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MARINE POLLUTION

ByCaroline Karunya Ponnarasi KanagarajGroup-IVIIIrd year6/8/2012done by LORD JESUS1BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

INTRODUCTIONBiomedical Waste (BMW): Any solid or liquid waste which may present a threat to humans, including non-liquid tissue, body parts, blood, blood products, and body fluids from humans and other primates; laboratory and veterinary wastes which contain human disease-causing agents; and discarded sharps.Sources of generation of Bio-medical wastes: Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Veterinary Hospitals, Dental Clinics, Pathological & Diagnostic Laboratories, Blood Bank etc.Type of Health Care Waste: These are of two types (i) Infectious Wastes (ii) Non-infectious Wastes6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS2HEALTH CARe WASTESINFECTIOUS HEALTH CARE WASTES (Bio-medical Waste): Human anatomical / surgical waste, Animal wastePathological waste including tissues, organs, blood and body fluids, microbiological cultures, Cotton,Swabs etc. Used Syringes, I.V. tubes, Blood bags and other items contaminated with blood and body fluids.Items such as plaster, casts and bandages, when contaminated by blood and pus.Waste from isolation wards.The amount of infectious waste is near about 25% of the total wastes generated from a health care establishment.NON-INFECTIOUS HEALTH CARE WASTE: Non-infectious waste is broadly classified as Kitchen waste and Office wastes. It is similar to household waste. Non-infectious wastes constitutes nearly 75% of the total wastes generated from a health care unit.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS3BIO-MEDICAL SURVEYThe All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata conducted a study on Hospital Waste Management in W.B., sponsored by the WBPCB in the year 1996-97 and concluded that: General waste containing food wastes, paper, plastics, floor sweeping, discarded glassware, earthen pot etc. constitute bulk (56-78% by weight) of the hospital waste. Waste generated in large government hospitals in Kolkata, is 1044 gms/bed/day whereas waste generated in large government hospitals in districts is comparatively low at 397 gms/bed/day.Certain salvageable items like saline bottles, surgical gloves, I.V. fluid bottles syringes etc. are disposedafter use in the wards without distorting or damaging. As a result, there remains a possibility of reuse of the said items. Incinerable waste constitutes 19-30% (by weight) of the total waste generated.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS44HEALTH IMPACTS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTEExposure to infectious BMW can result in disease or injury. It may contain: infectious agents, toxic or hazardous chemicals or pharmaceuticals, radio active wastes and waste sharps. The infectious wastes may contain any of the great variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens in infectious wastes may enter the human body through a number of routes like a puncture or cut in the skin, mucous membranes, by inhalation or ingestion.Sharps may not only cause cuts and punctures but also infect the wounds if they are contaminated with pathogens. Because of this dual risk of injury and disease transmission sharps are considered as a veryhazardous waste class.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS5HEALTH IMPACTS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTEPoor hospital waste management may cause the following: Hepatitis B & CHIV infectionGastro-enteric infection Respiratory infectionBlood stream infectionSkin infectionRadioactive toxicityHealth problems associated with air and water pollution.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS6HEALTH IMPACTS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTEDecomposing waste may generate foul odour inside the hospital premises and surrounding area.Drains may be clogged with waste materials creating an unhygienic environment in the surrounding hospital premises. This phenomenon may also help in the breeding of mosquitoes/flies that might contribute to the spread of infectious diseases. Waste dump may attract stray animals and birds that might spread waste materials leading to an unaesthetic and unhygienic environment.Indiscriminate disposal of pharmaceutical products (antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs) and discharge ofuntreated wastewater generated from the health care units could have disastrous ecological effects.Open dump of waste may decompose to produce leachate that might contaminate ground water.Uncontrolled and open burning of wastes can generate dioxins and furans, thus polluting the air.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS76/11/2012done by LORD JESUS8

