Bespoke Menswear - Tailoring for Gentlemen€¦ · Bespoke Menswear Tailoring for Gentlemen. What...

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Bernhard Roetzel Photographs by Erill Fritz Bespoke Menswear Tailoring for Gentlemen
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  • Bernhard Roetzel

    Photographs by Erill Fritz

    Bespoke MenswearTailoring for Gentlemen

  • 9What is bespoke menswear?

    Bespoke tailoring is … a garment made by hand, using needle, thread, shears, and an iron,

    and involving several fittings.

    What is bespoke menswear?Buying an item of handsewn, bespoke clothing can mean one of two things: opting for pure luxury or makingaconsciousstatementaboutreducingawardrobetobareessentials.Therearebillionaireswhospendverylittlemoneyonclothesandwearonlypoorlyfitting,ready-madesuits,whilepeoplewhoareaspooraschurchmicemaypossessjusttwoorthreetailoredsuitsbutwearthemfordecades.

    Bespoketailoringisexpensive,inthesensethatmostpeoplecannotnormallyaffordit—butitiscomparableinpricetootherhandmadeproducts.Howmuchwouldyoupayforacustom-madewin-dow frame in wood? What would a handmade concert guitar cost? What would be the price of a new irongardengateworkedbyhand?Isabespokesuit—cutfromthefinestclothandhandsewn—expen-sivejustbecauseaready-madesuitwouldcostperhapsatenthasmuch?Howcanyouputavalueonagarmentthathasbeenmadejustforyou?

    Ifyouhavetotellsomeonewhyahandsewnbuttonholeisbeautiful,theyshouldbebuyingtheirclothesready-made.Therearenorationalargumentsforchoosinghandmadeclothes;atleast,notwhenhandmadeclothesarecomparedwithanygoodindustrialproduct.Ifaready-madesuitcostsEuros500(sayUS$700)andatailoredsuitcostsEuros5,000—tentimesasmuch—thehigherpricecannotbejustifiedbysayingthequalityistentimesbetter.Ifproperlylookedafter,aready-madesuitofaveragequalitymaylastalongtime;itmayalsofitpassablywell.Itmightevenlookgood.Therearepeople,however,whohavenoproblemwithpayingtentimesasmuchforabespokesuitandthisbookisanattempttoexplainwhy.Notbyarguingthepointrationally,butinsteadbyshowinghowmuchskillandcraftsmanshipgoesintothemanufactureofhandmadeclothes.Youmayenjoysuchartistrybutstillprefertosticktobuyingotherkindsofclothes;oryourcuriositymaybearousedandyoumayevenfindyourselfsoenthusedthatyouhavetotrybespoketailoringforyourself.

    The death knell for handmade bespoke tailoring has been sounding for decades—an extensiverangeof ready-madesuitshasbeenavailablesince the1920s.Thesedays, that range is considerablywider still and, thanks to manufacturing in countries where wages are extremely low, considerably more affordable.Thatsaid,90yearsago,amanwouldexpectthehighestqualityfromhistailor.Ready-madewasfineifyoucouldn’taffordanythingelseorifyouneededclothesinahurry.Nowadays,however,formostpeoplehandmadeclothingiscuriosityknownonlybyrepute,orfromfilms,andpeople’sunder-standingofbespoketailoringisminimal,althoughthedesiretoknowmoreaboutitissometimesgreater.Thisbookhastwogoals:tohelpcorrectthatlackofknowledgeandtoinspiresuchcuriosity.

    Introduction

  • 18 Bespoke Menswear

    Three countries, three tailoring traditionsGreatBritain isrightlyconsideredthehomeofgentleman’stailoring;betweentheendofthe19thcenturyandthe1920s,Britishtailorsdevelopedbasicformsthatstillmakeupthebackboneofthemalewardrobetothisday.ThehighqualityofclothfromYorkshire and Scotland also contributed to the renownof British tailoring,whichremainedtheepitomeofelegance,solidity,andstyleintothe1960s.Everyothercountryintheworldalsohaditstailoringtraditions,however,asthewell-heeledwhodidnottraveltoLondontoorderclotheswouldpatronizelocalsuppliersinstead.WhilesuchsupplierscouldobtainthefamedBritishfabrics,theyusedthelocalcuttingtraditionsfromtheirowncountriestoshapetheclothes.However—andthisiswhatmakesclassifyingregionalstylessodifficult—theyalwaysdidsoaccording to the tastesof theclient.Nevertheless, it ispossible to identifysomebasiclines,althoughthesearebecomingmoreandmoreblurrednowadays.Thisispartlytheresultofworldtravelandpeople’sgreatermobility—andthelossofregionalidentitythatthisentails—aswellasbeingpartlyconnectedwiththetidalwaveofimagesinthemodernmedia,makingeveryfashionabletrendaccessiblearoundtheworldimmediately.ABritishclientcanorderlocallywhateverhehasseeninanItaliantailor’sstorewindowwhileonacitybreaktoMilan,orinamag-azinechanceduponattheairportinNewYork.

