Bike Sentences

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Transcript of Bike Sentences

  • 1. The bike is a concrete image of how sentenceswork. This presentation, given at ATEGs 2006conference, shows you how to use the bike toteach sentence structure. The slides areexamples of the kind of instruction found inAn Easy Guide to Writingby Pamela DykstraPrentice Hall, 2006ISBN: 0 -13 184954 - 9

2. A CONCRETE IMAGE OF HOW SENTENCES WORK 3. Whats a sentence? Here are three sentences: He smiles. Autumn leaves twirled gently to the ground. The park district will open an outdoor ice skatingrink in November. 4. Length does not determine what is and is not asentence. Regardless of how long or short a group ofwords is, it needs two parts to be a sentence: a subjectand a predicate.The subject tells us who or what.The predicate tells us what about it. Itusually contains a verb!A sentence must also complete a thought! 5. Who or what? What about it?He smiles.Autumn leaves twirl gently to the ground.The park district will open an outdoor iceskating rink in November.These two parts connect to form a basicsentence, also known as an independent clause. 6. Another way to describe a sentence is to compare itto a bikeThe subject is one wheel;the predicate is the other wheel.These two parts connect to form a stable structure. 7. We can have just one word in each wheelChildren play.Students studied. 8. But most of the time our ideas include more details.We add extra words to the wheels.The neighborhood children play basketball at thecommunity center.Students in the biology lab studied cells underan electron microscope. 9. We can expand the wheels by addingadjectives:Old magazines are stacked under the kitchentable.The weekend seminar explains how to start asmall business.Meditation helps create a peaceful mind andhealthy body. 10. We can expand the wheels by addingadverbs:Airline employees worked diligently to rescheduleour flights.We carefully loaded the van with furniture.The driver realized immediately that he hadmissed the exit. 11. We can also add prepositional phrases:The windows rattled in the winter storm.We loaded our hamburgers with ketchup, mustard,and onion.Some car dealers make most of their profit onparts and services. 12. Regardless of how much detail we add, the wheels givethe same kind of information. The subject tells us whoor what. The predicate tells us what about it.Who or what? What about it?Randy loves pizza.Companies benefit from customer loyalty.Efficient train service will decrease traffic congestion. 13. Subjects and predicates connect directly. Do notseparate them with a comma.Incorrect: Carlos and his family, showed me thathonor is more important than winning.Correct: Carlos and his family showed me thathonor is more important than winning. 14. Taking StockThe bike with its subject and predicate wheels givesstudents a solid foundation of how sentences work.Concrete imageStudents see that a sentence has two parts- that these two parts can be expanded- that they connect to form a sentence. 15. Meaning-centered definitionStudents understand (remember, apply) who or whatand what about it.- gives them a sentence test: Do I have a whoor what and a what about it?-- rather thantrying to identify parts of speech- fits wide variety of sentences- connects them to the purpose of writing:creating and communicating meaning 16. Moving ForwardStudents have gained sense of sentence boundaries.- A sentence is not determined by length (2wheels, expandable)- Writers mark end of who or what and whatabout it with a period.Knowing what a sentence is, students are better able tounderstand dependent clauses. 17. Dependent clausesDependent clauses cannot stand alone. Theyare like baskets that need to be attached to abasic sentence.One kind of dependent clause begins with asubordinating conjunction. 18. Most common subordinatingconjunctions aftersince when Although so that wheneverassupposing where because than whereas before that Wherever but that though whether if Though which in order While lest Unless who no matter until why how What even though 19. Subordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions connect two unequal parts,e.g., dependent and independent clauses) Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes used as simpleadverbs. If they do not connect independent clauses,they are not conjunctive adverbs.When functioning this way there is no punctuation toseparate it from the surrounding material.For example, see the following sentences:I knew the test would be hard, so I planned accordinglyto study for several hours.I was still studying at six o'clock in the evening!Joey decided to go to a party instead. 20. When the music beganEveryone started to dance.When the music began,everyone started to dance. 21. Here are some more dependent clauses:As soon as it stopped rainingBecause I registered earlyWhen we need a quiet place to study 22. We can place these baskets on the front of abike.As soon as it stopped raining, we saw a double rainbow.Because I registered early, I got the classes I wanted.When we need a quiet place to study, we go to the library. 