Basic Scientific Terminology

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Basic Scientific Terminology. CTL 3352 Scientific and Technical Translation Ivan Yeung. 0 Basic Terminology. 0.1 Concept the mental representation of an object the basic element of a knowledge system 0.2 Term the expression of an object in language 0.3 Definition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Basic Scientific TerminologyCTL 3352 Scientific and Technical TranslationIvan Yeung

  • 0 Basic Terminology0.1 Conceptthe mental representation of an objectthe basic element of a knowledge system0.2 Termthe expression of an object in language0.3 Definitionthe description of the concept

  • 0 Basic Terminology0.4 Technical TermsA form of any given language that is used by people involved in a specialism and that has a set of expressions that are used in a different or more specific way than in the common language

  • 1 Technical Language vsCommon Language1.1 technical terms are largely derived from common languagefriction, motor, heart, plant, bone1.2 technical terms are more specific and preciseThe leaves were blown yellow by the autumn wind arriving early.Chlorophyll, the chemical responsible for photosynthesis, is found in leaves.

  • 1 Technical Language vsCommon Language1.3 some technical terms are used metaphoricallyLight bulbGlhbirne (glow pear)

  • 2 Technical Term FormationNew terms are invented when theres lexical gap between the SL and TLAlzheimers disease cerebellummelamine barrier island Hemipteracalculus Miranda

  • 2 Technical Term Formation2.1 combining of lexical terms in compoundscarbon, oxygen carbon dioxide2.2 borrowing of foreign wordscardiovascular disease, penicillin2.3 abbreviationAIDS, ECG, MRI, DEHP2.4 notation, , , . x, ln(x)

  • 3 Etymology of Technical Terms3.1 Etymologythe study of the origin and the histories of words

    Food for thoughtWhat are the most important source for building scientific terms?

  • 3 Etymology of Technical Terms3.2 Greek and Latin Rootsmany scientific terms were derived from Greek or Latin rootsarthr (o) - G - joint arthritiscephal (o) - G - head cephalopodamega - G - large, enlarged megacolonaqua L water aquaculturealbo L white albino

  • 3 Etymology of Technical Terms

  • 3 Etymology of Technical Terms

    ColorLatinGreekBlackAtr-, nigr-Melan-, melano-BlueCerule-Cyano-GreenVirid-, viridi-Chloro-RedRubi-, rubr-Erythro-ScarletCoccin-WhiteAlb-, candid-Leuco-YellowFlav-, lute-Xantho-

  • 3 Etymology of Technical Terms

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.1 The term must be well motivated**literal meaning matches the concept as understood in the overall system of conceptseg, television, melanocyte4.2 the term should be as short as possible without adversely affecting its clarity

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.3 the term should not be polysemous and should have no synonyms*care should be taken when translating terms containing a polysemous morphemeSubcranialSublingualSubcultureSubgallateSubexciteSubchronicSubluxationsubinflammation

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.4 the term should be systematicheart disease, lung disease, liver disease vs disease of the kidneycarbon monoxidecarbon dioxide

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.5 the term should be productive of any necessary derivationsoxygen / oxidize oxidizing agent oxidation plastics plasticity plasticize plasticizer plasticization /

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.6 the term should be formed in accordance with the syntactic rules of the language Clear Gall-bladder and Drain Fire Decoction* Gallbladder-Clearing Fire-draining Decoction

  • 4 Guidelines for making technical terms4.7 the term should be internally logical green leukorrhea * green vaginal dischargemineral herbs *mineral medicines

  • 5 Biological Terminology5.1 Biological HierarchyKingdom AnimaliaPhylum ArthropodaClass InsectaOrder DipteraSuborder NematoceraFamily CulicidaeSubfamily CulicinaeGenus AedesSpecies A. albopictus

  • 5 Biological Terminology5.1 Biological HierarchyKingdom Phylum Class Order Suborder Family Subfamily Genus Species

  • 5 Biological TerminologyFood for thoughtWhat is the importance of scientific naming?

    5.2 Binomial Nomenclaturebinomial nomenclature is a standard naming convention used by scientists when referring to organismsthe scientific name of each organism is the combination of two namesthe genus and the species

  • 5 Biological TerminologyFood for thoughtWhy is scientific naming important?

    Consider:English common name: Many-banded Krait()* / () ()Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus

  • 5 Biological Terminology

    English common name: Point-scaled Pit Viper / Chinese Habu / Taiwan Habu / Formosan Pit Viper / () ()Protobothrops mucrosquamatus

  • 5 Biological Terminology5.2 Binomial Nomenclaturebinomial nomenclature is a standard naming convention used by scientists when referring to organismsthe scientific name of each organism is the combination of two namesthe genus and the species

  • 5.2 The Hierarchy of Biological World

  • 5.2 The Hierarchy of Biological World

  • 5 Biological Terminology5.2 Binomial Nomenclaturecertain rules should be observedthe scientific name must be in Greek or Latin languagegenetic name should come first and must begin with a capital letterthe same name should not be used for two or more species under the same genusthe scientific name must be either underlined or written in italicsthe name of the author who first described the species should be written after the specific namee.g. Homo sapiens Linnaeus

  • End

    Take a break

  • The flu viruses are a large family, each possessing a mere 10 genes encoded in RNA. 10 RNA

    time for fun~All of the 16 known groups originate in water birds, especially ducks and gulls. 16

  • The virus is well adapted to their immune systems, and does not usually make them very sick.time for fun~This leaves the animals free to move around and spread the virus - just what it needs to persist.

  • But every now and then a bird flu virus jumps to an animal whose immune system it is not adapted to.time for fun~In chickens, a forest bird originally and not a natural host, it causes a moderate disease but can readily mutate to a more severe strain.*

  • Just such a strain of H5N1 flu, named after its surface proteins, has been rampaging through large chicken farms in east Asia.* / H5N1

    But flu is at its most deadly when it first makes the jump to people, having had no opportunity to adapt itself to our immune systems.

  • H5N1 has continued to infect humans as the outbreak in poultry has raged, with an apparently high fatality rate.H5N1 time for fun~It has so far has been hard to contract, and has not spread readily between people.

  • time for fun~If this viral strain should acquire that ability, it could become a lethal pandemic - the name for an epidemic that spreads worldwide.

    That is what happened in 1918, when a virulent flu strain appeared in humans and killed 50 million people within a few months.1918

  • There have also been two less catastrophic pandemics. The so-called "Asian" flu of 1957 caused between one and four million deaths, while 1968's "Hong Kong" flu - with about half the estimated deadliness of the Asian flu - caused one to two million deaths.

    19571968

  • Both of these were human flu viruses which had recombined with bird flu viruses, rendering them unrecognisable to the human immune system.

    The 1957 strain was nearly released by accident in 2005.20051957

  • Virologists generally agree that we are due for another pandemic.

    A highly contagious virus with a 70% death rate is a terrifying prospect, particularly given the speed of modern international travel.70%* / 70%

  • Even if H5 does not trigger the next pandemic, its cousins H7 and H9 could. H5 H7 H9

    H7 is present in the same region and also infected large numbers of Dutch people in an outbreak in 2003.H7 / 2003

  • Some scientists are not willing to wait and see. They are trying to breed contagiousness into H5N1 to see if it is likely to happen.

    H5N1 *

    H5N1

  • Others are breeding replicas of the 1918 virus - from samples recovered from victims - to see just what made it so deadly. 1918

    But some feel that those experiments, because of the potential for escape from the lab, put us at as much risk as the natural evolution of the virus.

  • End

    See you next week