    The British line

    Ahighwaistband,flaredcoat-tails,andaclearshoulder-linethatfallsgently,areconsideredtypicallyBritishfeatures.Asomewhatheavierliningistraditionallyselected,asmanyBritishtailorsrecommendashaped,slightlycurvedchest.Thearmhole is seated relativelyhighbutdoesnotaffect comfort.The sleeve is cutclosetothearmandnarrowstowardthewrist.Thepantsarecutrathermoregenerouslybehindsoasnottoconstrict,evenwhenclimbingstairsorsitting.Thelegopening isnarrower than inGermanyand the length lessgenerous.Thesearejustrulesofthumbandmaybeignoredentirelybytailorandclientalike.Thedetailing is what makes British tailoring easier to identify: the buttonhole in the lapel is made considerably longer than on the Continent and a plain buttonhole isgenerallypreferredoverakeyholebuttonhole.Pocketflapsarealsosomewhatlarger and the lining on the pants is usually more modest: knee-padding is not standardprocedure,forexample.Pantsarealsooftenstyledforsuspenders,i.e.withahighcutandwaistbandthatisadjustableatthebackortheside..

    The Italian line

    ItisjustashardtopindownatypicalItalianlineasitistopindownatypicalItalian;bothcanbeelusive.Itismoreamatterofvaryingregionalsartorialtraditions,

    althoughthesearebecominglessimportant.However,themaindifferencesbetweenthetailor-ingofthenorth,fromworkshopsinMilanorBolognaforexample,andateliersinRome,Naples,orPalermo,remainassignificantasever.Tailoringinthenorthisextremely“English”:sports

  • 39Cifonelli, Paris

    TheRueMarbeufinParisisasmallsidestreetofftheChamps-Élysées.AnyfanofclassicshoemakingwillknowitasthebespokeshoemakerBerlutihashisstorehere,butno.31isalsoofinterestforfansofbespoketailoringsincethislittlealleyisalsohometoCifonelli,oneofthebesttailor’sinParis.ThenameisItalian,however,andtherootsofthecompanylieinRome,whereGiuseppeCifonelliopenedatailor’sstorein1880.TheParisianbranchwasfoundedbyhissonArturointhe1920sandGiuseppe’snephewAdrianotookoverthebusinessin1972.ThetraditionsofthissartorialdynastyarenowbeingcontinuedbyAdriano’ssonLorenzoandhiscousinMassimo.TheycredittheirgrandfatherArturowithhavingdevelopedaspecialkindofshoulderseamandforward-cutsleevefitting.Theso-called“Cifonellishoulder”allowsformaximumfreedomofmovementwithaveryhigharmholeandatightlycurvedchest.KarlLagerfeldissupposedtohaveremarkedthathecouldrecognizeonefromadistanceofahun-dredmeters.EventhoughbothCifonelliswouldconcedethatthecutcausesthemoccasionalproblems,theyhaveloyallyretainedthelookcreatedbytheirgrandfather—andforgoodreason,astheirclientsseemtolikeit.Theseincludemanycelebrities,althoughexactlywhoisnotrevealed;namesareonly releasedafterthedeathoftheindividualinquestion—wenowknowthatItalianactorsLinoVenturaand MarcelloMastroiannicommissionedgarmentshere,asdidPresidentFrançoisMitterand.ItisaParisinstitutionwithaglobalfanbase.

    CifonelliParisian bespoke tailors with Roman roots who

    have invented their own complete look.

    The workshop owned by Massimo (on the left in the picture) and Lorenzo Cifonelli

    is located a stone’s throw from the Champs-Élysées; there is a world of difference between their atelier and

    the commercial premises on the street.

  • Types of fiber

    WoolTheterms“wool”and“suit”havebeenpairedtogether for centuries, and to this day there is no othermaterialforsuits,pants,orovercoatsthatcan match the shape retention, elasticity, and robustnessofwool.

