Belting Glossary

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    Belting Glossary 

     Abraded:Material worn away by friction between two surfaces.

    Abrasion:Material wearing away by friction.

    Abrasion test:Determination of the rate of material wearing away by friction.

    Abrasion tester:A machine for determining relative abrasion resistance.

    Accelerated aging:Intensive exposure to operating conditions to obtain an early change in physical

    properties of an elastomer.

    Accelerated life test:

    A method designed to approximate in a short time the deteriorating effectsobtained under normal service conditions.

    Across the line starting tension:Tension developed in a belt when full electrical power is applied to the drive

    system.

    Adhesion:Basically, the adhering, clinging, bonding or sticing of two material surfaces to one

    another, such as rubber to rubber, rubber to metal, rubber to wood, rubber tofabric, etc.

    Adhesion failure:

    The separation of two ad!oining surfaces due to service conditions.

    Adhesive:

    A material which, when applied, will cause two surfaces in contact with each otherto stic together.

    Adhesive coating:A coating applied to a surface to create or increase its bond to an ad!oining

    surface.

    Adhesive fabric:A fabric with a surface treatment which will bond two surfaces together when

    interposed between them.

    After-cure:

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    A continuation of the process of vulcani"ation after the cure has been carried to the

    desired degree and the source of heat removed.

    Afterglow:The red glow persisting after extinction of the flame in fire resistance testing.

    Aging:#hanges in physical properties with age or lapse of time.

    Air bomb aging:Means of accelerating changes in physical properties of materials by exposing them

    to the action of air at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Air checks:

    The surface marings or depressions which occur due to air trapped between

    material and mold or press surface.

    Air curing:$ulcani"ation of rubber products in air opposed to vulcani"ing in a press or steam

    vulcani"er.

    Air oven aging:

    Means of accelerating a change in physical properties of rubber compounds byexposing them to the action of air at an elevated temperature but normal

    atmospheric pressure.

    Air trap:

    %ee air checs.

    Ambient temperature:The environment temperature surrounding the ob!ect under consideration.

    Angle of repose:

    The angle to the hori"ontal plane which a grainy material will naturally assumewhen dropped in a pile.

    Angle of slide:Angle at which material begins to slide down an inclined surface.

    ANSI:American &ational %tandards Institute

    Anti-backdrop:

    %ee bacstop.

    Anti-static:A belt's capability to dissipate and therefore reduce build up of static electricity

    while running.

    Antioxidant:

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      A compounding ingredient used to retard deterioration caused by oxygen.

    Anti-ozonant:

    A compounding ingredient used to retard deterioration caused by o"one.

    Anti-slip surface:

    A specially treated surface to obtain greater than normal traction.

    Apron feed:

    An intermediate feed system.

    Apex crown:

    A pulley crown that continuously increases in diameter from the edges of a pulleytowards the center, creating an undesired ridge in the center. %ee also crowned

    pulley.

    Arc of contact:

    ()* The portion of a curved surface which is engaged. (+* In belts, it refers to theportion of a pulley which is engaged by the belt and is usually expressed in

    degrees.

    Armored belt:

    A conveyor belt with crosswise insertions in the cover such as steel cables tominimi"e gouging or tearing of the cover by sharp ob!ects.

    Army duck:%ee duc.

    Artificial weathering:

    xposure to cyclic laboratory conditions involving changes in temperature, relativehumidity and radiant energy, with or without direct water spray, attempting toproduce changes in the material similar to that observed after long-term

    continuous outdoor exposure.

    AS!:

    American %ociety of Mechanical ngineers.

    AS":

    American %ociety for Testing and Materials.

    Atmospheric cracking:

    %mall fissures in the surface of a belt cover caused by exposure to atmosphericconditions.

    Automatic take-up:A mechanical device to maintain proper tension in a belt automatically

    compensating for belt stretch or shrinage in service.

    Average modulus:

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    The total change of stress divided by the total change of strain.

     

    #ack cover:

    %ee bottom cover.

    #ackstop:

    A mechanical device for preventing a loaded, inclined conveyor or elevator beltfrom running bacwards after the belt has been stopped.

    #anbury mixer:A specific type of internal mixer used to incorporate filler and other ingredients in

    rubber or plastic operations.

    #are back:The textile face of an article which is free of any treatment or covering.

    #are duck:

    The duc surface of a fabricated article wherein the exposed duc surface is free of any covering.

    #are duck belt:A belt in which at least one side has the exposed duc surface free of any covering.

    #are pulley:A pulley whose face surface is not covered or lagged.

    #areback surface:A belt surface where the textile surface is without any coating. It is usually the

    bac or pulley side of the belt, but the top side could be barebac, as well.

    #ase belt:

    The portion of a closed belt in a closed belt conveyor which remains flat andprovides the necessary tensile strength.

    #asic tension bearing yarns:ne of the two warp systems in a straight warp fabric where the warp yarns are

    substantially without crimp and provide the tensile strength for the belt.

    #asket weave:

    A fabric with ends of yarn side by side in both the warp and filling in a plain weaveconstruction.

    #ead rubber:

    An extruded polymeric compound used to fill the void between butted !oint of twopieces of fabric.

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      #ed:A continuous support surface over which a conveyor belt may slide.

    #elt:A flexible reinforced band placed around two or more pulleys to carry materials

    from one place to another.

    #elt carcass:

    %ee carcass.

    #elt clamp:

    Beams or metal plates secured transversely on both sides of belt ends to hold theends in a desired position.

    #elt cleaning device:

    A scraper or rotating device pressed against the belt surface to remove materialstuc to the belt.

    #elt coil:

    %ee coil.

    #elt conveyor:

    A mechanical system composed of suitable head, tail, bend pulleys and belt idlersor a slider bed to handle bul materials, pacages, or other ob!ects placed directly

    upon it.

    #elt drive:

    An assembly of power-driven pulley(s* used to transmit tor/ue when initiating andmaintaining motion to a conveyor or elevator belt.

    #elt duck:An open weave duc made from plied yarns with strength predominately in the

    warp direction. 0sed primarily in the manufacture of conveyor belts.

    #elt fastener:

    A mechanical device for holding the ends of belt together. There are a lot ofdifferent fasteners on the maret.

    #elt fleet:The lateral movement of a conveyor belt to either side of its intended path.

    #elt grade:A classification of belting according to the /uality and properties of the belt cover.

    #elt modulus:The ratio of stress to strain.

    #elt pitch line:%ee pitch line.

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      #elt sag:The amount of vertical deflection of a conveyor belt from a straight line betweenidlers, usually expressed as a percentage of the center to center spacing of the

    idlers.

    #elt slip:Differential movement between the pulley surface and the belt.

    #elt slab:%ee slab belting.

    #elt slope tension:%ee tension, slope.

    #elt surface finish:

    1inal surface condition or structure of the belt.

    #elt tracking switch:A limit switch actuated by the edge of a conveyor belt when the belt moves to

    either side of its centered path.

    #elt training idler:

    An idler having a belt-actuated swivel mechanism to automatically control sidedrifting of a conveyor belt.

    #elt turnover:A system of pulleys arranged to turn a belt over. 1re/uently used to prevent

    building-up on return idlers by turning the dirty side (carrying side* up. %ee alsotwist.

    #elting deflector:A mechanism which deflects the conveyed material off of the belt at specific points

    along the conveyor.

    #elting$ flat conveyor:

    %ee flat belt.

    #ench test:

    A modified service test in which the service conditions are approximated by meansof a simulation in the laboratory.

    #end pulley:A pulley used to change direction of the belt run.

    #ending force:The force re/uired to bend a belt under prescribed conditions.

    #ending modulus:The force re/uired to induce bending around a specified radius and, hence, a

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      measure of stiffness.

    #ias angle:

    The smaller included angle between the warp yarns of a fabric and the diagonalline across the warp yarns.

    #ias cut:A cut of a textile material or belt ends made diagonally at an angle less than 23

    degrees to the longitudinal axis.

    #ias laid:

    Material laid on or wrapped around so the warp yarns are at an angle less than 23degrees to the longitudinal direction.

    #ias seam:

    The seam at which bias cut fabrics are !oined together.

    #ias splice:

    Belt splice on an angle less than 23 degrees.

    #inder warp yarn:ne of the warp systems in a straight warp fabric interlaced with the filling yarn to

    provide the strength to hold mechanical fasteners.

    #ite:

    %ee nip.

    #leeding:

    Migration to the surface of plastici"er, waxes or similar materials to form a film orbeads. %ee also Bloom.

    #lemish:A mar, deformity, or in!ury which impairs the appearance.

    #listers:A raised spot on the surface or a separation between layers usually forming a void

    or air-filled space in the vulcani"ed or laminated article.

    #loom:A discoloration or change in appearance of the surface of a rubber product caused

    by the migration of a li/uid or solid to the surface. xamples4 sulfur bloom, waxbloom. &ot to be confused with dust on the surface from external sources.

    #low-up:

    A blister between plies of an article.

    #olted plate hinge fastener:

    %teel plates both sides and both ends of two belt ends to be fastened together(secured to the belt with bolts with the ends of the plates constructed into a

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      circular hole for accepting a hinge pin to secure the two ends of the belt(s*together.

