Basic Horticultural Botany

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Basic Horticultural Botany. What is Horticulture?. Horticulture is the art and science of growing vegetable, fruit, medicinal and ornamental plants Agronomy covers the food and fiber and energy crops that are grown on large acreages and are usually seed propagated. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Basic Horticultural Botany

Basic Horticultural Botany

Basic Horticultural Botany

1What is Horticulture?Horticulture is the art and science of growing vegetable, fruit, medicinal and ornamental plantsAgronomy covers the food and fiber and energy crops that are grown on large acreages and are usually seed propagated2What are Horticultural Plants?FruitTropical : mango, papayaSubtropical: Orange, fig Temperate: Apple, PearA fruit is an enlarged ovary with seeds and attached parts

3What are Horticultural Plants?VegetablesCool Season: broccoliCauliflower, spinach,onionWarm seasonNew Zealand spinachIn the grocery store language: Tomatoes, peppers and squashVegetables Botanically are plant parts without ovary/seeds.

4What are Horticultural Plants?DrugsPlants that have medical use: Echinacea, willow, Ginkgo

5What are Horticultural Plants?Condiments/ spices:Plants used to make flavorings: mustard, curry

6What are Horticultural Plants?Beverage PlantsCoffee, Tea, Herbal TisanesHops for beerAgave for Tequila

7What are Horticultural Plants?Ornamental PlantsHerbaceous flowers and foliage plantsAnnualsPerennialsWoody trees and shrubs

Ornamentals are planted for shade, beauty, Climate control, windbreaks

8Basic Botany/ plant classificationScientific names , Common namesKingdomDivisionClassOrder FamilyGenus ( pl. Genera)species( sp. or spp.)Cultivar or varietyPlantaeTracheophytaAngiospermaeRosalesRosaceaeMalusdomesticaHoneycrisp9More terms used to classify plantsAnnuals- completes the life cycle in one seasonBiennial usually takes two years to complete the life cycle ( carrots, cabbage)Perennial- usually lives more than 2 yearsWoody trees and shrubsDeciduous/ evergreenHerbaceousTender/hardy10Plant StructuresFlowering plants are divided into to large groups: monocots and dicots Monocot means there is one seed leaf ( Cotyledon) in the seed. Dicot means two seed leaves.11


Vegetative vs reproductiveAnnual herbaceous plantLeaves, stems and roots are vegetative but can be used in asexual reproductionFlowers, seeds are sexual reproductive parts

13Inside a herbaceous stem


Inside a woody stem15Cell typesParenchymaSchlerenchyma


3 year old woody twig17Modified stems- often used in propagationSpurSuckerStoloncrownRhizomeTuberBulbCorm

18Leafa stem appendage with a bud at its base


20Leaf types

21Leaf margins

22Leaf shapes


24BudsAxillaryTerminalBud scales ( temperate)Chilling requirementsLeaf/flower/mixed

25Roots/ FunctionAbsorb water and nutrientsAnchor the plant in the soilSupport the stemFood storagepropagationFirst to emerge from the seedPositive geotaxisNo nodesNo leaves or flowers26Root vs Stem

Root cross sectionStem cross section27RootsTap root ( dicot)Fibrous roots ( monocot)Lateral /secondary root/branch rootGenerally extend beyond the top


29FlowersSexual reproductionBuilt to attract pollinatorsPeople can be considered pollinatorsCan be perfect (complete)UnisexualPlants can be monoecious or dioecious30Basic plant life cycle

Dormancy: seeds or buds fail to grow when given good conditions.Vegetative: seedling to JuvenileReproductive: when plant is large enough to flowerSenescence: ripening of seed, and fruit, leaf drop31DormancyHormonal dormancyTimed by hormones many temperate plants show this ex. Apple treesEnvironmental dormancyCold or dryness keeps seed from germinatingOther types in seed dormancy

32Vegetative growth

33The plant has to reach its mature stage before it can start flowering. In tomatoes this happens in 30+ days after transplant to the garden. In Apple trees it can be 5-7 years

Reproductive Growth34Primary MetabolismPhotosynthesisSunlightChloroplasts in a live plantCarbon dioxideEnergy is changed from light to chemical energy ( sugars)Oxygen releasedWater is used and produced

RespirationEnergy is released from sugars for plant energyOxygen is usedWater is used and producedCO2 is producedHappens in dark and in lightOccurs in all living cells ( mitochondria)35PhotosynthesisCO2+ H20 +sunlight +green plantC6H12O6 + O2+ H2ORespirationC6H12O6 + O2+ H2OCO2+ H20 + 36 ATP 36


99 % of the water that enters the plant is used in Transpiration, 1% in metabolism38Plant growth RegulatorsPlant hormones or other chemicals that influence growth of plants.Auxins -GibberellinsCytokinins -Abscisic AcidEthylene