Basic Mountaineering Course 2

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Transcript of Basic Mountaineering Course 2


1 Part 1: Campsite Selection 2 Part 2: Campsite Shelter

2.1 Features of a Good Tent 2.2 Types of Tent 2.3 Tent Pitching 2.4 Proper Care of Tents 3.1 Types of Stoves 3.2 Parts of a White Gas Stove 3.3 How to Operate Stoves 3.4 Care for the Stove 3.5 Troubleshooting 4.1 Preparing the Cooking Area 4.2 Cooking Rice 4.3 Cooking Pasta 5.1 5 Ways to Use the Bolo 5.2 Parts of the Bolo 5.3 Handling the Bolo 5.4 Sharpening the Bolo 6.1 Prepare a Safe Fire Building Site 6.2 Prepare Your Material 6.3 Fire Starters 6.4 Building the Fire 6.5 Type of Fireplaces 7.1 Knots for Joining 7.2 Hitches 7.3 Knots for Loops 7.4 Flat Webbing 8.1 Types of Rope Construction 8.2 Parts of Rope 8.3 Coiling and Uncoiling 8.4 Throwing the Rope 8.5 Belaying 9.1 Basic parts of a Tarp Shelter 9.2 Fundamental rules in building tarp shelters 9.3 Tarp Shelters Ideal for Sheltered Locations 9.4 Tarp Shelters Ideal in Mid-Weather Conditions 9.5 Tarp Shelters Ideal in windy conditions

3 Part 3: Stoves

4 Part 4: Outdoor Cooking

5 Part 5: Bolo / Machete

6 Part 6: Fire Building

7 Part 7: Knot Tying

8 Part 8: Ropework

9 Part 8: Tarp Shelters

To get the greatest benefit from mountaineering, you need to be a responsible mountaineer. And being one means that you should possess several basic skills that will make your journey to the boondocks more enjoyable and fun. The bulk of these skills are explained in this course Camp Management. This covers the things you do when you stop trekking and establish a campsite, from choosing the site, knowing about tents, knives and ropes, building a fire, cooking meals and maintaining sanitation. These skills will not only enable you to be more at ease outdoors, for you may find out one day that you will have to depend on these skills for your survival under extreme conditions. Part 1: Campsite Selection When you end a long days trek, you need to scout for a place to spend your night as safe as comfortable as possible. When establishing your campsite, you need to follow certain criteria. Try to look for the following:

Natural Windbreakers The site should have protection from strong winds. Take advantage of natural windbreakers such as bushes, stable boulders, trees or even tall cogon grass. Be careful though not to pitch your tent directly beneath trees since there is the danger of falling branches, which could damage your tent or worse, injure you. Tree branches overhead will also drip water on you long after a downpour - which can be very annoying.

Natural Cushioning The ground should be covered with grass or dead leaves to provide a cushioning effect for a more comfortable nights rest. This will also help prevent water seepage into the tent and lessen the impact on the grounds compactability.

Accessible to a Water Source A water source would be located nearby, but within a reasonable distance to avoid getting it contaminated. You should camp several meters from the highest possible water line because a flash flood may occur.

Panoramic View To further appreciate the wilderness, a panoramic view of the area could be taken into consideration when selecting your campsite.

Use already Impacted Campsites Mountains that are climbed regularly have traditional or impacted campsites. Set up your tents here, instead of hacking a new area. This way, we keep damage to the site to a minimum.

Avoid Hazardous Elements Avoid overhangs and other areas that are prone to landslides. Don't set up camp beneath a dead tree, or within falling over distance' of a dead tree. The site should also be free from poisonous or thorny plants.

Note: when selecting a campsite, the probability of finding all the above is quite remote, but the more of them you can get in one site the better. Part 2: Campsite Shelter One of the basic necessities you should look for or have when youre exposed in the outdoors is the shelter. It is a common practice that mountaineers bring their own portable shelter - a tent. Try to use tents with earth colors unnatural colors disrupt some important natural processes. Features of a Good Tent

It should be sturdy in construction, double stitched, and supported by patches at stress points.

It should be able to stand exposure to strong winds and rain. Tents achieve this by having an aerodynamic shape or by adding an extra pole within the framework. It is also ideal that tents are covered by a full flysheet.