    #ond:%ee Adhesion.

    #oot:nclosure for the loading end of a bucet elevator belt.

    #ootlegging:()* 5rogressive ply delamination. (+* The separation of plies in belting due to

    flexing.

    #ottom cover:

    The protective rubber cover on the surface contacting the driving mechanism of a

    conveyor belt.

    #ow:()* #urvature from flat plane in the surface. (+* The deviation from the straight

    line of the fill yarn in a fabric. (6* The deviation from the straight line of a productwhen unrolled and laid on a flat surface.

    #rand:A mar or symbol identifying or describing a product and7or manufacturer4 may be

    either embossed, inlaid, or printed.

    #reaker ply:

    An open weave fabric used next to the carcass fabric and7or in the cover toimprove the attachment of the cover to the carcass and to improve cover cut and

    gouge resistance.

    #reaking strength:

    The tensile which a textile yarn or cable, a steel cord, or a belt is at rupture.

    #rushed finish:

    The mechanical removal of any surface impregnation or coating from the beltfabric.

    #ucket:ne of the cups on an elevator belt.

    #ucket cover:The cover of an elevator belt next to the carrying bucets.

    #ucket elevator:Belt with bucets attached. The belts run usually vertically.

    #ucket pro%ection:The distance the bucet protrudes beyond an elevator belt.

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    #uckled ply:

    A deformed ply, usually the result of a fold or wrinle, which distorts it from itsnormal plane.

    #uffing marks:

    The characteristic surface condition after a buffing operation.

    #umping:

    In the operation of a flat press, the alternative application and release of rampressure to vent trapped air and gases.

    #utt seam:A seam made by placing the two pieces to be !oined edge to edge.

    #utt strap %oint:

    The connection of elevator belt ends with a piece of belting the width of theelevator belt placed over the butted belt ends, usually extending under at least two

    bucets and secured with bolts to the belt.

     

    &able yarn:Two or more plied yarns twisted together.

    &alculated center distance:In belt drives, the distance between two shaft centers calculated from pulley

    diameters and belt length being used.

    &alender:

    A machine with three or more internally heated or cooled cylinders used to ()*continuously sheet out polymeric compound or fused 5$# (+* to wipe polymeric

    compound into the interstices of a fabric leaving a small portion of it on the surfaceof the fabric, or (6* to lay a continuous sheet of compound on a fabric.

    &alendered 'rubber' sheets:#ontinuous film of uncured elastomer produced from a calendar.

    &amber:The curvature of a belt relative to the center line (see bow*.

    &apacity:The maximum number of pieces, volume, or weight of material a belt conveyor can

    handle in a given time interval and belt speed.

    &apped edge:

    A rubber protective edge placed around a product internally reinforced with textileor other material.

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      &apped end:A belt end covered with an elastomer to protect the carcass end.

    &arcass:The fabric, cord and7or metal reinforcing section of any rubber product such as a

    belt, as distinguished from the rubber cover.

    &arcass break:

    A ply or plies of fabric ruptured by impact or gouging.

    &arcass tear strength:

    The resistance of a belt against tearing.

    &arcass tear test:

    The determination of the tension at which a belt may be torn.

    &arrier:

    %ee idler (+*.

    &arry (or carrying) side cover:

    %ee top cover.

    &arrying roller:

    %ee carrying idler.

    &arrying run:

    The portion of a conveyor that carries the load between the loading and discharge

    points.

    &arrying surface:The outward face or side of the belt which carries the conveyed material.

    &astfilm:A film made by depositing a layer of plastic, either molten, in solution, or in a

    dispersion onto a surface, solidifying and removing the film from the surface.

    &atenary idler:

    A type of flexible belt-carrying idler with ends supported in pivoted stands. Thetube or rollers sag under the weight of the load to form trough.

    &!A:

    #onveyor /uipment Manufacturers Association.

    &ement:A mixture of polymeric compound or elastomer used as an adhesive or sealant.

    &emented edge:An application of cement around the edge of a fabricated product with or without

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      internal reinforcement for protection or adhesion. (A form of #apped dge.*

    &emented end:

    A belt end sealed with the application of elastomeric cement.

    &enter roll:

    The hori"ontal roll between the side troughing rolls.

    &enter-to-center:

    The distance between the center of two pulleys or idlers. Also called centers orcenter distance.

    &entrifugal bucket elevator:A type of bucet elevator having a belt which travels at sufficient speed to

    discharge material from the bucets by centrifugal force.

    &hafer duck:

    A relatively open weave duc of approximately s/uare woven construction madewith single or ply yarn.

    &halking:1ormation of a powdery surface condition due to disintegration of surface binder or

    elastomer due in turn to weathering or other destructive environments.

    &hecking:

    %hort shallow cracs on the surface generally due to effect of destructive action ofenvironmental conditions.

    &hevron:

    A ridge or profile arranged in a $ee shaped configuration on a belt carrying cover tostabili"e material carried up an incline.

    &hute lining:

    8ighly abrasion resistant elastomeric lining in a chute to protect the metal chutefrom abrasion wear.

    &hute slope:Angle relative to the hori"ontal a chute is inclined.

    &leated belt:Transverse raised sections on a conveyor belt to stabili"e material carried up an

    incline.

    &losed belt conveyor:

    A moving, endless conveyor belt formed into a tubular shape by !oining its edgeswhile carrying material, and opening the edges while in motion to receive and

    discharge material.

    &loth impression:

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      %ee fabric impression.

    &luster end:

    A flat disc idler with several discs ad!acent to each other at the ends of the idler.

    &oefficient of friction:

    The ratio of the force re/uired to move a pacage across a belt surface to theweight of the pacage.

    &og:A tooth on the rim of a wheel or rubber product.

    &ogged *-belt:A $-belt cut or produced with a series of evenly spaced $-shaped indentations in

    the inner face to increase the belt's flexibility.

    &ohesive:

    Tendency of a material to stic to itself.

    &oil:

    0sually a s/uared end belt piece of full manufacturing length but not fullmanufacturing width. %ee also slab belting.

    &old feed:The introduction of plastic pellets into processing e/uipment without milling.

    &old flex:

    %ee low temperature flexing.

    &old flexibility:The relative ease of bending following exposure to low temperature.

    &old flow:#ontinued deformation under stress. %ee #reep.

    &old splice+bond:0sually the !oining of two or more sub-straits together, using a two-part cement

    that is chemically cured without using supplemental heat from an external source.

    9#old bond cement9 usually is an uncured mixture of varied elastomers, chemicals,and solvents that will not self-cure or vulcani"e until mixed with an activator to

    create a chemical vulcani"ation (usually exo-thermic*.

    &ommercially smooth:A degree of smoothness of an article which is acceptable in accordance with

    industry practice.

    &ompound:

    A mixture of a polymer(s* and other materials to give the desired chemical and

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      physical properties in the elastomeric components of a belt.

    &ompression member:

    The portion of a belt beneath the pitch line as the belt bends around a pulley.

    &ompression set:

    The deformation in a material remaining after it has been sub!ected to andreleased from a compressive force.

    &onductivity::uality of power of conducting or transmitting heat or electricity.

    &ontact stain:;hen staining occurs on the area of an ob!ect directly in contact with the rubber

    article it is nown as 9contact stain9.

    &ontinuous bucket elevator:

    A bucet elevator belt that discharges by gravity over the inverted bottom of thepreceding bucet on the descending side of the elevator.

    &ontrol:A material or a product of nown characteristics included in a series of tests to

    provide a basis for evaluation of other products.

    &onveyor:

    A system for the continuous movement or transport of bul materials, pacages orob!ects along a predetermined path.

    &onveyor belt:

    A belt that carries materials from one place to another.

    &onveyor belt package deflector:A mechanical diverter placed at an angle across the belt to deflect pacages off the

    belt at specific locations.

    &onveyor belt stretch:

    The increase in belt length which occurs when tension is imposed. %tretch is eitherelastic or permanent. lastic stretch is a temporary change in length which varies

    directly with the pull. 5ermanent stretch is the residual change in length aftertension has been removed< it generally accumulates over a period of time.

    &onveyor width:In belt conveyors, the width of a belt.

    &opolymer:A substance consisting of molecules characteri"ed by the repetition of two or more

    types of monomeric units.

    &ord:

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    %everal strands of yarn twisted together.

    &ord belt:

    A belt with inserted textile or steel cords for the longitudinal tension-bearingmember.

    &ord fabric:A fabric with plied or cabled yarns in the warp direction and a light weight filling

    yarn spaced only sufficiently to process the fabric.

    &otton:

    A natural fiber of high cellulosic content.

    &ount:

    In a fabric, the number of warp ends, the number of filling pics, or both in a

    s/uare inch of fabric.

    &ounter weight:In conveyor belting, the weight applied to the tae-up assembly to maintain proper

    belt tension.

    &over:

    The outer component of a belt.

    &over seam:

    %ee cover splice.

    &over splice:The transverse !oint formed by connecting two lengths of cover stoc.

    &over surface profile:

    A cross-sectional view of the cover surface.

    &over wear:

    The loss of material during use due to abrasion, cutting or gouging.