    CashmereCashmere is the epitome of a luxury fabric, with the best-quality grades coming from Mongolia.Unlikesheep’swool,thesoftbellyhair of the cashmere goat is not shorn, but iscarefullycombedout.

    VicuñaVicuñaismadefromthehairofaspeciesofSouthAmericancamel.Thereareveryfewofthe animals left and the raw material is thus veryrareandalsoverydifficulttoobtain—thepriceofvicuñacanbeastronomical.

    CottonCotton is especially pleasant to wear in summer, but it crumples and crinkles easily, and quickly losesitsshape.Ifyoudon’tmindthat,you’lldowellwithasuitmadefromthisplantfiber.

    Wool and synthetic blendA small proportion of synthetic yarn in a light woolcanincreaseitsshaperetention.Thisisonlyreallynecessaryinhotandhumidclimates;blendedfibersarerarelyusedelsewhere.

    Cotton and synthetic blendSyntheticfibersaremorethanfrownedupon by fans of handmade clothing, but as with woolens,asmallamountofsyntheticfiberadded to cotton can also help a suit to keep its shapeinhumidconditions.

    LinenLinenismadefromthefibersoftheflaxplant. It is famous for crumpling, although this lessensovertimewithbettergradesoflinen.Oncethecreaseshavebeenremoved,thelinenlookisclassic.

    Wool and silkWool and silk yarns can be blended in different waystocreatequitedifferentfabrics.Thesilkelementissometimesjustadecorativethread,suchasinacheck;atothertimesitcan determinethecharacteroftheentirefabric.

    SilkSilkonlyreturnedtogentlemen’stailoring afterWorldWarII.Itwasfirstusedforeveningwear and then later as a material for suits and sportscoats.

    In the workshop: fabrics and patterns 91

  • 98 Bespoke Menswear

    The history of the cutting system

    Thefirstmanuals fortailorsappearedinthe16thcenturyandwere initiallyconcernedwithcuttingtechniques; they containedno specific instructions formakingup garments or the art of cutting toshape.Theoldestrelevantdocumentof thiskinddatesback toH.Niedermayr theYoungerandwaswrittenbetween1544and1568.TheSpanish Libro de geometría práctica y traçabyJuandeAlcegafrom 1580 and the French Le Tailleur Sincère byLeSieurBenoistBoullayfrom1791arebothpurelycollectionsofcuts.

    ChristophoroSerrano’sGeometría del arte de vestir, which appeared in 1619, is deemed to be theearliestsystematicapproachtothedifficultiesposedbythedrawingupofcuttingplans,butmost tailorstooknonoticeofitandcontinuedwiththeirmethodsoftrialanderror.Cutsthathadprovedtheirworthwereusedagainandagain,withagreateror lesserdegreeof success.The lengthandwidth of an already existing item of clothing would be measured using strips of paper or threads withtheunitsindicatedasmarksorknots.Tailorswerenotyetabletomakeanindividualcutfrom circumference measurements—such as the chest—to accommodate the body’s three-dimensionalshape. Paintings andoriginal garments that survive from the17thand18th centuriesnonethelessdemonstrate that a method based on measurement by eye, experience, and estimation could certainly produce very pleasing results; the artisanal techniques of the tailorwere sufficient for the fashion ofthetime.

    The measurements and details of clients were recorded in weighty account books. The volumes held at ANDERSON & SHEPPARD contain the names of several gentlemen of historical importance.

  • 161The bespoke shirt

    Nicolas Venturini examines the fit of a shirt sample on a new client.

    It is made of neutral fabric; the actual item will be made later.

    The bespoke shirt

    Chapter 7

    Theshirtiswornclosertothebodythananyotheritemofclothingthatistailoredtofit.Strictlyspeak-ing, the shirt is the only item of clothing that is tailored to the body, as it is often worn against the skin withnoundershirt.Howclosetothebodyitiswornislessimportant—thefabriccanbefeltdirectlyontheskininanycase,onlymoresoiftheshirtistight-fitting.Forthisreason,genuinebespokeshirtmak-ers,i.e.craftsmenwhomakeashirtfromanindividualpatternintheirownworkshops,alwaysworkfromfittings.Thefabricselectedfortheshirtisnotusedforthetestfitting,however,asampleshirtissewnfirstfromcheaperspareclothorfromlinen.

