Basics of GSM & MNP

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Transcript of Basics of GSM & MNP

An Overview

Abhi Maheshwa VII Sem ECE JIET Jodhpur

Founded in 2009 A Joint Venture between Unitech Group

[India] and Telenor [ Norway ] Telenor , the sixth largest mobile operator in the world, holds a 67.25 % majority stake in Uninor .

Scope of Training Basics of Communication GSM Technology and

Architecture Mobile Number Portability ,

implementation and testing

GSM stands for

Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM : Some facts GSM evolved because of the need for a

standard mobile telephone system that could be deployed across Europe

It uses the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

[ GMSK ] technique for modulation In India , cellular services started around 1995 GSM networks operate in the 900MHz or

1800MHz bands

Why GSM ? Dominant global market share Large number of infrastructure and

handset vendors giving advantage in terms of price and other commercial terms

Wide choice of handsets Seamless interoperability between

networks and handsets

Global footprint for international roaming

including SMS, data and other value added services


ME Mobile Station






Mobile Station (MS)Mobil e Statio nVoice &

Subscriber Identity Module [ SIM ] Mobile Equipment Mobile station provides user access to GSM network forq q q q

Data Subscriber data is read from a SIM card that plugs into MS Each MS has a unique number called as IMEI number, Mobile Transmit and Receive voice at 13 KB/s over air interface

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Airinterface signalling Ciphering Speech processing (channel coding, interleaving, and burst formatting) Generation of alarms and statistics Baseband/Radio frequency transformation

BSC - Base Station Controller

BSC - Base Station Controller Connection establishment betweenthe MS and the NSS

Mobility management Statistical raw data collection Several BTSs are connected to the BSC BSC Manages channel allocation,handovers and release of channels at

MSC Mobile Switching Centre

MSC Mobile Switching Centre Exchange where calls areestablished, maintained and released Database for all subscribers and their associated features. Communicates with the BSCs MSC is weighted on the number of subscribers it can support.

HLR - Home Location qMSC has all subscriber database stored Register in HLRqHLR has all permanent subscriber

database qMSC communicates with HLR to get HLR data for MSC subscribers on call


will have the series of all subscriber numbers, which may not be activated or

VLR Visiting Location A subscription when activated is Register registered in VLR

VLR has all the subscriber numbers

which are active. VLR has a temporary database of all active subscribers (on/off, location information)




VLR Visiting Location RegisterHLR MSC VLR VLR MSC

MSC communicates with HLR for

subscribers coming from different MSCs. If the subscriber is found valid, then it registers the subscriber in the VLR

AUC Authentication Authentication is a process by Centre which a SIM is verified Secret data and the verification

process algorithm are stored in AUC AUC is the element which carries out the verification of the SIM AUC is associated with the HLR





EIR (Equipment Identity Register) EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database which has a series of IMEIs MSC asks the Mobile to send its IMEI MSC then checks the validity of IMEI with the EIR All IMEIs are stored in EIR with relevant classificationsMSC EIR

What is Mobile Number Portability

Mobile Number Portability Number portability enables a [switch between services, MNP ] subscriber tolocations, or operators while retaining the original mobile number, without compromising on quality, reliability, services and operational convenience. A subscriber can choose to keep his number functional even if he switches services of a Mobile Service Provider Thus his/her old number would still be functional on the new network

Advantages of MNP Subscribers benefit Convenience of customer to personalize the same

number across the Operators, Locations and Services. (No age for your number.) Better QOS, more features and services, better tariff plans for customers. No cost incurred to notify the new contact details to the others ( friends, family, business..)

Advantages of MNP Operator s benefit Healthy competition and an

opportunity to explore more services/features. Operator with best QOS will gain the subscribers. Introduction of innovative service.

Out of several types of number portability DoT

has recommended Mobile Number Portability (MNP) for all mobile service operators Two central clearing houses for MNP database covering North-West zone (Syniverse) and South-East zone (Telecordia) These CCH will download the MNP database in operators NPDB on daily basis MNP will be restricted only for intra circle operators MNP will be allowed between CDMA and GSM operators ACQ (All Call Query) direct routing method to implement MNP

MNP - Some facts

MNP Terminologies related to networkDonor Donor Network Network Originating Originating Network NetworkNPDB

Recipient Recipient Network Network

Originating Network Donor Network Recipient Network NPDB

: Network of the calling party : Previous subscription of Called party : Present subscription of Called party : Number Portability Data Base (maintains portability and provides routing instructions)

Non Ported Number Mobile Numbers belonging to

UNINOR. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with HLR (PC & SSN) information. Will be defined in the Range DN Table of the NPDB. Ported In Number Number ported into UNINOR from

Commonly used terms

another network. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with HLR (PC & SSN) information. Will be defined in the Single DN Table of the NPDB. Ported Out Number Number Ported out to another

network from UNINOR. These numbers will be defined in the NPDB with RN information. Will be defined in the Single DN Table of the NPDB.

(ACQ) All call query- Direct routi methodORIG NW NPDBLRN + B-MSISDN B-MSISDN

Recipient Network

Whenever the


Originating Network

Donor Network

ACQ is called as direct routing as donor network will not be included during entire call flow.

call is originated, the Originating n/w will query its NPDB NPDB will acknowledge the query by adding a prefix (LRN) to the B MSISDN if the B MSISDN is ported out. Based on the prefix (LRN) the Originating n/w will route the