    &racking:

    A sharp brea or fissure in the surface. =enerally due to excessive strain.

    &rater:A small shallow surface imperfection.

    &razing:

    A cover surface with many fissures.

    &reep:

    ()* The deformation occurring with the lapse of time in both cured and uncuredrubber, in a body under stress in addition to the immediate elastic deformation.

    %ome related terms and properties are stress-relaxation, hysteresis, damping,flow, compression set and viscosity. %ee #old 1low. (+* In belts, the action of a belt

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      alternately losing speed on the driving pulley and gaining speed on the drivenpulley.

    &reeper drive:An auxiliary drive, usually consisting of a small motor and speed reducer, used to

    eep a belt conveyor in motion at a very low speed during non-operating periods inextremely cold weather. It is used to prevent free"ing of a belt and other

    components.

    &rimp:

    ()* The waviness of the yarn in a woven fabric. (+* The difference in distancebetween two points on a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points when

    the yarn has been removed and straightened. xpressed as a percentage of thedistance between the two points as the yarn lies in the fabric.

    &rown:The difference between the diameter at the center and at the edges of a pulley or a

    roll.

    &rowned pulley:

    A pulley with a greater diameter at the center, or other points, than at the edges.There are radial and trape"oidal crowns. Apex crowns are not recommended for

    industrial belts.

    &rystallization:

    A change in physical properties resulting from the crystalline reorientation causedby temperature.

    &ure:

    The act of vulcani"ation.

    &ure time:

    Time re/uired, at a given temperature, to produce optimum physical properties inan elastomer.

    &uring temperature:

    The temperature at which the rubber product is vulcani"ed.

    &url:

    The action of the edges of a belt bending upward on the carrying run anddownward on the return run. Also called cupping.

    &ushion breaker:A leno or cord breaer imbedded in a belt cover.

    &ut belts:

    %ee cut edge.

    &ut edge:The uncovered edge of a laminated product, such a belt, created by cutting after

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    vulcani"ation.

    &ut resistance:

    The ability of a belt cover to withstand the cutting action of sharp ob!ects.

     

    ,ata code:

    Any combination of numbers, letters, symbols, or other methods used by amanufacturer to identify the date of manufacture.

    ,ecking:A protective covering over the return run of a belt conveyor.

    ,eflector:

    A board or plate at an angle across the path of a belt traveling over a flat surfaceto transfer material off the belt.

    ,eformation:

    Any change of form or shape produced in a body by a stress.

    ,egradation:

    A deleterious change in the chemical structure of a material.

    ,elamination:

    The separation of layers of material in a laminate.

    ,enier:A yarn si"ing system for continuous filament synthetic fibers on the basis of theweight in grams of 2333 meters of the yarn.

    ,ensity:The ratio of the mass of a body to its volume or the mass per unit volume of the

    substance. 1or ordinary practical purposes, density and specific gravity may beregarded as e/uivalent.

    ,iameter:The length of a straight line from the periphery passing through the geometric

    center to the other side of the periphery of an ob!ect.

    ,ielectric strength:

    The measure of electric potential strength of a rubber product. Measure of itsability as an insulating compound to resist passage of a disruptive discharge

    produced by an electric stress. Measured as volts per mil of thicness.

    ,ip coat:A thin coat on a surface obtained by dipping the material to be coated into the

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      coating materials.

    ,ipped fabric:

    #oated with rubber compound by passing through a rubber solution and drying.

    ,ischarge:

    >emoval of conveyed material from a belt.

    ,og leg:

    A bending from a straight line.

    ,ouble plate bolt fastener:

    Two ends of belting !oined together with a plate on both sides across both ends ofthe !oint.

    ,rive:An assembly of electrical and mechanical parts that provide motive power to a belt.

    ,rive$ dual:%ee dual drive.

    ,rive factor:A numerical factor used for calculating the belt minimum slac side tension

    re/uired for a given driving condition and or configuration.

    ,rive$ head-tail:

    %ee head-tail drive.

    ,rive pulley:

    A pulley mounted on a drive shaft which transmits power to the belt.

    ,rive$ single:

    A one-pulley drive.

    ,rive snubbed pulley:

    An non-driven pulley located close to the drive pulley to provide a greater arc ofcontact around the drive pulley.

    ,rive$ tandem:

    %ee tandem drive.

    ,rive-on hinged fastener:Two ends of belting !oined together with a pre-pacaged fastener assembly having

    prongs for driving through the belt end.

    ,rive-on plate fastener:

    Two ends of belting !oined with a single plate, across the top cover !oint, with rivetsor sharp teeth clinched over on the bottom cover side of the belting.

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      ,rop ply:The omission of a reinforcing ply for a specified distance from each edge. 0suallythe bottom or next to bottom ply in flat conveyor belting.

    ,ry blend:

    A free-flowering dry compound prepared without fluxing.

    ,ual drive:

    A belt driving system employing two ad!acent pulleys each powered with its ownmotor.

    ,uck:A tern applied to a wide range of medium and heavyweight fabrics, commonly

    made of cotton, including the heaviest and strongest of all, single-woven fabrics.There are three main types4 number duc, army-type duc and flat duc.

    ,umbbell:

    A test specimen with lesser width at the middle of its length than at its ends.

    ,urometer:An instrument for measuring the hardness of rubber. Measures the resistance to

    the penetration of an indentor point into the surface of rubber.

    ,urometer hardness:

    An arbitrary numerical value which measures the resistance to penetration of theindentor point of the durometer. $alue may be taen immediately or after a very

    short specified time.

    ,utchman:

    A short section of belting mechanically spliced into a length of belting and removedwhen the tae-up allowance is exceeded.

    ,ynamic fatigue:?oss in properties of a material when continually sub!ected to flexing and or cyclic

    stress.

    ,ynamometer:

    An apparatus capable of inducing various loads for evaluation of dynamic beltingproperties.

     

    !dge wear:Damage to the edge of a belt by abrasion.

    !ffective tension:Difference between the tight side and the slac side tension at the drive pulley

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      providing the necessary pull to move the load.

    !lastic limit:

    The limiting extent to which a material may be deformed and yet return toapproximately its original shape after removal of the deforming force.

    !lasticity:The property of an article which tends to return it to its original shape after

    deformation.

    !lastomer:

    An elastic rubber-lie substance, such as natural or synthetic rubber.

    !lastomeric properties:

    The chemical and physical properties of an elastomer.

    !levator belt:

    A belt that raises material vertically in bucets attached to the belt.

    !longation:

    Increase in length expressed numerically as a fraction or percentage of initiallength.

    !mbossing:peration of transferring a design to a rubber or rubber-lie surface.

    !ndless belt:

    A belt made endless without a !oint.

    !nds:%ee fabric count.

    !uivalent free fall:The calculated vertical distance material falls from the discharge point to end of a

    belt.

    !xposed fabric:

    An area of a belt where the fabric reinforcement shows due to lac of cover.

    !xtensibility:The capability of increased center distance in a belt conveyor.

    !xtensible conveyor:

    An ad!ustable conveyor system with a loop of belting between the carrying idlersand the return idlers for changing the center distance.

    !xtraction test:A test in which certain components are separated from a solid by dissolving them

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      in a li/uid solvent under suitable conditions.

    !xtruded:

    1orced through die of tubing machine in either solid or hollow cross section.

    !xtrusion:

    A process whereby heated or unheated plastic forced through a shaping orificebecomes a continuously formed piece.

    !ytelwein:

    Mathematician who determined centuries ago that the ratio between tight and

    slac side of a belt system is maximi"ed by the formula @

      ./

      e  (9e power mu beta9*

    where as4 e  is the base natural logarithm number (+.)++*

      .  is the coefficient of friction between pulley and belt  /  is the arc of contact in radian ()3o C pi C 6.))E2+FE6F*

     

    0abric:

    A planar structure produced by nonwoven or interwoven yarns, fibers, or filaments.

    0abric count:

    The number of warp ends per inch and the number of filling pics per inch.

    0abric design:The combination of si"e and numbers of fibers or yarns, in both warp and filling,

    and the manner in which they are processed.

    0abric finish:

    %ee fabric impression.

    0abric impression:A pattern in the cover of a belt formed by contact with a fabric during processing.

    0abric picks+inch:The number of filling (weft* yarns per inch.

    0abric rating:

    The maximum tension per ply of fabric a belt should be operated under idealconditions.

    0ace:

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      The outer surface of a pulley or belt.

    0ace cover:

    %ee top cover.

    0astener:

    %ee belt fastener.

    0atigue:

    The weaening or deterioration of a material caused by a repetition of stress orstrain.

    0eeder belt:A belt that discharges material onto another conveyor belt.

    0iber:A unit of matter having a length at least )33 times its diameter and which can be

    spun into a yarn.

    0ilament:

    A continuous fiber of extreme length.

    0iller:

    A material mixed with a polymer to improve /uality or lower cost of a compound.

    0iller seam:

    xtruded polymeric compound used to fill the void between two pieces of belt cover

    or fabric.

    0illing threads:The yarns in a fabric running at right angle to the warp.

    0illing yarns:The transverse yarns in a fabric.