    Themajorityofso-calledbespokeshirtsaremadeinfactories, inotherwords,theyaremade-to-measureshirts.This isnotaproblemin itself,althoughthere isasignificantdifferencebetweenthemade-to-measureandbespokeversions,andlearningtoappreciatethisdifferenceisaparticularpleasure.Anauthenticshirtmakerwillalsoallowforany idiosyncrasiesof thephysique,suchasahangingshoulderononeside(whichisverycommon)orastoopedposture.Hewillseektoeliminateoratleastminimizethecreasesthatsuchvariationsinthefigurewouldotherwisecause,without—unlikea suit tailor—having recourse to theuseof liningorpadding—hecanonlywork “from thecut.”Amade-to-measureshirtcan,intheory,beadaptedtoanyquirksofthefigure,althoughmanyretailersdonotnoticesuchdeviationsfromthenormorhavenoideahowtheymightbedealtwith.An artisan shirtmaker can also offer maximum freedom of choice in collar shape: the collar can be cuttosizeonthesampleoritsoutlinecanbedrawninwithpen.Whilemade-to-measureprovidersmayoftenprovideaverylargerangeofcollarshapesfromwhichtochoose,itisnotpossibletoselectashapethatiscompletelyindividual.

    Howmuch sewing by hand is required for a bespoke shirt depends largely on the place in whichit ismade. InItaly,youcanexpecthandsewnbuttonholesat thevery least,andthesleeves,shoulderyoke,collar,andarmholesareoftenalsostitchedmanually.Parisworkshopsalsooftenworkbyhand,but inLondon it isextremely rare,evenwith themost famoussuppliers; theycutoutby handbutthat’swhereitends.“Handmade”inLondonmeanscutoutmanuallyandsewnonamachinebyaseamstress.IfyouhaveatasteforItalianmade-to-measureshirtsandarelookingforaLondonworkshop to make up some unique pieces for you, make exacting enquiries about the techniques they use, otherwise your bespoke shirt may ultimately be more factory-made than the ready-to-wear ormade-to-measureonesyouareused towearing;sampleshirtsarenotalwaysconsideredneces-sary in the UK, for example.Make enquiries about a company’s working practices beforehand to avoiddisappointment.

  • 164

    The effect of the collar

    Ifashirtiswornwithasuitorsportscoat,onlypartofitisseen—themajorityoftheshirtishidden.Thecollar,asmallpartoftheshirtfront,andaninchofcuffareallthatarevisible.Ofthese,thecollariswithoutdoubtthemostnoticeableasitisclosesttotheface,soitsshapemustbeselectedcarefully.Fashionisonlyasecondaryconsideration,asitrarelyproducescollarshapesthatareequallyflatter-ingtoeveryshapeofface.Theharmoniousinterplaybetweencollarandfacecanhaveaverypositiveeffectonanindividual’sappearance.Aroundfacewillnotlookanythinnerabovealargecollarandalong neck will not be shortened by a high collar, but if you stick to collar solutions that make the best of thehand—orrather,neck—thatyouhavebeendealt,thisisalltothegood.Themostimportantthingistobeawareoftheeffectthateachdifferentcollarhas:ifintuitionandtasteeventuallytakeyouinadifferentdirection,thenatleastitwillbewithfullknowledgeofthepossiblealternatives.

    Onepointthatshouldbeconsideredbeforelookingmorecloselyattheeffectofthecollaristhatthefaceis,ofcourse,apartofthebody,althoughonlyaverysmallpart.Nevertheless,wegenerallyonly lookatourheadwhenwe look inthemirror.Aratherobviouspoint,but it isonethatshouldbementioned.However,tojudgethefulleffectofacollar,weshouldviewourselvesfromheadtotoeandfromallsides.Spaciousfittingroomswithtriplefull-sizemirrorsareprovidedinbespoketailors’andshirtmakers’storesforjustthispurpose,althoughready-to-wearprovidersrarelyprovidesuchanopportunityforsizingourselvesupcritically.Aswegoaboutourdailylivesourbodiesareseenin their entirety by other people, so mirrors that only show a part of the body are hardly worth both-eringtolookin.Acollarthatseemsfartoolargewheninspectedatclosequartersinatinyshavingmirrormayshrinktoentirelyacceptableproportionswhenviewedbyathirdparty.Itisthereforenotexclusivelyamatterofthewidthandheightofthecollarinrelationtotheneckandhead,butratheritsrelationshiptothewholebody.Butwhatisawell-proportionedcollar?

