Beyond Sensor Technologies Where Do We Go ? What’s Next ? Where Others Have Been

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Transcript of Beyond Sensor Technologies Where Do We Go ? What’s Next ? Where Others Have Been

Beyond Sensor Technologies

Beyond Sensor TechnologiesWhere Do We Go ?Whats Next ?Where Others Have Been40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryFerte and Balp 1937Optical Weeder40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryMarihart 1943Variable rate nutrient, fungicide and herbicide40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryPalmer and Owens 1969Chemcial weeder first to use digital computer40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryHenderson and Grafton 1975First solid-state (LED) plant sensor40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryStafford et al. 1988Handheld turf sensor40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryBeck and Vyse 1992Solid state weeder40

193050702000608090Prof. Robert Olson Warned about Nitrate Leaching Graduate Students : Curt Clausen, Bill Raun, Albert SimmsProducers had discovered the merits of N fertilizer on corn yields and assumed that:

If a little is good, more would be better !40

193050702000608090High Nitrate Groundwater in Nebraska Deep soil cores showed nitrate leaching toward groundwater.

Causes : Too much N fertilizer and water

Producers said - If you want us to apply less N fertilizer, you will have to come up with a practical way to detect a pending deficiency and fix it before it reduces yield ! ! !> 10 mg/L NO3-N40

193050702000608090Hageman Enlightenment Regarding C & N Schepers takes sabbatical leave with Dick Hageman and works with Fred Below to explore ways to monitor corn N status.

Leaf chlorophyll is key to high yields !40

193050702000608090Concern over Nitrate and Pesticide Leaching Burlington Northern Railroad funds project to protect groundwater quality.

Nitrification inhibitor Realistic N fertilizer rates and timingRichard Ferguson

Raun Lohry (Nutra-Flo)Developed leaf N vs. chlorophyll concentration relationships for corn at different growth stages40

193050702000608090Problem Variability in Yield Responses to N Pioneer HiBred studies (Curt Clausen)Schuyler, Page, ???? NebraskaHow to compare corn yield responses to N fertilizer rates across years, hybrids, and locations ? Used Relative Yield to evaluate N fertilizer effects across studiesWhat portion of corn-yield variability should realistically be attributed to climatic conditions after silking ? Question 40% ?

July 12, 2012August 11, 2012Value of Irrigation

Thermal IR imageWater Distribution ProblemsSomeplacein Kansas201140

193050702000608090 Minolta Introduces SPAD Meter Project manager (Todd Peterson)Graduate student (Tracy Blackmer)SPAD meters used to make spoon-feeding decisions for fertigation in MSEA studiesSufficiency Index concept is published

Canopy sensors can not quantify excess N N StatusSimilar40

193050702000608090

Real-time Active Sensor HistoryHeege and Reusch 1995First commercial variable rate applicatorEarly NPlantingIn-season NV6V9TasselingWhen?How much?How much early?In season?Sensor basedN uptake19EarlyGrowthRapidGrowthMaturingLateLoss1007550250MayJuneJulyAugSeptSeasonal Nitrogen Uptake, %70-80% of requirement after V8 - 1040% of requirement after silkingBuilding Block

Irrigated Corn - 1993SilkingCorn YieldNUEAll YieldFertilizerOnly YieldEONR = 176 kg/haEconomic Optimum N RateFREE yieldNitrogen Use EfficiencyFertilizer EffectTotal N Effect

Pay More Attention to Cultural Practices ?Corn is the Wrong Crop ?Data Interpretation ?Algorithm Development ?Product Quality Issues ?

Seed Corn - 2012MaleFemale

RapidSCAN

V8

Do high yielding hybrids have the same nutrient uptake patterns as older hybrids ?

.similar nutrient balance ?

Silking

HarvestForget about -building a better mouse trap ?

Rather

Start by working with farmers to - catch 50 75% of the mice with existing technologies ?Drive and Fly Safely

Thank YouJim Schepers402-310-6150james.schepers@gmail.com Chart16.28140703528.16582914579.736180904510.992462311611.809045226112.374371859312.562814070412.688442211112.751256281412.751256281412.751256281412.751256281412.7512562814