    0ilm:A sheet of plastic not greater then 3.3)39 in thicness.

    0inger splice:

    Belt ends cut into mating fingers.

    0inger tipping tool:

    /uipment similar to a sodering iron to fix fingers of a thermoplastic belt splice in

    place prior of putting the belt into a watercooled press.

    0inish$ fabric:

    %ee fabric impression.

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      0inish$ plate:%ee plate finish.

    0inish$ platen:%ee platen finish.

    0ire resistance:%ee flame retardance.

    0ire resistant:>etards the burning action of fire or flame.

    0isheye:A small globule that has not blended completely into the surrounding material.

    0lame performance:The manner in which belting after being ignited will burn and7or self extinguish.

    0lame retardance:Intensity of flame diminished by fire retardant ingredient(s* in the plastic

    compound.

    0lame test:

    A means, under specific condition, for establishing the flame performance of a belt.This will not indicate the performance of the belt in any fire in which the belt may

    be involved.

    0lange:A raised edge on a plastic article.

    0langed edge:

    In conveyor belting, an edge built up to prevent spillage.

    0langed pulley:

    A pulley with a raised rim at the edges for the purpose of eeping the belt on thepulley.

    0lash:Material protruding from the surface of a molded part, appearing at the mold

    parting line or mold vent points.

    0lat belt:()* A belt the cross section of which is in the general form of a rectangle< (+* A belt

    which operates on a smooth flat bed or straight idlers or rollers.

    0lat press:A belt finishing press with flat platens, between which the belt is heated and

    compressed.

    0lat spots:

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      Thin spots on a conveyor belt surface stored on a flat surface for a long time.

    0lat wire braid:

    1lattened braided wire, fre/uently used for armoring the belt.

    0leet:

    The lateral movement of a conveyor belt to either side of its intended path.

    0lex cracking:

    A surface cracing induced by repeated bending or flexing.

    0lex life:

    The relative ability of a rubber article to withstand dynamic bending stresses.

    0lex life test:

    A laboratory method used to determine the life of a plastic product when sub!ectedto dynamic bending stresses.

    0lexibility:The ability to be bent repeatedly without cracing.

    0lexing:The bending of a belt.

    0lexproof:Term often used for a fingersplice of a thermoplastic belt.

    0light:()* ne of a series of belt conveyors discharging one to another. (+* A series of

    cleats or profiles on a belt.

    0loating breaker:

    A leno or cord breaer embedded in a belt cover with a distinct layer of elastomerseparating the breaer from the carcass.

    0loating idler pulley:%ee tae-up pulley.

    0low crack:

    A surface imperfection caused by improper flow and failure of a compound to blendwith itself during the molding operation.

    0low line:

    %ee flow mar.

    0low mark:

    A surface imperfection similar to a flow crac, but with a minor depression.

    0olded-edge:

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      ()* A belt construction wherein the inner carcass is enclosed in an envelope ply orplies. (+* An edge where an outer covering has been wrapped around a carcassand folded over the edge so that the carcass is closed on the edges.

    01:

    Abbreviation for 91eet per Minute9.

    0reuency factor:

    The duration of time in minutes re/uired for one complete cycle of a conveyor belt.

    0riction:

    ()* The resistance to motion of a belt due to the contact between two surfaces. (+*Improperly used to indicate the bond between two surfaces.

    0riction coat:

    An impregnation of rubber material calendered by friction motion to a fabric so thatthe material is forced into the weave of the fabric.

    0riction$ coefficient of:

    The ration between the force pressing the surfaces together and the force re/uiredto move it.

    0riction$ kinetic:The force which is re/uired to eep a body sliding at a uniform rate. Also called

    9friction of motion9.

    0riction pull:

    %ee adhesion.

    0riction$ static:The force which is re/uired to start a body sliding.

    0riction surface:

    The exposed portion of a belt finished with a layer of impregnated plastic asdistinguished from being completely covered with a layer of plastic.

    0rictioned fabric:#oated with rubber compound on a friction (uneven speed* calender.

    0rosting:?ight scattering surface resembling fine crystals.

    0ull rated tension:

    %ee rating.

    0ungicide:An agent that destroys fungi or inhibits their growth.

    0usion:An irreversible process during which a 5$# compound or platisol undergoes a

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    physical change and becomes a homogeneous mixture by the mutual solvation of

    the 5$# resin and the plastici"er in the compound, as result of heating to anappropriate temperature.

     

    2auge:

    The measure of thicness of the individual elements maing up a rubber product.

    2el:

    The initial semi-solid stage that develops during the solvation of a resin by aplastici"er.

    2el point:The stage at which a li/uid begins to exhibit pseudo-elastic properties.

    2lass fiber:=lass extruded through a die with many fine holes into continuous filaments.

    2ouging:The effect of sharp heavy material falling onto a conveyor belt cover to loosen or

    tear out pieces of the cover.

    2rab test:

    A tensile test for woven fabric using specimens considerably wider than the !awsholding the ends of the test specimen.

    2rade:The ration of incline or decline of a conveyor expressed a s percent of the vertical

    height to the hori"ontal distance.

    2rade of belting:The /uality of belting cover on the basis or gouge, cut, and abrasion resistance.

    2ravity take-up:

    A mechanical system that ad!usts for the stretch or shrining of a conveyor beltautomatically by a weighted pulley in the system.

    2rooved lagging:?agging with round or angular grooves to minimi"e material buildup on the pulley.

    2round finish:%urface produced by grinding or buffing. %ee Buffing.

     

    3ammock belt idler:

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      %ee catenary idler.

    3ank:

    A length of 3 yards of a yarn.

    3ardening:

    An increase in resistance to indentation.

    3ardness:

    5roperty or extent of being hard. Measured by extent of failure of the indentorpoint of any one of a number of standard hardness testing instruments to

    penetrate the product.

    3aze:

    The cloudy appearance of an otherwise transparent film.

    3azing:

    A dull finish.

    3ead:

    The delivery end of a conveyor belt.

    3ead pulley:

    The terminal pulley at the discharge end of the conveyor.

    3ead-tail drive:

    A belt driving system using one or more powered pulleys at or near both the head

    and tail pulleys with each pulley independently driven.

    3eat degradation:#hange in chemical and7or physical properties due to excessive exposure to heat.

    3eat mark:xtremely shallow depression or groove in the surface of a plastic visible because

    of a sharply defined rim or roughened surface.

    3eavy weight belt:

    A belt with a rated maximum woring tension e/ual to or greater than )F3 poundsper inch width, when operating under ideal conditions.

    3erringbone weave:

    The longitudinal appearance of a row of parallel lines slanting at an angle in theopposite direction to another row of slanting parallel lines.

    3inge pin:

    A cable or rod to !oin together hinged fasteners.

    3inged fastener:

    A fastener attached independently to each of the belt ends designed with anopening in the end of the fastener to accept a pin through the opening to complete

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      the !oint.

    3old back:

    %ee bacstop.

    3olland cloth:

    A filled sheeting (usually starch filled* with a smooth, glossy finish on both sides,used as separating medium.

    3omogenous:f uniform composition throughout.

    3orizontal belt curve:The portion of a conveyor system which deviates from a straight line in the same

    hori"ontal plane as the rest of the system.

    3orsepower:

    A unit of power e/ual to 66,333 foot-pounds per minute (F watts*.

    3orseshoe:

    A fold in a surface in a definite 0-shaped pattern. 5articularly used in describings/uee"ed-out blisters in a belt cover. Also called ring blisters, dog ears and pig

    ears. #ollo/uial.

    3ot air cure:

    $ulcani"ation by using heated air, with or without pressure.

    3ugger belt conveyor:Two belt conveyors whose conveying surfaces combine to convey loads up steep

    inclines or vertically.

    3ysteresis:A loss of energy due to successive deformation and relaxation. A measurement of

    the area between the deformation and relaxation stress-strain curves.

    3ysteresis loop:

    The configuration of the graphical plot of stress and strain from the initialapplication of stress to some reduced stress. The measure of hysteresis is the area

    under stress-strain curves of increasing and decreasing stress.

    3ysteresis loss:

    A loss of mechanical energy due to successive deformation and relaxation. It ismeasured by the area between the deformation and relaxation stress-strain

    curves.

     

    Idler:

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      ()* A non-powered pulley around which a belt travels (+* a non-powered roll orrolls supporting a belt.

    Idler pulley:%ee idler.

    Idler stand:The mechanical system that supports an idler pulley.

    Immediate set:The amount of deformation measured immediately after removal of the load

    causing the deformation.

    Impact:

    The single instantaneous stroe or contact of a moving body with another either

    moving or at rest, such as a large lump of material dropping on a conveyor belt.

    Impact energy:The effective combination of force (weight of the body and height* when one body

    falls on another.

    Impact force:

    The energy power of impact.

    Impact idler:

    A belt idler having a resilient roll covering, resilient molded elastomer rings,pneumatic tires, springs or other means of absorbing impact energy at or close to

    the place where material contacts the belt.

    Impact rating:The maximum rating of a belt construction based on the fabric, impact rolls, designof loading, si"e of material falling on the belt, relative speed of the material and

    the belt, etc. to withstand the energy of impact loading.

