Behavioral Approaches to Personality What is behavior?
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Behavioral Approaches to Personality What is behavior?
Behavioral Approaches to PersonalityWhat is behavior?
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Classical ConditioningCSUCSUCRCSCRUCS = unconditioned stimulusCS = conditioned stimulusUCR = unconditioned reactionUCS = conditioned reaction
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)Law of Effect:Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur.
Cat in puzzle box
John B. Watson (1878-1958)Founder of behaviorism Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913)Influenced by Pavlov, ThorndikeEmphasized the importance of objective methodsFocus on animal studiesFocus on overt behavior
Clark L. Hull (1884-1952)Behavior is a function of the environment AND the properties of the organism (e.g. needs, cravings, drives)Stimulus + Response = HabitHabits get formed depending on the outcomes of the response (punishment/reward)Habits form if certain responses to certain stimuli are rewarded
Dollard & Miller in order to learn one mustwant something (drive - e.g. hunger)notice something (cue - e.g. lever)do something (response - e.g. push)and get something (reward - e.g. get food)Differentiation:primary drives (biological - e.g. hunger) and secondary drives (learned - e.g. money)
Dollard & Miller: Personality DevelopmentThree basic characteristics of infant:specific reflexesinnate response hierarchiesprimary drivesFour crucial situations:feeding situationcleanliness trainingearly sexual developmentanger anxiety conflicts
Basic Units of Research
View of Behavioral Data
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)Differentiated between different theorists Drive Stimulus Response Outcome Theory of operant conditioning Based on Thorndikes Law of Effect: Depending on the type of reinforcement, specific changes in behavioral frequency are likely to occurExperiments with different reinforcement schedules (focus on rats & pigeons)
Skinner Box positive reinforcement (reward) increased behavior negative reinforcement (remove aversive S) increased behavior extinction (no reward) decreased behavior punishment (aversive S/remove reward) decreased behavior
Reinforcement SchedulesConsistent - reinforcement every timeRatio schedules number of responsesfixed ratio (e.g. every fourth response)variable ratio (e.g. probability = .25)Interval schedules time intervalfixed interval (e.g. every 4 minutes)variable interval (e.g. on avg. every 4 mins)
Premack Principlebehaviors differ in relative probabilitymore probable behaviors can become reinforcers for less probable behaviorsSuperstitious Behavioranimals are reinforced at randomsoon they start to repeat behavior that coincided with reinforcementBelongingness/Biological Preparednessstimulus - response patterns are learned more easily if they are biologically relatede.g. food poisoning
Educational Use of Learning Mechanisms Identify problematic behaviorIdentify stimuli that are associated with the behaviorIdentify responses and their outcomes (punishment, reward, etc.)What drives, needs, goals may motivate the behavior?Define alternative behaviorFormulate an intervention to change the behavior (be specific: which reinforcement schedules etc.) (Karen Pryor: Dont shoot the dog)
The Skinnerian TraditionRadical behaviorism: Focus on observable behavior (no assumption about internal state)stimulus anxiety avoidancestimulus avoidance/anxietyAccused introspectionists of circular reasoningDismissed personality as an unscientific concept and challenged notions of individual freedom Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971)