Availability, Soil Type, Sunlight, etc. Abiotic Factors: physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems Climate (temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc.) Wind, Nutrient Availability, Soil Type, Sunlight, etc.
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  • HawkPlants Insect s FishSnake Bacteria Sunligh t pH Temp Humidit y Acid Rain Soil Type
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  • Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the habitat lives.
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  • Terrestrial Biomes
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  • Coniferous Forest
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  • Deciduous Forest
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  • Tropical Forest
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  • Desert
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  • Savanna
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  • Grassland
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  • Tundra
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  • Chaparral
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  • Aquatic Biomes
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  • Marine
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  • Zonation
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  • Estuaries
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  • Intertidal Zone
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  • Freshwater
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  • Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Lakes and Ponds (standing water) Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Lakes and Ponds (standing water) littoral zone limnetic zone profundal zone benthic zone
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  • Littoral zone - shallow area where light reaches the bottom; contains the greatest number & diversity of organisms (rooted plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, fish, reptiles). Limnetic zone - upper layer of open water; extends down as far as light reaches. Find phytoplankton, zooplankton & fishes. Profundal zone - deeper layer of open water; light does not penetrate. Find scavengers & decomposers. Benthic zone - lake bottom. Find scavengers & decomposers. Littoral zone - shallow area where light reaches the bottom; contains the greatest number & diversity of organisms (rooted plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, fish, reptiles). Limnetic zone - upper layer of open water; extends down as far as light reaches. Find phytoplankton, zooplankton & fishes. Profundal zone - deeper layer of open water; light does not penetrate. Find scavengers & decomposers. Benthic zone - lake bottom. Find scavengers & decomposers.
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  • Oxygen & nutrients (nitrogen/phosphorus) are unevenly distributed in lakes. O 2 level is highest near surface nutrient level is highest near bottom Oxygen & nutrients are redistributed by: wind (ponds & shallow lakes) fall & spring turnover (deep lakes in temperate regions) Oxygen & nutrients (nitrogen/phosphorus) are unevenly distributed in lakes. O 2 level is highest near surface nutrient level is highest near bottom Oxygen & nutrients are redistributed by: wind (ponds & shallow lakes) fall & spring turnover (deep lakes in temperate regions)
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  • Oligotrophic lakes young; low in nutrients & productivity clear & sparkling blue deep water is oxygen-rich Eutrophic lakes older; nutrient rich & high in productivity green & murky O 2 often depleted in deep water during summer Nutrients in sewage & agricultural runoff speed eutrophication. Oligotrophic lakes young; low in nutrients & productivity clear & sparkling blue deep water is oxygen-rich Eutrophic lakes older; nutrient rich & high in productivity green & murky O 2 often depleted in deep water during summer Nutrients in sewage & agricultural runoff speed eutrophication.
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  • Rivers and Streams (running water) Transport rainwater, groundwater, snowmelt & sediment from land to ocean or lake. Rivers and Streams (running water) Transport rainwater, groundwater, snowmelt & sediment from land to ocean or lake. At headwaters: channel is narrow water is clear & oxygen-rich current is swift At mouth: channel widens water is murky & contains less oxygen current slows, depositing sediment
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  • 2. Marine Ecosystems Coastal Ecosystems Include estuaries, mangrove swamps, the intertidal zone & coral reefs. Estuary - area where fresh water of river meets salty water of ocean. 2. Marine Ecosystems Coastal Ecosystems Include estuaries, mangrove swamps, the intertidal zone & coral reefs. Estuary - area where fresh water of river meets salty water of ocean. water is brackish salinity fluctuates very productive high biodiversity nursery for many ocean animals
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  • Ocean currents & biomes
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  • Mangrove Swamp - tropical wetland dominated by salt-tolerant plants (mangroves). transitional zone between forest & ocean salinity fluctuates plants have aerial roots high biodiversity
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  • Intertidal Zone - area along coast between high & low tides. organisms adapted to pounding waves & varying degrees of desiccation low productivity Coral Reef - underwater deposits of calcium carbonate formed by colonies of animals. very productive high biodiversity very fragile
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  • Ocean Ecosystem covers 71% of Earths surface temperature: 35 o F - 81 o F sunlight quickly dissipates with depth primary producers are photoautotrophs (found near surface) & chemoautotrophs (found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents) highest productivity near upwellings (occurs on western side of continents) Ocean Ecosystem covers 71% of Earths surface temperature: 35 o F - 81 o F sunlight quickly dissipates with depth primary producers are photoautotrophs (found near surface) & chemoautotrophs (found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents) highest productivity near upwellings (occurs on western side of continents)
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  • And, what did we learn? What is a biome? List 2 major factors that determine? List 7 major biomes & climates Compare freshwater ecosystems Lakes vs flowing sources Marine ecosystems (coastal & open) What is a biome? List 2 major factors that determine? List 7 major biomes & climates Compare freshwater ecosystems Lakes vs flowing sources Marine ecosystems (coastal & open)
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