    Impact resistance:

    The relative ability of a conveyor belt assembly to absorb impact loading withoutdamage to the belt.

    Impregnated:1abric interstices filled and7or yarns saturated with plastic compound.

    Impregnation:To fill the interstices of an article with a rubber compound. =enerally applies to

    treatment of textile fabrics, yarns and cords.

    Impression:

    Design formed during vulcani"ation in the surface of any rubber article by amethod of transfer, such as fabric impression or molded impression.

    Impulse:

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    An application of force in a manner to produce sudden strain or motion.

    Indentation:

    ()* The extent of deformation by the indentor point of any one of a number ofstandard hardness testing instruments< (+* A recess in the surface of a belt cover.

    Initial tension:

    see tension, initial.

    Inside length:A belt length measured along its inside circumference.

    Installation allowance:

    The amount by which the center distance can be ad!usted so a belt can be installed

    without damaging.

    Instantaneous modulus:

    The ratio of stress to strain at a single point on the stress-strain curve.

    Interstice:

    A small opening, such as between fibers in a cord or threads in a woven or braidedfabric.

    Interstice of fabric:%paces between the yarns or cord of a woven fabric.

    Interwoven conveyor belt:A type of conveyor belt construction similar to that of a solid woven belt, with plies

    interwoven such that it is impossible to separate them.

    Irons:

    %trips of metal at the edges of a belt in a flat press to confine the edge elastomerfor maing a molded edge or to obtain uniform thicness of the edges of a slit edge

    belt near its edges.

    IS4:

    The abbreviation for the International rgani"ation for %tandardi"ation.

     

    5aws:

    #lamps to hold a specimen when applying stress to the specimen for certain tests.

    5oint:

    The area where two ends of a belt are fastened together, either by heat andpressure or mechanical means. %ee also splice.

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    6inking:A temporary or permanent distortion of belting caused by doubling the belt on

    itself.

    6nitted 1ly:

    %pirally interlaced loops of yarn forming a continuous tubular structure.

    6nife edge:

    A bent slider bed or stationary bar, usually at the end of a conveyor to minimi"ethe gap between two conveyors for parts to fall through. ften seen in the food

    industry.

    6nuckles:>aised loops of a woven textile structure.

     

    7agged drive pulley:%ee lagged pulley.

    7agged pulley:

    A pulley having its surface covered with lagging.

    7agging:A smooth or embossed covering on a pulley to increase friction between belt andpulley.

    7aminate:A product made by bonding together two or more layers of material.

    7aminated:

    Build up from thinner layers.

    7ap %oint:An elevator !oint where one end of the belt laps over the other end with the leading

    edge on the bucet side.

    7ap:

    A part that extends over itself or alie part.

    7ap seam:

    A seam made by placing the edge of one piece of material extending flat over theedge of the second piece of material.

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      7ateral:#oming from the side.

    7ateral misalignment:ffset of pulleys, idlers, or structure from a design longitudinal reference line.

    7eno breaker:An open-mesh fabric made from coarse ply yarns, with a leno weave. A leno weave

    is one in which certain warp threads-termed doup (or crossing threads* are passedfrom side to side of one or more ends-termed standard threads and are found in by

    the filling in this position. ;here the crossed interlacing occurs an open,perforated structure is formed.

    7eno weave:An open mesh fabric in which the warp yarns are held by the filling yarns with the

    filling yarns twisted around alternating warp yarns in opposite direction.

    7ife test:A laboratory procedure used to determine the resistance of rubber article to aspecific set of destructive forces or conditions.

    7ift:The net vertical distance material is moved by a conveyor or bucet elevator.

    7ight weight belt:A belt with a rated maximum woring tension of less than )F3 pounds per inch

    width.

    7ined bolt holes:

    Bolt holes which have been given a protective coating to cover the exposedcarcass.

    7iner:A separator, usually cloth, plastic film, or paper, used to prevent ad!acent layers of

    material from sticing together.

    7ive roller conveyor:

    A roller bed conveyor system with fre/uently placed rollers above and in contactwith the belt so the powered belt turns-maes 9alive9-the rollers above the belt.

    The pacages, etc. are conveyed on the rollers above the belt.

    7ive rolls:A series of rolls over which ob!ects are moved by application of power to all orsome of the rolls.

    7ive storage:

    ()* The storage of ob!ects on a conveyor belt having a low coefficient of friction

    surface or on live rollers so the ob!ects can accumulate while they are added to orremoved at different rates (+* The storage of material in a silo while material is

    being discharged or poured in at the same time (6* An extensible conveyor with a

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      loop of belting between the carrying and return idlers where the length of the loopis continuously decreased as the e/uipment at the mining face is advanced.

    7oad support:The ability of a fully loaded conveyor belt to bridge the idler gap without creasing

    into the idler gap and carry material without excessive sag between the carryingidler pulleys.

    7oad weight:The weight of material per unit of time.

    7oading angle:The angle to the hori"ontal at which material is loaded onto a conveyor belt.

    7oading impact:

    The energy with which material is loaded onto a conveyor belt.

    7ongitudinal:A lengthwise direction.

    7ongitudinal seam:A seam !oining two materials in the length of the finished product.

    7oop edge:A selvage formed by having the filling loop around a catch cord or wire, which is

    later withdrawn, leaving small loops along the edge of the cloth.

    7oose cover:A separation of the cover from the carcass or textile reinforcement.

    7oose edge:

    An edge which has separated from a textile carcass.

    7oose ply:

    A separation between ad!acent plies of fabric.

    7ow spot:

    A depression below the general surface of an ob!ect.

    7ow temperature flexibility:The ability of belting to be bent or flexed at low temperatures without loss of

    serviceability.

    7ow temperature flexing:The act of bending a product under conditions of a cold environment.

    7ump size:The si"e of larger material on a conveyor belt.

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    aster batch:A preliminary mixture of two or more compound ingredients for purposes of more

    thorough dispersion or better processing, and which will later become part of the

    final compound in a subse/uent mixing operation.

    aximum horsepower:The highest power re/uirement.

    aximum ply:()* The maximum number of plies permissible that will permit for satisfactory

    troughability< (+* The maximum number of plies permissible to satisfactorilyoperate around a pulley of a given diameter.

    aximum safe working stress:The greatest tension at which a belt should be operated.

    aximum tension:

    %ee tension, maximum.

    echanical fastener:Any mechanical device used to !oin the ends of belting.

    igration:The transfer of an ingredient in a rubber compound from one layer to an ad!acent

    layer or to the surface.

    igration stain:

    ;hen staining occurs on the area of an ob!ect ad!acent to the rubber article it isnown as 9migration stain9.

    ildew:

    =rowth on organic matter produced by fungi, generally in textile components of

    rubber articles. 0sually causes deterioration.

    ildew inhibited:

    The article contains material to prevent or retard mildew.

    ill:

    A machine with two hori"ontal rolls revolving in opposite directions used for themastication or mixing of rubber.

    inimum accelerating time:The least time allowed to accelerate a conveyor belt from rest to normal speed

    without exceeding its maximum safe woring stress.

    inimum braking time:

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      The least time allowed to decelerate a conveyor belt from normal speed to restwithout exceeding the maximum safe woring stress or causing the belt to doubleup on itself.

    inimum ply:

    The least number of plies that will support the load on a belt without damagingdeformation.

    inimum pulley diameter:The smallest pulley diameter around which a belt is recommended to operate.

    inimum tension:%ee tension, minimum.

    irror finish:

    A bright, polished surface appearance.

    ix:%ee compound

    odified grab test:A tensile test for woven fabric using specimens wider than the !aws holding the

    specimen cut midway between the !aws to the warp yarns held by the !aws.Minimi"es warp yarn popout experienced by raveled specimen test.

    odulus:()* A coefficient or numerical measure of some property. (+* In rubber, modulus

    usually refers to one of several measurements of stiffness or resistance todeformation. The use of the word without modifying terms may be confusing and

    such use should not be encouraged. Modulus in rubber may be either static ordynamic< static moduli are subdivided into tangent, chord, and compounder's.#ompounder's modulus is always in tension, but all the others may be in shear,

    compression or tension. ther terms used in connection with 9modulus9 areelasticity, rigidity, Goung's tangent, and elongation. (6* All elastic moduli in rubber

    (except compounder's* are ratios of stress to the strain produced by that stress,

    the stress, usually p.s.i.

    odulus$ belt:

    The force per unit width of belt re/uired to produce a stated percentage ofelongation.

    odulus of elasticity:The force divided by the percent elongation (divided by )33* to cause the

    elongation.

    oisture regain:

    The re-absorption of water by a textile.

    old edge:

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    A belt edge formed during vulcani"ation by curing in a mold or against edge irons.

    old lubricant:

    The material used to coat the surfaces of a mold to prevent the rubber adhering tothe metal during vulcani"ation.

    old mark:An indentation or embossment on the surface of a molded product caused by

    irregularities in the mold surface.

    old register:

    The means used to align the parts of a mold.

    old release:

    %ee mold lubricant.

    onofilament:

    A single extruded strand of material (i.e. a fishing line*.

    onomer:

    A relatively simple compound which can react to form a polymer.

    ooney viscosity:

    A measure of the plasticity of a polymeric compound determined in a Mooneyshearing disc viscometer.

