Basic Concepts

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Transcript of Basic Concepts

  • 1.Concepts of State and Government
    • Objectives:
  • a) Familiarity with basic concepts related to state and government
  • b) Familiarity with the profile of the Philippines as a state


  • State
  • A community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience and enjoying freedom from external control.
  • Elements of the State
  • a) Peopleb) Territory c) Government d) Sovereignty

3. Elements of the State

  • People: the mass of population living within the state
  • Population
  • 97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)
  • Age structure
  • 0-14 years:35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
  • 15-64 years:60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
  • 65 years and over:4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381)
  • Median age
  • total:22.5 years
  • male:22 years
  • Female:23 years
  • Population growth rate
  • 1.957%
  • Ethnic groups
  • Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, Kapampangan 3%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

4. 5. 6. Elements of the State

  • b) Territory: it includes not only the land over which the jurisdiction of the state extends but also the rivers and lakes therein, a certain area of the sea which abuts upon its coasts and the air space above it.

7. Elements of the State: Territory

  • Area: total:300,000km2 land:298,170km2 water:1,830km2
  • Coastline:36,289km
  • Maritime claims:measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf:to depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone:200nautical miles(370km) territorial sea:irregular polygon extending up to 100 nautical miles (185km) from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nautical miles (528km) in breadth.
  • Natural resources:timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
  • Land use: arable land:19% permanent crops:12% permanent pastures:4% forests and woodland:46% other:19% (1993 est.)
  • Irrigated land:15,800km2 (1993 est.)
  • Distances from Manila:
  • 10,000km San Francisco
  • 8,000km Honolulu, Hawaii
  • 3,400km Micronesia
  • 2,900km Tokyo
  • 2,400km Singapore
  • 1,000km Taiwan and Hong Kong

8. 9. 10. Elements of the State: Territory

  • The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. These are divided into 17 regions, 80 provinces, 120 cities, 1,511 municipalities and 42,008 barangays. The Philippines is an archipelago comprising 7,107 islands with a total land area of 300,000km2. The 11 largest islands contain 94% of the total land area. The largest of these islands is Luzonat about 105,000kms. The next largest island is Mindanao at about 95,000km. The archipelago is around 800 kms from the Asian mainland and is located between Taiwan and Borneo.

11. Elements of the State: Territory

  • The islands are divided into three groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Luzon islands include Luzon itself, Palawan, Mindoro, Marinduque, Masbateand Batanes Islands. The Visayas is the group of islands in the central Philippines, the largest of which are: Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte and Samar. The Mindanao islands include Mindanao itself, plus the Sulu Archipelago, composed primarily of Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. The island of Romblon lies exactly at the center of the Philippine archipelago.

12. ManilaNCR National Capital RegionBaguioCAR Cordillera Administrative RegionCotabato City ARMM Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoButuanRegion XIII CaragaKoronadal, South CotabatoRegion XII SOCCSKSARGENDavao CityRegion XI Davao RegionCagayan de Oro CityRegion X Northern MindanaoPagadian, Zamboanga del Sur Region IX Zamboanga PeninsulaTaclobanRegion VIII Eastern VisayasCebu CityRegion VII Central VisayasIloilo CityRegion VI Western VisayasLegazpi, AlbayRegion V Bicol RegionCalapan, MindoroRegion IV-B MIMAROPACalamba City, LagunaRegion IV-A CALABARZONSan Fernando, PampangaRegion III Central LuzonTuguegarao, CagayanRegion II Cagayan ValleySan Fernando, La UnionRegion I Ilocos Region Regional center Designation Region 13. 14. Elements of the State: Territory

  • List of Landlocked provinces in the Philippines
  • A landlocked province is one that has no coastline, meaning no access to seaor ocean. There are 16 landlocked provinces in the Philippines:
  • All provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR): Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Mt. Province, Ifugao and Benguet.
  • Two provinces of Cagayan Valley(Region II): Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino
  • Two provinces of Central Luzon (Region III): Nueva Ecija and Tarlac
  • Four provinces of Mindanao:
    • Bukidnonof Northern Mindanao (Region X)
    • Cotabato Province of Soccsksargen(Region XII)
    • Agusan del Surof Caraga(Region XIII), and
    • Maguindanaoof Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao(ARMM).
  • Similarly, Laguna and Rizal Province andof Calabarzon (Region IV-A) have coastlines on Laguna de Bay. Since lakes do not allow access to seaborne trade, these provinces are still considered to be landlocked.

15. Elements of the State: Territory

  • List of island provinces in the Philippines
  • An island province completely surrounded by water, is the opposite of a landlocked one. There are 15 island provinces in the Philippines:
  • One province of Cagayan Valley (Region II): Batanes
  • Three provinces of MIMAROPA(Region IV-B): Marinduque, Romblonand Palawan
  • Two provinces of Bicol (Region V): Catanduanes and Masbate
  • One province of Western Visayas (Region VI): Guimaras
  • Three provinces of Central Visayas (Region VII): Cebu, Bohol and Siquijor
  • One province of Eastern Visayas (Region VIII): Biliran
  • One province of Northern Mindanao (Region X): Camiguin
  • Three provinces of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM): Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi
  • One province of Caraga Region: Dinagat Islands

16. Elements of the State: Territory

  • Ten largest cities
  • The following is a list of the ten largest cities in the country in terms of population, with their population according to the 2007 census. Component cities and municipalities of Metro Manila and Metro Cebu are taken as one to show the extent of urbanization.
  • Rank CityPopulation in 2007
  • 1. Metro Manila 11,553,427
  • 2. Metro Cebu2,314,897
  • 3. Davao City 1,363,337
  • 4. Zamboanga City 774,407
  • 5. Antipolo City633,971
  • 6. Cagayan de Oro City 553,966
  • 7. General Santos City 529,542
  • 8. Bacolod City 499,497
  • 9. Iloilo City 418,710
  • 10. Iligan City 308,046

17. Elements of the State: Government

  • It refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and carried out.
  • Forms of government may be classified according to thenumber of personsexercising authority (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy);extent of powersexercised by central or national government (unitary or federal);relationship between executive and legislativebranches (parliamentary and presidential)

18. Elements of the State: Government

  • Monarchy: one in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person
  • Kinds of monarchy:
  • Absolute monarchy one in which the ruler rules by divine right
  • Limited monarchy one in which the ruler rules in accordance with the constitution

19. Elements of the State: Government

  • Aristocracy: one in which political power is exercised by a few privileged class
  • Democracy: one in which political power is exercised by a majority of the people
  • Direct or pure democracy: one in which the will of the State is formulated or expressed directly and immediately through the people in a mass meeting or primary assembly
  • Indirect, representative or republican democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated and expressed through the agency of a relatively small and select body of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives

20. Elements of the State: Government

  • Unitary government: one in which the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central or national government
  • Federal government: one in which the powers of government are divided between two sets of organs,