Rules framed for the BMW managementRealizing the seriousness of the problem associated with the poor management of the bio-medical wastes , the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India, notified the Bio-Medical Waste(Management and Handling) Rules in July 1998 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, through a Gazette notification [S.O. 630(E)]. Thereafter, the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules were amended twice in the year 2000 and the last amendment was made in the year 2003. The first amendment was published on 6th March 2000 vide S.O. 210(E), the second amendment was published on 2nd June 2000 vide the Gazette Notification S.O. 545(E) and third Amendment was published on 17thSeptember 2003 vide Gazette Notification S.O. 1069(E). The main objective of the rules are to ensure proper segregation, collection, transportation and disposal of the infectious BMW in order to safe guard the public health of the society.6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS9Segregation of Bio-medical WastesBags/BinsType of wastesTreatmentYellow BagsAnatomical wasteincineration (for cities with population more than 5lakhs) or Deep Burial PitRed BagsInfectious wastesAutoclaving or Micro Waving followed byShreddingBlue/White Punctureproof containersSharp wastesMutilating and disinfecting by Chemical treatmentand then Autoclaving or Micro WavingBlack binsFor normal MSW/kitchen wastesDisposal in MSW disposal ground6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS106/11/2012done by LORD JESUS11Yellow Bag(Incineration/Deep burial)Blue Bag(Autoclaving)Puncture proof Containerfor sharp waste(Autoclaving after chemicaltreatment)Human Anatomical waste (Humantissue, organs, Placenta,body parts) Specimens from laboratory/researchcentre Surgical WasteBlood contaminated CottonBlood contaminated BandagesSoiled PlastersBlood contaminated DressingAnatomical waste (Animal tissue,organs, body parts, etc.) Discarded medicine (solid)SyringesUrine bagsCathetersI.V. fluid bottle Blood Bags StentsGlovesApronsAny other tubingNeedlesCut glassBladesScalpelsSlidesLancetsGeneral wastes of health care unit keptin Black coloured bagSegregated incinerable wastes keptin YellowSegregated incinerable wastes kept in Yellow coloured bag6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS12

Segregated Autoclavable wastes kept in Blue coloured bag

General wastes of health care unit kept in Black coloured bagTREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF BMWThe Bio-medical Wastes are broadly classified into :incinerable wastes autoclavable wastes. The incinerable wastes : treated by incinerator or through deep burial pit as per the provisions of the Rules. The waste incinerator shall have a dual chamber i.e. primary chamber & secondary chamber. The temperature of the primary chamber shall be 800 50 0C and the temperature of the secondary chamber shall be 1050 50 0C. The incinerator shall have adequate pollution control devices to control environmental pollution. No chlorinated plastic shall be incinerated in order to prevent formation of Dioxins & Furans. 6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS13TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF BMWThe autoclavable wastes(non-incinerable BMW) can be treated by Autoclave/ Microwave/Hydroclave etc. The waste autoclave may be of two types:Gravity Flow Autoclave Vacuum Autoclave.Normally vacuum type autoclave is used for the treatment of non-incinerable wastes. The temperature,pressure & time which are required for treatment of BMW are either 121 0C, 15 psi & 45 minutes or 135 0C, 31 psi & 30 minutes6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS146/11/2012done by LORD JESUS15

Waste handling at Common facilityWaste Autoclave

A work man working with incinerator in maduraiIncinerator with Air Pollution Control Device6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS16

Chimney for IncineratorCase studyIn 2003, a rag-picker, but for whose tribe Mumbai would have been a dirtier place despite having a civic body in place, found a human hand on a garbage dump. The incident raised a hue and cry which brought to light the fact that the citys healthcare system did not give a damn about how it disposed of its biomedical waste.Two years down the road, a child from a city slum, playing near the garbage dump, picked up a thing with a pointy end and playfully sprayed his friend with its content. That cost his 7-year-old pal his eye, all in innocent but decidedly deadly fun. When a social worker took up the blinded boys cause, it once again focused attention on biomedical waste management practices in the city. The law demands the segregation of such waste, and placing them in differently coded bags for disposal.These two cases relate to what was seen and done on garbage heaps. Things that ought not to have arrived there at all had found their way there. The hospital concerned and the citys solid waste managers had failed again.

6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS17Nine years on, have there been any noticeable improvements in this scary scenario?

NOWHY???Lets think!!!!6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS18conclusionAs a future doctors try to practice and imply in your own hospital.Encourage your collegues to know about this and make them to follow this law.Dont become a reason for: a healthy to become unhealthyLet the waste of the sick not contaminate the lives of The Healthy6/11/2012done by LORD JESUS196/11/2012done by LORD JESUS20

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