    S3A:

    Abbreviation for Mine %afety and 8ealth Administration.

    M%8A flame retardant test4 1lame test procedure for underground conveyor beltingprescribed by the Mine %afety H 8ealth Administration of the 0.%. Department of

    ?abor.

    S3A flame retardant test:

    1lame procedure for underground conveyor belting prescribed by the Mine %afety H 8ealth Administration of the 0.%. Department of ?abor.

    ultifilament:Many extruded fine strands of material grouped together.

     

    Narrow disc idler:

    A flat pulley with discs attached around the pulley at certain intervals across thepulley.

    Necking down:

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      A locali"ed decrease in the cross-sectional area of a product.

    Needle punched:

    &on-woven fabric punched with a hac latched needle to improve its strength andstability.

    Net endless length:The manufactured length necessary to provide proper initial fit and tensioning of a

    belt on a specified drive.

    Nicks:

    #uts in the surface or edge of belting.

    Nip:

    The clearance between two rolls of a calender.

    Nitrile:

    #ommon name for nitrile-butadiene polymer.

    Nominal:

    An approximate amount.

    Non-blooming:

    The absence of bloom.

    Non-woven fabric:

    A mat of nonaligned fiber bonded together.

    Norway type elevator bolt:

    1lat top, s/uared shoulder bolt for attaching elevator bucets to elevator belts.

    N8:

    Abbreviation for isoprene polymer.

    Numbered duck:

    1abric weight designated by numbers based on linear yard of cloth ++9 in width.

    Nylon:

    #ommon name for polyamide fiber.

     

    4ffset idler:

    The center carrying roller which is offset and transversely lapping the troughingidlers.

    4il proof:

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      &ot adversely affected by exposure to oil.

    4il resistant:

    ;ithstands the deterioration effect of oil(generally refers to petroleum* on thephysical properties.

    4il swell:The change in volume of a rubber article due to absorption of oil.

    4il well splice:Two ends of a belt each bent 23 degrees around a steel form and bolted together

    through the belt and steel form.

    4ligomer:

    A polymer consisting of only a few monomer units such as in dimer, a trimer, a

    tetramer etc. H their mixtures.

    4ne side:5ertains to one of the two outward faces or surfaces of a conveyor belt (not the

    edges of the belt*.

    4pen seam:

    A seam whose edges do not meet creating a void.

    4perating tensions:

    The tension of longitudinal sections of a belt system (tight side and slac side*when moving material, as distinguished from tension when the belt is running

    empty.

    4ptimum cure:The time, temperature and compression of vulcani"ation or of fusion at which adesired combination of properties is attained in an elastomer.

    4rganosol:A suspension of a finely divided plastic in a plastici"er with a volatile organic

    solvent.

    4utside diameter eccentricity:

    The degree a pulley is out-of-round with respect to is central axis.

    4ven:

    A low pressure hot air chamber used for the purpose of heating, drying, baing orvulcani"ing rubber products. %ee Aging.

    4xidation:The reaction of oxygen on a rubber product, usually detected by a change in the

    appearance or feel of the surface or by a change in physical properties.

    4xygen bomb:

    A chamber capable of holding oxygen at an elevated pressure which can be heated

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    to an elevated temperature. 0sed for an accelerated aging test.

    4xygen bomb aging:

    A means of accelerating change in the physical properties of rubber compounds byexposing them to the action of oxygen at an elevated temperature and pressure.

    4zone cracking:Belt cover cracs or cra"ing caused by exposure to o"one in the atmosphere.

    4zone resistant:;ithstands the deteriorating effects of o"one (generally cracing*.

     

    1ackage conveyor:

    A conveyor which transports pacaged, boxed, or bagged material.

    1ackage deflector:

    %ee conveyor belt pacage deflector.

    1acked material:Material on belting compacted as the belting moves along the system.

    1erformance test:%ee service test.

    1ermanent set:

    The amount by which an elastic material fails to return to its original form afterdeformation.

    1ermanent stretch:

    longation permanently removed from belting when it is first used.

    1ermeability:

    The /uality or condition of allowing passage of li/uids or gases through a rubberlayer.

    1hysical properties:A measure of mechanical characteristics of a material.

    1ick:An individual filling yarn of a fabric.

    1icking idler:A short-sided troughing idler for readily removing material by hand from a belt.

    1ierce tape:

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      A woven mesh of steel wire or cord.

    1imple:

    A small sharp or conical elevation on the surface of a product.

    1it:

    A small crater in the surface of a product with width about the same as its depth.

    1itch line:

    The plane within a belt which undergoes neither stretching nor compression whenthe belt rounds the pulley, i.e., the neutral plane of the belt structure.

    1lain weave:The simplest type of weave with both ad!acent warp and filling yarns crossing over

    and under each other.

    1lanished cover:

    An irregular coated surface transformed into a smooth surface by some means.

    1lanished finish:

    %ee planished cover.

    1lastic:

    A material that contains as an essential ingredient one or more organic polymericsubstances of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state, can be shaped

    by flow.

    1lasticity:()* A measure of the resistance to shear of an un-vulcani"ed elastomer< (+* a

    measurement of resistance to shear with heat history.

    1lasticizer:A compounding ingredient which can change the physical and chemical properties

    and processibility of a polymeric compound.

    1lastisol:

    A dispersion of a powderous polymer in a plastici"er.

    1late finish:

    A finish resulting from contact with commercially smooth but not polished pressplatens.

    1lied yarn:

    A yarn made by twisting together two or more single yarns.

    1lows:5lates across a belt to remove material lying on or sticing to the belt.

    1ly:

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      A layer of rubberi"ed fabric.

    1ly adhesion:

    The force re/uired to separate two ad!oining strength reinforcing members in arubber product.

    1ly separation:?ac of adhesion between plies.

    1ly tensile:The ultimate breaing strength of a belt expressed in force per inch width per ply.

    1olymer:A macromolecular material formed by the chemical combination of monomers

    having either the same or different chemical composition.

    1olymerization:

    The process that converts monomers into polymers.

    1olyvinyl chloride:

    A polymer prepared by the polymeri"ation of vinyl chloride as the sole monomer.

    1orosity:

    The condition of containing numerous small holes or voids.

    1ortable conveyor:

    A conveyor system readily moved from one place to another.

    1ortable vulcanizer:

    A vulcani"er readily moved from one place to another, usually used for maing fieldsplices and repairs.

    1ot life:The period of time during which a reacting polymeric compound remains suitable

    for its intended use after having been mixed with a reaction-initiating agent.

    1owered roller conveyor:

    A term used by the 0.%. 5ostal %ervice to mean a live roller conveyor. %ee liveroller conveyor.

    1ress:

    A machine consisting of two or more heated plates which can be brought togetherand separated by hydraulic pressure or mechanical action.

    1ress cold ends:

    The area of reduced temperature at the press platen end.

    1ress lap:

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      The area of overlap of one press cure length on the next.

    1ress length:

    The length of a belt which can be pressed at one time.

    1ress marks:

    Irregularities in the surface of a vulcani"ed product caused by the press ends or bycorresponding irregularities in the press surface.

    1ress$ rotary:%ee rotary press.

    1ricker marks:%mall mars in the cover of a vulcani"ed belt where a roll with sharp needles had

    penetrated the uncured belt to allow trapped air in the uncured belt composite to

    escape.

    1rocessing:The operations in the manufacture of a belt.

    1rofile top cover:Belt surface having a series of continuous or interrupted, straight or curved ridges,

    across the belt at regular intervals to enhance the belts ability to move materialsup inclines or down declines.

    1rong:The sharp point of a mechanical fastener that penetrates the belt.

    1ulley:

    A cylinder, mounted on a central axis rod.

    1ulley cover:%ee bottom cover.

    1ulley lagging:%ee lagging.

    1ulley pro%ection:The amount a pulley face width extends beyond belt edge.

    1ulley wear cover:

    ()* lastomeric material attached to the pulley to minimi"e pulley surface wear (+*Additional belt bottom cover thicness where extraordinary wear is anticipated.

    1ulley wrap:

    %ee arc of contact.

    1ure gum compound:

    A natural rubber or isoprene compound containing only the ingredients necessary

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    to process it, to protect it from aging, and to cause vulcani"ation.

    1*& cover:

    #over using a 5$# compound.

    1*& impregnated:

    Impregnated with 5$# compound.

     

    9ualification conformance inspection:

    The examination of samples from a production run to determine conformance to agiven specification.

    9ualification inspection test:

    The examination of samples from a typical production run to determineconformance to a given specification for approval to become a supplier.

    9uarter turn drive:

    A belt system in which the axes of the ad!acent pulleys are at right angles to eachother to cause a 23 degree twist in the belt about its longitudinal axis.

     

    8A&:Abbreviation for The >ubber Association of #anada.

    8aised cover center:A belt cover with increased thicness along the center portion of the belt.

    8aised edge:A flanged edge conveyor belt to minimi"e spillage.

    8aised rib belt:

    A belt with transverse or diagonal bars or cleats on the top cover.

