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  • Baseline Study of the Enhancing Resilience and

    Economic Growth in Somalia Program

    December 2016

    Submitted by Save the Children Federation, Inc.

    In partnership with

    TANGO International, Inc.

  • This report was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was

    prepared by Mark Langworthy, Maryada Vallet, Stephanie Martin, Tom Bower and Towfique Aziz. The

    authors acknowledge research and writing supports also from Tim Frankenberger, Niloy Chowdhury

    and Emma Barker-Perez. The authors’ views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the

    views of the United States Agency for International Development or of the United States Government.

  • i

    Table of Contents

    List of Acronyms .......................................................................................................................... iv

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vi

    List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ x

    Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................... xi

    Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1

    The Enhancing Resilience and Growth in Somalia Program ............................................................................... 1

    STORRE Project ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

    PROGRESS Project .................................................................................................................................................. 3

    REAL Project ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

    What is Resilience Capacity and Why Resilience in Somalia? ............................................................................ 4

    Resilience and Resilience Capacity Defined ....................................................................................................... 4

    Country Context Related to Resilience in Somalia .......................................................................................... 5

    Purpose and Organization of this Report ............................................................................................................... 7

    Chapter 2 Methodology ................................................................................................................ 9

    Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis ............................................................................................................. 9

    Sample Design ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

    Data Collection ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

    Data Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................... 11

    Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis .............................................................................................................. 13

    Design and Methods .............................................................................................................................................. 13

    Data Collection ....................................................................................................................................................... 14

    Data Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................... 15

    Limitations..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

    FINDINGS.................................................................................................................................... 17

    Chapter 3 Key Characteristics of Project Areas ...................................................................... 17

    Chapter 4 Description of Household Demographics, Assets and Livelihoods ...................... 19

    Demographics and Housing Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 19

    Household, Productive and Livestock Assets ...................................................................................................... 21

    Livelihood Profiles ....................................................................................................................................................... 23

    Livestock Production.................................................................................................................................................. 24

    Livestock Water and Fodder Availability .......................................................................................................... 24

  • ii

    Livestock Commodities ........................................................................................................................................ 26

    Crop production ......................................................................................................................................................... 26

    Cultivation and Crop Sales ................................................................................................................................... 26

    Agricultural Practices ............................................................................................................................................. 26

    Migration ....................................................................................................................................................................... 27

    Chapter 5 Shock Exposure and Impacts ................................................................................... 30

    Perceptions-Based Household Shock Exposure and Impacts ........................................................................... 30

    Qualitative Findings on Shock Exposure and Impacts ........................................................................................ 33

    Chapter 6 Household Assistance, Responses to Shocks (coping strategies), and Community

    Responses ..................................................................................................................................... 37

    Assistance Received .................................................................................................................................................... 37

    Household Coping Strategies ................................................................................................................................... 39

    Chapter 7 Resilience Capacities ................................................................................................ 42

    Absorptive and Adaptive Resilience Capacities ................................................................................................... 43

    Social Capital............................................................................................................................................................ 43

    Aspirations and Confidence to Adapt ............................................................................................................... 48

    Economic Sources of Resilience Capacity ........................................................................................................ 51

    Human Capital and Access to Information ...................................................................................................... 55

    Transformative Resilience Capacities ..................................................................................................................... 58

    Access to Markets, Infrastructure, Services, and Communal Natural Resources .................................. 58

    Safety Nets and Disaster Risk Reduction ......................................................................................................... 59

    Community Mobilization and Governance ....................................................................................................... 61

    Indexes of Resilience Capacity ................................................................................................................................. 65

    Chapter 8 Gender and Resilience .............................................................................................. 73

    Women’s Decision Making in the Household ...................................................................................................... 73

    Participation of Women and Vulnerable Groups in Community Decision Making ............................