    The secret of a good bespoke tailor or shirtmaker resides in their skill in emphasizing the good pointsofafigureandhidinganyslightimperfections,thuscreatingaharmoniouslybalancedappear-ance.Thistrickisachievedbyreducingtheappearanceofanypartofthebodythatistoowide,large,orlong,enhancingtheappearanceofanynarrowareas,andlengtheningthosethataretooshort.Thisisachievedbyusingneighboringareasasacounterbalance:ashorttorsoappearstobeextendedbyplacingthewaistbandofthepantsonthehips;alongtorsoismadetolookshorterifthewaistbandsitshigherupthewaist.Widehipscanbeoffsetbygivingthechestandshouldersalittlemorewidththanusual.Arelativelyshortcoatorahighwaistcanmakeshortarmsseemlonger.

    Bespoke shirtmakers offer a range of collar shapes, such as these at TURNBULL & ASSER. However, only a genuine linen tailor can make a collar that suits a client’s face and personality perfectly.

  • 197ALUMO, Appenzell

    Thetopgradeofcottonforfabricsisextra-longstaplecottonmadefromEgyptianfibers.Thewarpandweftofthiscloth—thethreadsrunningdownandacrossthefabric—aremadefromtwistedthread.“Twisting”meansthattwoormorelengthsofyarnarewrappedtogetherundertensiontomakeasin-glethread.Thewayafabrichasbeencoloredisalsoanimportantissue—inthecaseofyarnusedtomakehigh-qualitygoods,alight-blueshirt,forexample,iswovenfromlight-blueyarnwhileapatterncontainsseveraldifferentshadesofyarn.Thismakesthefabriccolorfast,evenwhere it issubjecttoconsiderablewear:cheapshirtslosetheircolorattheedges.

    The quality of fabrics can be described, but it is much easier to tell the difference between good and verygoodmaterialbytouch.Evensomeonewhoisnotfamiliarwithtextileswillnoticethedifferenceimmediatelywhencomparingfabricsbytouchingandholdingthem.Awiderangeofdifferentweavesisavailable,cateringforallcurrentfashiontrends.Poplin,batiste,orvoileareagoodchoiceforfinebusi-nessshirts,end-on-endorherringbonesuitablazerorsportscoat,Oxfordortwillforcorduroypantsorjeans.Top-qualityshirtfabricsnotonlyscorehighlywiththeirsilky,softfeelandrefinedsheen,theyalsoshrinkverylittleandlastforyears.Theybecomesofterwitheverywashandfeelevenbetterwithtime.

    Swiss fabrics by ALUMOIt is a trade secret that the most exquisite shirt

    fabrics are made in Switzerland. If in doubt, just ask—but be sure to ask the best shirtmaker’s.

    ALUMO’s idyllic Swiss surroundings match the style of production. The weaving

    mill produces environmentally friendly, sustainable goods. The “finest Swiss

    cotton” is green.

  • 214 Bespoke Menswear

    B

    Balance The proportional relationship between the length of the front and the length of the backofagarmentwhenworn.Apersonwitharounded back requires more length in the rear sectionofagarment,forexample.

    Balance tape A second tape measure with which the tailor checks the customer’s stance,suchasforastoopedposture.

    Basic pattern A garment made up in one of the usual ready-to-wear sizes. A made-to-measureclient will try this on and any alterations that mayberequiredarenoted.

    BastingLayersoffabricaretemporarilystitchedtogether with basting stitches, usually with white cottonthread.Oneormorelayersofclothcanbebasted loosely together with a double basting threadorattached to the lining.Theparticularadvantageofthisisthatwhereanumberoflay-ers are attached, such as at the armhole, they allstaysoftandflexible.Beforeworkingonthefront section of a garment, a tailor will connect the outer fabric with the lining using ordinary bastingstitches.

    Belt loop A loop of material through which the beltisthreadedtokeepthebeltinposition.

    Bespoke Individually tailored, also known as“customtailoring.”

    BlazerAdouble-breastedgentleman’s jacket indark blue with gold buttons, in a style borrowed fromnavaluniform;notunlikeasingle-breastedclubjacket.

    Braid A strip of silk on the pants outseam. A single strip of braid is appropriate for a tuxedo, a doublestripfortailcoatpants.

    Breast welt pocket The classic pattern for a breast pocket, sometimes also found with a curvedshape.

    BreechesAlsoknownasridingpants.

    Buffalo horn Material for buttons on suits and sportscoats.