    8ated conveyor belt:The manufacturer's recommended maximum woring tension for a conveyor belt.

    8ated working tension:%ee rating.

    8ating:The normal woring tension recommended for a belt.

    8aw edge:

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    The uncovered s/uare edge of a belt created by cutting after vulcani"ation.

    8ecovery:

    The degree an elastomeric material returns to its original dimensions after beingstressed.

    8eefed:A belt folded bac and forth on itself.

    8einforcement:The textile strengthening member of a belt. %ee also carcass.

    8einforcement agent:An ingredient in a polymeric compound not basic to its vulcani"ation used to

    increase its chemical and physical properties.

    8einforcing element:

    The strengthening members of a belt.

    8epair:

    The area of new material replacing damaged material in a belt.

    8epose angle:

    %ee angle of repose.

    8esin:

    #ertain materials produced by chemical synthesis.

    8esistance:

    The property or ability of matter to withstand the effects of force, pressure, heat orchemical action.

    8eturn idler:A roll(s* that supports a belt on its return run.

    8eturn run:The part of a conveyor system where the belt returns to the tail.

    8eversion:

    ()* The change which occurs in vulcani"ed rubber as the result of aging or over-curing in the presence of air or oxygen usually resulting in a semi-plastic mass. (+*

    It is the basis of rubber reclaiming processes and is aided by the use of swellingsolvents, chemical plastici"er and mechanical disintegration to obtain a worable

    mass.

    8ibbon blender:A type of internal mixer used to mix powders and li/uids into a dry powderous

    viscous or li/uid mass.

    8ibs:

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      Transverse configurations on the carrying side of a belt to facilitate carryingmaterial on an incline.

    8iveted plate %oint:A mechanical fastener with rivets pro!ecting through a plate on both sides of the

    belt.

    8A:

    Abbreviation for The >ubber Manufacturers Association, Inc.

    8#":

    Abbreviation for >ated Manufacturers Belt Tension.

    8oll belting:

    Belting made to ordered width but of nominal lengths for cutting later into shorter

    lengths.

    8oller bed conveyor:A conveyor belt operating over a series of steel support rollers.

    8osin:The hard amber-colored material of the residue from the distillation of oil of

    turpentine.

    8otary press:

    A vulcani"ing machine consisting of a rotating, heated drum with a flexible steelband partially encircling the drum, which continuously advances a material while

    under pressure and heat between drum and band.

    8otocure:%ee rotary press.

    8ough top:

    A belt made with pro!ections in the carrying surface to improve the ability of thebelt to carry material on inclines.

    8ubber cement:A mixture of polymeric compound or elastomer used as an adhesive or sealant.

    8ubberized:#oated with rubber compound.

    8un:

    The distance or route covered by a conveyor.

     

    Saddle:

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      An additional short length of belting added to an existing belt. %ee butt strap.

    Safety factor:

    The ratio of the maximum stress that a belt or a belt splice can withstand to themaximum stress recommended for it by the manufacturer. The ratio of breaing

    strength to rated woring tension.

    Safe working strength:

    The manufacturer's recommended maximum woring tension for a conveyor beltoperating in ideal conditions.

    Sag:The amount of vertical deflection of a conveyor belt from a straight line between

    idlers, usually expressed as a percentage of the spacing between idlers.

    Sag belt tension:The minimum tension in any portion of the carrying run of a belt necessary to

    prevent excessive sag of the belt between idlers.

    Sample:A piece of material removed for evaluation.

    Scraper:A device for cleaning the surface of belting.

    Screw take-up:A tae-up for a conveyor system in which movement of a pulley-bearing bloc is

    accomplished by means of a screw. %ee also tae-up.

    Seam:The place where two edges of fabric or elastomer are ad!acent to each other toform a single ply or layer.

    Seaming strip:A strip of polymeric material laid over and7or in a seam to fill any voids between

    the ad!acent plies of material.

    Self-aligning idler:

    An idler having a belt-activated swivel mechanism to control the side movement ofan operating conveyor belt.

    Selvage:The lengthwise woven edge of a fabric. Also called selvedge.

    Semi-cure:A partial or incomplete cure.

    Service condition:All the conditions of operation to which a conveyor or elevator belt is exposed.

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      Service factor:The amount by which the normal rating of a unit is altered to compensate forspecific service re/uirements.

    Service test:

    A test in which the product is made to operate under service conditions in theactual e/uipment.

    Set:The amount of deformation remaining after complete release of the load producing

    the deformation.

    Shadowing:

    A bas-relief or outline of a reinforcement which appears on a cover aftervulcani"ation.

    Sheeting:

    A form of plastic in which the thicness is very small in proportion to length andwidth and in which the plastic is present as a continuous phase throughout.

    Shelf storage life:

    The period of time prior to use during which a product retains its intendedperformance capability.

    Simulated service test:%ee bench test.

    Singles yarn:The product from aligning and twisting together fibers or twisting together filament

    fibers.

    Sink:

    A collapsed blister or bubble leaving a depression in a product.

    Skew:

    Amount by which the ends of a single pic yarn in a fabric are offset longitudinally.

    Skim:

    A thin layer of polymeric compound applied to a fabric.

    Skim or skim coat:

    A layer of rubber material laid on a fabric but not forced into the weave. &ormallylaid on a frictioned fabric.

    Skirt board:In a conveyor system, the vertical or inclined plates located longitudinally and

    closely above the belt to confine the conveyed material.

    Skive:

    A cut or grinding action made on an angle to the surface to produce a tapered or

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      feathered end.

    Skiver:

    =rinding e/uipment to bevel belt ends for an overlap splice. There are sandingbelt, drum and dis sivers in use.

    Slab belting:Belting made in wide widths and long lengths for later slitting into narrower widths

    and cutting into shorter lengths.

    Slack side tension:

    The lessor of the tensions in a belt on an operating conveyor. 0sually immediatelyfollowing the drive pulley.

    Slider bed:A stationary surface on which a belt slides.

    Slider bed conveyor:A conveyor belt operating all, or in part of its length, over a flat support surface as

    opposed to being supported by a series of rollers.

    Slip:

    The action that taes place, causing a differential movement between the pulleysurface and the belt.

    Slip and seuence system:

    An interlocing belt conveyor system that stops the system when the speed of theconveyor belt drive pulley exceeds a certain speed of the conveyor belt.

    Slit belt:

    A belt cut to lesser width.

    Slit edge:

    The s/uare finished edge of a belt after trimming to width.

    Slit edge belt:

    %ee cut edge.

    Slope belt:A conveyor belt used to carry material along an inclined flight.

    Slope tension:

    %ee tension, slope.

    Snub pulley:

    A pulley ad!acent to a drive pulley that increases the arc of contact on the drivepulley to increase the effectiveness of the drive.

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      Solid woven belt:A type of conveyor belt wherein the carcass is a single ply consisting of multiplelayers of warp and filling yarns interwoven. The carcass usually is impregnated

    and7or coated with polymeric compound.

    Specification:Detail description of specific re/uirements.

    Specimen:A piece cut from a sample of belting to test.

    Splice angle:The angle at which belting is spliced.

    Splice:

    Methods for !oining the ends of belting together without using a mechanicalfastener.

    Spread:

    To apply a thin coat of li/uid material over a surface by means of a nife, bar, ordoctor blade.

    Spread coat:To apply a thin coat of material over a surface determined by means of a nife, bar,

    or doctor blade.

    Spread coated fabric:

    A fabric coated with a li/uid plastic by a spreading process and then heated to fusethe coating.

    Spring take-up:A mechanical device on both sides of the conveyor system where a variable force

    spring is secured to the conveyor structure and to the tail pulley bloc for thepurpose of maintaining a uniform tension in the belt.

    Spun yarn:A yarn produced from short fibers by aligning and twisting them together.

    Suare edge:An edge of plastic-covered belting finished against rectangular irons.

    Stacker:A conveyor adapted to piling or stacing bul material, pacages, or ob!ects.

    Stamped metal:5erforated metal sheet used for maing a rough top design on a conveyor belt.

    Standard:A /uality level set for the results from a belt test.

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      Staple:A textile fiber of relatively short ()9 to 69* length which when spun and twistedforms a yarn.

    Staple fiber:

    The short fibers from which a spun yarn is made.

    Starting tension:

    The tension necessary to accelerate a belt from rest to normal operating speed.

    Static conductive:

    #apability to conduct static electricity.

    Static electricity:

    lectrical potential resulting from two surfaces rubbing together or parting one

    from the other.

    Static friction:The resistance which must be overcome to start a body sliding down a belt surface.

    Steel cable:%everal steel cords twisted together.

    Steel cord:%everal steel wires twisted together.

    Steel cord belt:

    A conveyor belt having a tension bearing member of steel cords lying in the sameplane with a definite spacing between the cords, elastomer between the cords and

    an elastomeric cover on both sides of the belt.

    Step ply:A conveyor belt having a plied textile carcass in which the upper ply or plies are set

    bac toward the edges to increase the cover gauge in loading area.

    Stepped splice:

    The !oint of one end of multi-ply belting with plies of fabric removed so respectiveply ends will butt together and overlap ad!acent plies of fabric.