Fertilizer N Rate, kg/haYield, Mg/ha

Sheet1Nitrogen Rate, lb/AYield, bu/Akg N.haMg/haN costGrain Value010006.281407035209882013022.48.1658291457221,2844015544.89.7361809045451,5316017567.210.9924623116671,7298018889.611.8090452261901,85710019711212.37437185931121,946120200134.412.56281407041341,976140202156.812.68844221111571,996160203179.212.75125628141792,006180203201.612.75125628142022,00620020322412.75125628142242,006220203246.412.75125628142462,006240203268.812.75125628142692,006kg/ha$/haN RateValue$/kg N1997.297921012.7415.442131028.026915.286941043.159215.132351058.137514.978361072.962414.824971087.634514.672181102.154414.519991116.522714.3683101130.7414.2173111144.806914.0669121158.72413.9171131172.491913.7679141186.111213.6193151199.582513.4713161212.906413.3239171226.083513.1771181239.114413.0309191251.999712.8853201264.7412.7403211277.335912.5959221289.78812.4521231302.096912.3089241314.263212.1663251326.287512.0243261338.170411.8829271349.912511.7421281361.514411.6019291372.976711.4623301384.311.3233311395.484911.1849321406.53211.0471331417.441910.9099341428.215210.7733351438.852510.6373361449.354410.5019371459.721510.3671381469.954410.2329391480.053710.0993401490.029.9663411499.85399.8339421509.5569.7021431519.12699.5709441528.56729.4403451537.87759.3103461547.05849.1809471556.11059.0521481565.03448.9239491573.83078.7963501582.58.6693511591.04298.5429521599.468.4171531607.75198.2919541615.91928.1673551623.96258.0433561631.88247.9199571639.67957.7971581647.35447.6749591654.90777.5533601662.347.4323611669.65197.3119621676.8447.1921631683.91697.0729641690.87126.9543651697.70756.8363661704.42646.7189671711.02856.6021681717.51446.4859691723.88476.3703701730.146.2553711736.28096.1409721742.3086.0271731748.22195.9139741754.02325.8013751759.71255.6893761765.29045.5779771770.75755.4671781776.11445.3569791781.36175.2473801786.55.1383811791.52995.0299821796.4524.9221831801.26694.8149841805.97524.7083851810.57754.6023861815.07444.4969871819.46654.3921881823.75444.2879891827.93874.1843901832.024.0813911835.99893.9789921839.8763.8771931843.65193.7759941847.32723.6753951850.90253.5753961854.37843.4759971857.75553.3771981861.03443.2789991864.21573.18131001867.33.08431011870.28792.98791021873.182.89211031875.97692.79691041878.67922.70231051881.28752.60831061883.80242.51491071886.22452.42211081888.55442.32991091890.79272.23831101892.942.14731111894.99692.05691121896.9641.96711131898.84191.87791141900.63121.78931151902.33251.70131161903.94641.61391171905.47351.52711181906.91441.44091191908.26971.35531201909.541.27031211910.72591.18591221911.8281.10211231912.84691.01891241913.78320.93631251914.63750.85431261915.41040.77291271916.10250.69211281916.71440.61191291917.24670.53231301917.70.45331311918.07490.37491321918.3720.29711331918.59190.21991341918.73520.14331351918.80250.06731361918.7944-0.00811371918.7115-0.08291381918.5544-0.15711391918.3237-0.23071401918.02-0.30371411917.6439-0.37611421917.196-0.44791431916.6769-0.51911441916.0872-0.58971451915.4275-0.65971461914.6984-0.72911471913.9005-0.79791481913.0344-0.86611491912.1007-0.93371501911.1-1.00071511910.0329-1.06711521908.9-1.13291531907.7019-1.19811541906.4392-1.26271551905.1125-1.32671561903.7224-1.39011571902.2695-1.45291581900.7544-1.51511591899.1777-1.57671601897.54-1.63771611895.8419-1.69811621894.084-1.75791631892.2669-1.81711641890.3912-1.87571651888.4575-1.93371661886.4664-1.99111671884.4185-2.04791681882.3144-2.10411691880.1547-2.15971701877.94-2.21471711875.6709-2.26911721873.348-2.32291731870.9719-2.37611741868.5432-2.42871751866.0625-2.48071761863.5304-2.53211771860.9475-2.58291781858.3144-2.63311791855.6317-2.68271801852.9-2.73171811850.1199-2.78011821847.292-2.82791831844.4169-2.87511841841.4952-2.92171851838.5275-2.96771861835.5144-3.01311871832.4565-3.05791881829.3544-3.10211891826.2087-3.14571901823.02-3.18871911819.7889-3.23111921816.516-3.27291931813.2019-3.31411941809.8472-3.35471951806.4525-3.39471961803.0184-3.43411971799.5455-3.47291981796.0344-3.51111991792.4857-3.54872001788.9-3.58572011785.2779-3.62212021781.62-3.65792031777.9269-3.69312041774.1992-3.72772051770.4375-3.76172061766.6424-3.79512071762.8145-3.82792081758.9544-3.86012091755.0627-3.89172101751.14-3.92272111747.1869-3.95312121743.204-3.98292131739.1919-4.01212141735.1512-4.04072151731.0825-4.06872161726.9864-4.09612171722.8635-4.12292181718.7144-4.14912191714.5397-4.17472201710.34-4.19972211706.1159-4.22412221701.868-4.24792231697.5969-4.27112241693.3032-4.29372251688.9875-4.31572261684.6504-4.33712271680.2925-4.35792281675.9144-4.37812291671.5167-4.39772301667.1-4.41672311662.6649-4.43512321658.212-4.45292331653.7419-4.47012341649.2552-4.48672351644.7525-4.50272361640.2344-4.51812371635.7015-4.53292381631.1544-4.54712391626.5937-4.56072401622.02-4.57372411617.4339-4.58612421612.836-4.59792431608.2269-4.60912441603.6072-4.61972451598.9775-4.62972461594.3384-4.63912471589.6905-4.64792481585.0344-4.65612491580.3707-4.66372501575.7-4.67072511571.0229-4.67712521566.34-4.68292531561.6519-4.68812541556.9592-4.69272551552.2625-4.69672561547.5624-4.70012571542.8595-4.70292581538.1544-4.70512591533.4477-4.70672601528.74-4.70772611524.0319-4.70812621519.324-4.70792631514.6169-4.70712641509.9112-4.70572651505.2075-4.70372661500.5064-4.70112671495.8085-4.69792681491.1144-4.69412691486.4247-4.68972701481.74-4.68472711477.0609-4.67912721472.388-4.67292731467.7219-4.66612741463.0632-4.65872751458.4125-4.65072761453.7704-4.64212771449.1375-4.63292781444.5144-4.62312791439.9017-4.61272801435.3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