23. We can also place them on the back of a bike.We saw a double rainbow as soon as it stopped raining.I got the classes I wanted because I registered early.We go to the library when we need a quiet place to study. 24. More Dependent ClausesAnother kind of dependent clause begins withthe relative pronouns who, which, and that.who works part-timewhich includes a swimming poolthat is parked in my drivewayThese clauses are not sentences. They are likebaskets that need to be attached to a bike. 25. These baskets go after the word they describe.Sometimes theyre in the middle of the bike.Frank, who works part-time, will be our guide.The new fitness center, which includes a swimmingpool, will open in February. 26. Sometimes they are on the back of the bike.We are making pasta for the Richardsons, who do noteat meat.I have tickets to the jazz festival, which begins at noon.Karen likes books that have a happy ending. 27. Sentence SupportRegardless of what kind of basket we add, we need abasic sentence to support it.Example: The new fitness center, which includes aswimming pool, will open in April.Basic sentence: The new fitness center willopen in April.Basket: which includes a swimming pool 28. Taking StockThe baskets help students see that- dependent clauses are not sentences- they need to be attached to a sentenceMoving ForwardThe basket is also useful when explaining fragmentsand sentence variety. 29. FragmentsA fragment is just a part of a sentence. It maylack a subject or a predicate. Often its adisconnected basket. 30. Disconnected dependent clausesAs soon as I understood the problem. I thought of asolution.I was not responsible. When I was sixteen.The village will enlarge the parking lot. Whichserves weekday commuters.Lets rent the same movie. That we saw lastweekend. 31. Disconnected description and detailIt was an easy task. Especially for someone so small.The corporation provides employees with benefits.Like medical insurance and a pension.We have ordered everything on the menu. Exceptfried buffalo wings.We put an ad in the Lake Norman Times. Our localnewspaper. 32. Disconnected -ing and to fragmentsI sprinted down the street. Trying to catch the train.The scientists continued their research. Hoping tofind a cure.To celebrate their anniversary. They are going toAsheville for the weekend.We walked up sixteen flights of stairs. To prove toourselves we could do it. 33. We can correct these fragments by attaching them tothe sentence.As soon as I understood the problem,I thought of a solution.I sprinted down the street, trying tocatch the train. 34. Sentence VarietyBaskets are excellent ways to create sentencevariety. Once we have a stable structure, we canadd a variety of baskets on the front, in themiddle, or on the back. 35. We can add a variety of baskets on the front.Earlier this spring, the viaduct was closed because offlooding.Eight months ago, we bought a truck.By the time we got home, it was dark.Irritable after a long day at work, we took a nap beforestudying. 36. A variety of baskets in the middle:My little brother, unable to sleep, turned on the light.The elderly couple, walking slowly up the driveway,waved at their grandchildren.A modern art gallery, funded by a million dollar grant,is under construction.John Jackson, a friend since grade school, is my mathtutor. 37. And a variety of baskets on the back:Jeff wants a hybrid, his best hope for good gasmileage.A gentle rain fell throughout the night, lulling us tosleep.We are building a home with Habitat for Humanity, anational volunteer program.Everyone wants to leave at noon, even my sister. 38. The Logic of PunctuationReaders are looking for the who or what and whatabout it of a sentence, the main idea. Commas helpthem see that main idea. If you begin a sentence with a basket, use a commato show readers where the addition ends and thebasic sentence begins.According to the weather report, tomorrow willbe hot and humid.If we go to the early movie, we can save money. 39. If the basket interrupts the sentence, use commas toshow readers where the addition begins and ends.The art gallery, which opens this weekend,features local artists.Ruby, my sisters best friend, will loan me hercar. 40. If the basket is attached to the end of the sentence, thecomma shows readers where the addition begins.The award was given to James Johnson, the mostrespected person in our town.They are living in the present, not the past. 41. SUMMARYThe bike helps students see how sentences work- how the whole communicates meaning- how the parts relate to the whole- how punctuation signals these connections. 42. Students see how the whole communicatesmeaning and how the parts relate to the whole.The subject is one wheel, giving the who orwhat. The predicate is the other wheel, givingthe what about it. These two