    Stiffness:>esistance to flexing.

    Stitched belt:

    ()* A belt made from plies of non-rubberi"ed fabric sewed together to mae a unit

    structure. (+* A rubberi"ed belt in which the plies have bee sewed.

    Stitching:

    A method of butting or !oining two pieces of material together, usually by means of a stitcher roller.

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    Stock roll:

    A belt made to some nominal length and width for subse/uent cutting to re/uiredlength and width.

    Straight face pulley:

    A pulley without any crown.

    Straight warp weave:

    Two warp yarn systems and a filling yarn system where one warp system isessentially without crimp and is the tension bearing member, while the other warp

    system is interlaced with the filling yarn and provides mechanical fastener holdingcapability.

    Strain:Deformation resulting from a force applied to a body.

    Stress:

    1orce applied to a body that results in the body being deformed.

    Stress-strain:The relationship of force and deformation in a body during compression, extension,

    or shear. In a belt this is the relationship of tension (stress* and resultingelongation (strain*.

    Stretch:An increase in length.

    Striated cover:A cover having grooved or channeled lines, due to transfer of irregularities from

    contact with surfaces of forming or finishing e/uipment.

    Strike through:

    5enetration of plastic compound through the fabric.

    Strip test:

    In fabric testing, a tensile strength test made on a strip of fabric with cut edge orraveled down to a specified number of threads or width of fabric, all of which are

    firmly held in gripping !aws wider than the test piece.

    Sun check:

    1ine cracs and cra"ing of an elastomeric surface primarily due to the sun's

    ultraviolet rays.

    Surface finish:

    %ee belt surface finish.

    Swelling:An increase in volume of an elastomer or belt.

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    "ack:8aving a property of temporary adhesion.

    "ail end:The end of a conveyor, usually near its loading points.

    "ail pulley:The belt pulley near the loading end of the conveyor system.

    "ake-up:()* >emoval of slac or stretch in a belt (+* An assembly of structural and

    mechanical parts to maintain proper belt tension.

    "ake-up$ automatic:%ee automatic tae-up.

    "ake-up$ gravity:

    %ee gravity tae-up.

    "ake-up pulley:

    A pulley which can move in space due to gravity, a spring, or other forces in orderto maintain relatively constant tension in a specific strand of a belt.

    "ake-up$ screw:%ee screw tae-up.

    "ake-up tension:%ee tension, tae-up.

    "ake-up travel:The distance the tae-up can move during the belt operation.

    "andem drive:A belt driving system employing two ad!acent powered pulleys.

    "ape line measurement-maximum length:The inside circumference of a belt measured around the pulley surfaces when the

    tae-up idler(s* are moved out to where they tae up all the belt slac theirmovement permits.

    "ape line measurement-minimum length:

    The inside circumference of a belt measured around the pulley surfaces when thetae-up idler(s* are moved in for the installation of the shortest belt possible.

    "ear down:

    The removal of a ply of fabric in a multi-ply fabric belt to prepare the stepped down

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      configuration for a stepped splice.

    "ear 1ropagation:

    #ontinuation of tear.

    "elescoped roll:

    At the outside end of a roll of belting, turns of the belting progressively loosenedand moved outward from the remainder of the evenly wound turns of the belting.

    "emplate:A pattern to guide the punching of holes or cuts in belt ends.

    "ensile member:%ee carcass.

    "ensile strength:The maximum force, stress, applied to a specimen at rupture.

    "ensile stress:The force applied to stretch a test piece (specimen*.

    "ension:%tress on a material tending to cause extension of the material.

    "ension$ effective:In a belt drive, it is the difference between the two tensions in a belt as it

    approaches and leaves a driving or driven pulley. In a two-pulley drive, it is the

    difference between tight and slac side tensions. Being a measure of powerre/uirement, it is sometimes referred to as horsepower pull.

    "ension$ initial:

    The tension put into the belt at installation and prior to operation.

    "ension$ maximum:

    ()* The highest tension occurring in any portion of a belt drive. In a two-pulleydrive it is the tight side tension. (+* In conveyors, the maximum tension may occur

    at a point other than the drive pulley.

    "ension member:

    %ee carcass.

    "ension minimum:The lowest tension occurring in a belt in a conveyor or elevator system under

    operating conditions.

    "ension rating:Maximum safe woring tension recommended by a belt manufacturer.

    "ension ratio:In an operating belt system, the ratio of the larger to the smaller tension as the

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      belt approaches and leaves a driving or driven pulley.

    "ension$ slack side:

    In a belt system, where the two portions of the length of a belt on either side of adriving or driven pulley have different tensions, the slac side tension is the

    smallest of the two.

    "ension$ slope:

    The tension in an inclined belt caused by the weight of the material being elevatedin addition to the belt weight and independent of friction and other sources of

    tension.

    "ension$ take-up:

    The amount of tension in each of the runs of belting approaching and leaving thetae-up pulley, the total of which is the force exerted by the tae-up device.

    "ension$ tight side:

    In an operating conveyor system, the greater of the tensions as the beltapproaches and leaves the drive pulley.

    "ension$ working:

    The maximum woring tension for a fabric or belt recommended by themanufacturer.

    "erminal position:The maximum woring tension for a fabric or belt recommended by the

    manufacturer.

    "erminal pulley:

    The pulley at or near the discharge end of a conveyor belt system.

    "ex:

    A yarn si"e system defined as the weight in grams of )333 meters of yarn.

    "extile:

    A general term applied to yarn, cord, non-woven, or woven fabric made from afibrous material.

    "hermoplastic:#apable of being repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling and in

    the softened state can be shaped by flow.

    "ie cloth breaker:

    A leno or other open weave fabric breaer between a belt cover and the carcass.

    "ie gum:

    A thin sheet of un-vulcani"ed rubber inserted between plies in vulcani"ed repairs of splices.

    "ight side tension:

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      %ee tension, tight side.

    "ilted troughing idlers:

    0sed for belt training.

    "ime cycle:

    The duration of time, in minutes, re/uired for one complete cycle of a conveyorbelt.

    "ire bead wire:%teel wire placed in or beneath the top cover to minimi"e rips in the belt by ob!ects

    that penetrate the belt.

    "olerances:

    The limiting values for a dimension.

    "op cover:

    ?oss of the elastomer due to abrasion.

    "op cover wear:

    The protective rubber cover on the material conveying surface or surfaces of aconveyor belt.

    "racking alignment:%ee training.

    "raction:

    The friction between a drive pulley and the conveyor belt.

    "raction top:%ee rough top.

    "raining:The process of ad!usting idlers, pulleys, and loading conditions to insure the belt

    runs straight.

    "raining idler:

    An idler mounted on a mechanical device, actuated by the belt moving against it tomae the belt run straight.

    "ra%ectory:

    The arc made by material freely discharged from a conveyor system.

    "ransfer system:A combination of mechanisms to move ob!ects or bul material to or from a

    conveyor.

    "ransition distance:

    The distance between the last fully troughed idler and the flat driving or discharge

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      pulley.

    "ransition idler:

    A troughed belt idler having a lesser degree of trough than the previous carryingidlers.

    "ransverse:A crosswise direction of a belt.

    "ransverse cord breaker:A cord fabric laid in the top cover at right angles to the belt edges.

    "ransverse rigidity:>esistance to belt deformation in the belt crosswise direction.

    "ransverse seam:The !oint, across the belt, of two ends of a fabric ply in the belt or cover material.

    "rapped air:Air which is enclosed in a product or between a product and a mold surface during

    cure.

    "raveling deflector:

    A mechanism which moves over the carrying surface of the belt and deflects theconveyed material off of the belt.

    "ripper:

    A fixed or moveable mechanism at some intermediate place in the conveyorsystem to discharge material from the belt.

    "roughability:

    The property of a belt that permits it to conform to the contour of troughing idlers.

    "roughability index:

    The ratio of the deflection of a freely supported transverse section of a belt to thedistance between the freely supported ends.

    "roughed belt:A belt operating in a conveyor system with inclined side idlers to cause the belt

    edges to turn up and increase the amount of material carried while minimi"ing sidespillage of the material.

    "roughing angle:

    The angle troughing idlers are to the hori"ontal extension of the flat carrying idler.

    "roughing idlers:An idler system which supports a belt in a troughed configuration. 0sually it

    consists of a center hori"ontal roll with an inclined roll on each side. %ee alsocatenary idler.

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      "will weave:A fabric woven with the appearance of diagonal lines.

    "wist:The rotation of a belt on its longitudinal axis. A )3 degree twist is used as a

    means of inverting a belt through the "one of the twist.

     

    ltimate elongation:longation at rupture.

    ltimate strength:The force re/uired to rupture a specimen.

    ltimate tensile:Tensile stress at rupture.

    ndercure:A less than optimal state of vulcani"ation which may be evidenced by taciness or

    inferior physical properties.

    ncured:

    &ot vulcani"ed.

     

    *anner edge:

    %ee flanged edge.

    *ertical curve:

    The portion of a conveyor belt where the angle of incline increases.

    *iscosity:

    The flow property of a material.

    *oid:

    The absence of material or an area devoid of materials where not intended. %eealso blister and sin.