    C

    CanvasTogiveacoator jacketa lastingshapearound the chest and lapel, the outer fabric is often lined with a canvas that is generallywoven from linen. Inhandmade garments andtop-qualitymade-to-measurewear,thecanvasissewn to the outer fabric and not, as is the case with industrial manufacturing techniques, sim-ply fused to it. Sewing in the canvas is knownasfelling.

    Club jacket A jacket thatwas originallywornasasmart-casualoutfitinsportsclubs.Eitherindark blue or the club colors, sometimes also in stripes.

    Collar The part of a jacket or coat that coversthe neck. The collar is attached to the neck-lineandconsistsofanupperand lower collar.The collar is separated from the lapel by the crochetseam.

    Crochet seam The seam between the collar and thelapel,alsoknownasthegorgeseam.

    Glossary

  • 215Appendix

    Cross seam Connects the front and back sec-tionsofthepants.Double-stitched.

    Cuff (sleeve) A second layer of fabric at the end of the sleeve that looks as though it has beenturnedover.

    Cuff (pants) A folded seam at the end of a pant leg that resembles a turned-up edge. A sportydetailthatisneverusedforthepantsofamorn-ingcoat,tuxedo,ortailcoat.

    Cutter A bespoke tailor who works from mea-surements to make a cutting pattern for a cus-tomer before transferring this to the fabric and cuttingitout.

    D

    Dart Used to model or three-dimensionallyshape a garment by drawing or holding in the fabric,aswithachestdartinacoat,forexample.

    Decatizing Removing from fabrics any sheenthat may have unintentionally been acquiredduringironing,etc.

    Double-breasted A jacket with two rows of buttons, usually of three buttons each. The toptwo buttons do not do up and are merely decora-tive.Adouble-breasted jacketshouldalwaysbedone up when the wearer is standing, otherwise it will gape open and spoil the overall look of thesuit.

    F

    Felling Folding a piece of fabric over on itselfand sewing it to the layer of fabric beneath with stitchesthatareassmallandinvisibleaspossi-ble;aliningcanbefelled,forexample.

    FinishingTherefinementprocessundergonebyafabricafterweaving,whichgivesitasheenandanicefeel.

    FishtailAnEnglish term for the tail of a shirtthathasbeenspeciallycutforsuspenders.

    FittingAtestfitofanunfinishedgarment.Atai-lorwillfitasuittwicefornewclients,andthensubsequentlyonlyonce.

    Flap pocket A fold of material topping a pocket insomegarments.

    G

    GiletFrenchtermforavest;alsoincommonuseinAustriaandSwitzerland.

    Glen checkAcolored(usuallyblueorred)over-checkonaGlenUrquhartcheck.

    H

    Hacking jacket Actually a riding jacket, fromtheverb“tohack,”meaningtoride.Typicalfea-tures are a close fit, a highwaist, a long backvent,andangledpocketflaps.Thehackingjacketisaforerunnerofthemodernsportscoat.

  • 224

    Copyright

    ThemajorityoftheimagesnotlistedindetailbelowarenewpicturestakenbyphotographerErillFritz(©ErillFritz).

    ©BernhardRoetzel,Berlin:2,11,94©Bettmann/CORBIS:12©MaxDietl,Munich:31©NationalPortraitGallery,London:21©SCABALSA,Brussels:68,72,74-77,79-81©TWEEDMagazine,WielandVerlagpublishers:95©Photographyby:TheArtofCuttingForGentlemen’sAndLadies’Wear,“TheTailor”trademagazine,publishedbyErmacoraVerlag,Hanover,1934:99

    ©h.f.ullmannpublishingGmbHOriginaltitle:DerGentlemannachMaßOriginalISBN:978-3-8480-0768-4

    Projectmanagement:LarsPietzschmannPhotography,design,composition:ErillFritzProofreading:AnkeHennekProducedby:SabineVogt

    ©fortheEnglishedition:h.f.ullmannpublishingGmbHTranslationfromGermanbyJMSBooksllpin association with Malcolm Garrard and cbdesign

    ThetranslatorwouldliketothankDarrenTiernanatBuddShirtsandChrisKerratChrisKerrBespokeTailorfortheirhelpandexpertise.

    Overallresponsibilityforproduction:h.f.ullmannpublishingGmbH,Potsdam,Germany

    PrintedinGermany

    ISBN978-3-8480-0753-0

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1XIXVIIIVIIVIVIVIIIIII

    [email protected]ook.com/ullmann.social

    Books by BernhardRoetzel

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