It should be composed of a breathable inner body and a water repellant fly. This allows your body heat to drive away the interior moisture formed by wet clothing and dew. This also allows better ventilation inside the tent while also allowing for air movement within the airspace between the body and the fly, thus preventing condensation. The fly remains impenetrable to the rain since it is water repellant.

It should have a bathtub floor construction made of coated nylon or any other water repellant material. This is to help prevent water seepage from the ground and wind driven precipitation from getting into the tent.

It should be lightweight and compact. Nylon is not bulky and is the lightest material available. A weight of two to three pounds per person is reasonable.

It should have at least two (2) doors or a door and a window for proper ventilation. It should have zippered and meshed doors and window to keep insects out.

It should be simple in construction and easy to pitch.

It should have sturdy poles. Aircraft aluminum, being strong and lightweight, is the best material. A good alternative, though heavier and prone to splintering, is fiberglass. Poles are preferably shock corded, that is, pole sections are joined by an elastic cord for easier set up.

An optional but useful feature is the tent vestibule, an extension of the flysheet that can be used as a covered cooking area and storage area for your equipment.

Note: Generally, the lower the tent, the more stable it is on high winds but this makes for less headroom inside. For a team of six persons, bring along a couple of three person tents. Aside from being much more stable, it is easier to distribute the tent parts evenly among the group. It is also easier to find a campsite for two smaller tents than for a large one. Types of Tent There are several ways of categorizing tents: Free-Standing or Non-free Standing Free-Standing Freestanding tents need not to be pegged in order to maintain its structure. They also have the advantage of being moved around after being pitched. Some examples are: A-frames and Domes.

A - Frame - An innovation of the A-Type The body is supported by intersecting poles on each end with a central horizontal pole to keep the whole tent taut. Modified A-Frames an added central hoop to keep the sidewalls near vertical, thereby adding more space. Examples: Eureka Timberline and Eureka Alpine Meadows.

Domes: The tent Body is supported by arching poles forming a Dome frame. The usual number of poles forming a Dome tent is three, forming a hexagonal floor. The number of poles for dome tents may vary. Generally, the more poles a Dome has, the more it can withstand high winds. A Dome with four or more poles is called a modified Dome or a Geodesic dome. The steep vertical walls maximize internal space. Examples: Half Dome (2poles) - REI Half Dome and Geodesic Dome (4poles) - North Face VE-25

Non-free Standing Tents that are not free standing need to be pegged to the ground in order to support itself. These are more difficult to pitch and some are less sturdy. Some examples: classic A-type, Sierra Designs Flashlight, North Face West Wind.

A Type The classic triangular design. The body is stretched and staked to the ground tautly with guy lines and is supported by vertical poles at each end. Though much cheaper, it is more cumbersome to pitch and requires a larger space due to its guy lines.

Hoop or Tunnel Tunnel shaped, supported by looped frames usually tapering on one end. This has an edge since it is aerodynamic, but it is more cramped than other tents. Examples: Sierra Designs Flashlight and North Face Lunar Light.

Single Wall or Double Wall

A double wall tent repels outside moisture with a waterproof rainfly, and it eliminates inside moisture with breathable tent walls. A single wall tent performs both of these tasks with just the tent wall, which is usually a laminate of waterproof and breathable materials.

Use or Season Rating

3-Season Tent models designed to straddle summer and is capable of handling moderate winds and heavy rain, but not snow loads.

4-Season It can be used during summer and winter camping because of its controlled ventillation features on windows and fly sheets.

Convertible The tent can be adjusted for warm, cool, cold, and precipitation conditions from inside by using just the net panel in the inner canopy, just the solid panel of the inner canopy, or the solid panel or the inner canopy and the solid panel of the flysheet.

Bivy Sacks and other Ultra light Shelters Very popular among climbers and minimalist campers, a bivy sack at its barest is a thin waterproof fabric shell designed to slip over a sleeping bag, providing an additional 5 to 10 F of insulation and forming an effective barrier against wind and rain. A drawback of a simple bivy sack is the humidity that condenses at the inner side leaving the occupant or the sleeping bag clammy. Better bivy sacks consist of Gore-Tex (or a similar breathable fabric) to allow the humidity to pass.

Tent Pitching In large groups, the team leader decides where the tents should be pitched, especially in areas with limited campsites. Each type of tent has a different way of being pitched. This would be discussed in detail during y