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Transcript of Bellringer 4.28.14
Bellringer 4.28.14What is plant propagation?
What is a plant that is propagated asexually?
Why would a grower want to asexually propagate?
Seedless grape, golden delicious, Ruby grapefruit, strawberry, spider plant.
enables the production of a plant that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to cultivate because the plant does not produce viable seed or the seed is difficult to germinate.Plant may not breed true and when it is necessary to maintain certain genetic forms of the plant. Faster than propagation by seed. It may also be more economical to produce plants asexually, and in many cases it is easier.1Plant Propagation
Remember when you did this?2Now people do this.
3What is plant propogation?Plant propagation is the process of artificially or naturally propagating (distributing or spreading) plants
42 Types of Plant PropagationSexual propagationinvolves the exchange of genetic material between parents to produce a new generation. Asexual propagationdoes not involve exchange of genetic material, so it almost always produces plants that are identical to a single parent. 5Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. For all currently known living organisms, the genetic material is almost exclusively Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA. Some viruses use Ribonucleic Acid RNA as their genetic material. What are the reasons for propagating plants asexually?Asexual propagation in plants involves the reproduction of new plants using only the vegetative parts of the parent plant. This is made possible by the plants ability to regenerate missing plant parts.
Sexual PropagationFlower parts
7Seeds are Formed by
Pollination:The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the female stigma by a pollinating agent such as wind, insects, birds, bats, or in a few cases the opening of the flower itself. Fertilization: The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents.
9Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by endosperm (food) and protective seed coat
Germination of a Bean Seed
10Asexual or Vegetative PropagationLeaf Cuttings and Leaf-bud CuttingsStem CuttingsRoot CuttingsDivisionLayeringTip LayeringAir LayeringGraftingBulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons11CuttingsCuttings involve removing a piece from the parent plant and that piece then re-grows the lost parts or tissues. New plants can be grown from parts of plants because each living plant cell contains the ability to duplicate all plant parts and functions. Some plants will reproduce readily from cuttings and others take a considerable amount of time and care. Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf
Vein cutting from leafRememberPolarity or which way is up!Leaf Section CuttingAfrican violet
13Polarity: Which way is up?
Stems form from the tip. Roots form from from the crown
African violets, begonia, sedumHow do leaf cuttings grow?Origins of roots and shoots varies
Meristem tissue - Group of embryonic cells that can differentiate and produce new cells
Compounds trigger growth of roots and shoots
Root apical meristematic tissue of onion
Shoot apical meristematic tissue14Auxins, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene, and Absciisic Acid (ABA)Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves or just the stem.
Cuttings should be 6-10 long & between nodes
Dibble, then placecutting in soil15How Do Stem Cuttings Work? How roots developResponse to wounding-induced differentiationCells begin to divide Callus begins to formCertain cells begin to divide and initiate root development16Dedifferentiation: Certain cells in the plant know whether or not to divide and produce roots or shoots when the cutting is takenStem Cuttings (contd.)
Preparing the cutting
Planting the cuttingRoot, Cane Cuttings- Uses roots or shoots
Stokesia RootBlackberry rootCane cutting
Bulbs- Specialized roots and stems Bulbs- Underground organ with scales and basal plate1. Tunicate- onion, garlic, daffodil, tulip2. Non-Tunicate- Lily19Tunicate dry outer coating to protectCorms- Specialized roots and stemsCorms- Swollen base of stem axis, give rise to new bulbletsExamplesGladiolus, Crocus
Gladioluscorm with bulblets20Bulbs and CormsBulbs can be propagated by removing small bulblets or offsets that form at the base of the parent bulb.
Bulb (Tulips)Corm (Crocus)
21See notes on bulbs vs. corms.Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons
22Rhizome grow horizontally and rise rise to new plantsTubers and RhizomesTuberous plants can be dug up and the tubers separated.In separating the tubers, each must have a segment of the crown that contains at least one eye or bud. Rhizomes grow and develop buds along their length. The rhizomes can be dug and cut into sections that each contain at least one eye or bud.
TubersRhizomesDivision- To separate a clump into individual plants-Used for perennials and some houseplants
Photos from Garden Gate MagazineDig up Mother Plant
Clean off root ballSeparate roots to find individual plants and plant24Plants with more than one rooted crown may be divided and the crowns planted separately. If the stems are not joined, gently pull the plants apart. If the crowns are united by horizontal stems, cut the stems and roots with a sharp knife to minimize injury. Divisions of some outdoor plants should be dusted with a fungicide before they are replanted. DivisionsDivision is the cutting or breaking up of a crown or clump of suckers into segments. Each segment must have a bud and some roots. These segments are replanted and grow into new plants identical to the parent. Carefully dig the plant, loosening the roots and lifting the plant from the soil.
Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant. They are later separated.
Ground layeringAir layering
26LayeringLayering causes roots to develop on shoots that are still attached to the parent plant. The stem is not cut from the main plant until it has rooted. Simple layering is done by bending a branch to the ground and burying a portion of it while the tip remains uncovered.
Grafting and Budding- Used to attach one plant to the other for strength or varietyBud-graftingWhip Grafting
28Scion-part addedRootstock- bottom part GraftingGrafting involves the joining of different segments of two different plants of the same species. Grafting allows gardeners to produce plants identical to a parent plant. It also allows growers to control size and shape of a tree or shrub. On the negative side, some grafting attempts will be rejected.
29Rejected grafting=called graft incompatibility. Budding or Bud GraftingBud grafting is faster, easier and less messy than other forms of grafting.This method uses a newly developed latent bud, taken from under a live leaf.Budwood is collected from healthy branches that grew since spring and from young trees because they produce a large amounts of new growth.Use buds from the middle section of the branch.
How can I propagate my bulbs? Tunicate BulbsCuttage (8 Sections)Non-tunicate Bulbs
Bulb Scales31New bulbs form beside the originally planted bulb. Separate these bulb clumps every 3 to 5 years for largest blooms and to increase bulb population. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered. Gently pull the bulbs apart and replant them immediately so their roots can begin to develop. Small, new bulbs may not flower for 2 or 3 years, but large ones should bloom the first year. When to propagateLate spring and early summer= optimal growing timeDepends on type of cutting Need to check resources for specific plants. Each one may have an optimal timeSome seeds need to go through stratification or period of cold to break dormancySome seeds need to be scarified or scratched
32Propagation EnvironmentAerial EnvironmentHumidityLightTemperatureAir qualityGrowing MediumMoisture levelTemperatureAerationpHNutrient level
33Equipment and Hygiene- Keep everything clean so disease is not spread
Pruning knifeHand cutters
Watering CanLiners and LightSterilize all toolswith alcohol afteruse!34SoilPurpose of soilLarger particles (sand) holds plant in place Smaller particles hold water and nutrientsIngredients in soilVermiculite= Holds moisturePerlite= Increases aerationPeat=Moisten Helps stop decomposition Sand=DrainageSphagnum Moss= Holds water well, lightweightRecipes and proportions vary depending on plant!
35When can I plant it?Gently tug on the cutting to see if your plant has developed a good root systemRepot in larger pot if necessary
36Have fun and enjoy your new plants!
37EXIT SLIPWhat are two advantages of asexual propagation?Name a plant that can be propagated from a leaf cuttingWhat is a meristem?Why are meristems important for propagation?