Baking cookies

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  • 1. 1. Define and enumerate the ingredients, tools, and equipment needed in baking different kinds of cookies. 2. Identify the different kinds of cookies and their characteristics. 3. Demonstrate the procedures that should be followed in baking cookies. 4. Prepare a score card for judging baked cookies. 5. Express delight and satisfaction for being able to bake cookies. Objectives:

2. Baking Cookies 3. Cookies - are little cakes, flat, small and sweet. Some cookies are light and other are dark. Some are decked with fruits or nuts and others trimmed with frostings and decorations. Cookies are popular. They go well with any occasion. They go a long way and can be prepared at leisure and can be stored for busy days. What is a cookies? 4. In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small, flat-baked round delicacy, containing milk, flour, eggs, and sugar. In most English-speaking countries outside North America, the most common word for this is biscuit; in many regions both terms are used, while in others the two words have different meaningsa cookie is a plain bun in Scotland, while in the United States a biscuit is a kind of quick bread similar to a scone. 5. In the United Kingdom the term cookie often just refers to chocolate chip cookies or a variation (e.g. cookies containing oats, Smarties). A basic biscuit recipe includes flour, shortening (often lard), baking powder or soda, milk (buttermilk or sweet milk) and sugar. Common savory variations involve substituting sugar with an ingredient such as cheese or other dairy products. Shortbread is a popular biscuit in the UK. 6. Appearance Soft Dry Rough Moist Smooth Tender Characteristics of Cookies Texture Thin Thick Flavor Salty Sweet 7. The dry ingredients consist of all-purpose flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt. The sweetness comes from granulated and/or brown sugar. The fat is either softened butter or margarine and sometimes shortening. Eggs and vanilla extract are also used. For different flavored cookies you can add any or all of these: chocolate, cocoa, nuts, raisins, oatmeal, spices or extracts. INGREDIENTS 8. Butter is a fat that adds an utterly delicious quality to all baked goods, including cookies. Too much butter, however, can lead to cookies that flatten and crisp when baked. Margarine can be used instead of butter but some low fat choices have a little more water which makes it a better choice for crispier cookies than chewy ones. Shortening can help the flour and eggs set before spreading yet offers little or no flavor. A third choice for fat is to combine shortening with the butter but we champion butter for its flavor. All about ingredients 9. Sweeteners like brown sugar and honey. Help to retain moisture and provide a chewier texture. Too much sugar, however, will flatten the cookie because sugars liquefy under heat. Like mixing fats, mixing is a possible choice: consider a balance of honey or molasses with brown sugar. 10. All-purpose or pastry flour Is best used for lighter cookies. For chewy chunky cookies use bread flour with its powerful gluten or cake flour which has absorbent starch; each can curb cookie spread. Egg yolks Create chewier cookies than whole eggs. 11. DROP COOKIES - are made from soft dough which is dropped in a greased baking sheet with the use of a spoon. Examples: Chocolate chip cookies, peanut butter cookies, and oatmeal (or oatmeal raisin) cookies are popular examples of drop cookies. * ROLLED COOKIES - are made from stiff dough but soft enough to be handled and cut into shapes with a cookie cutter. Example: Gingerbread men kinds of Cookies 12. SHEET OR BAR COOKIES - are made from batter similar to the consistency of sponge cake or butter cake. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes. Consist of batter, cheese, or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. It is prepared by putting the dough in a rectangular pan. They are baked and then cut into squares. Most drop cookie recipes can be converted to this type of cookie. Example: Brownies, cereal bar. 13. Sandwich cookies - are rolled or pressed cookies that are assembled as a sandwich with a sweet filling. Fillings may be with marshmallow, jam, or icing. Example: Oreo cookies made of two chocolate cookies with a vanilla icing filling. MOLDED COOKIES - are made from stiff dough that is molded into balls or cookie shapes by hand before baking. Example: Snicker doodles 14. PRESSED COOKIES - are made from a soft dough that is extruded from a cookie press into various decorative shapes before baking. Example : Spritzgebck .. 15. Creaming Cookies need sufficient creaming so that the sugar, shortening, and other ingredients are mixed well. Eggs are gradually added and creamed well after each addition. Mixing Lightly mix the flour to prevent over mixing. Over mixing makes the cookie dough tough. Blending It is used to mix shortening, sugar, and liquid for better formation of the dough and absorption of the flour. Rolling The dough for refrigerated cookies is rolled to flatten and to make the dough smooth before cutting. Methods in mixing cookies 16. Sift the flour with other dry ingredients. Cream the butter, then add the sweeteners, liquids, and the sifted ingredients. The final addition should be any nuts or fruits or chips like chocolate. Mix lightly. Over mixing can result in dough that is too moist and will create overly flat, totally spread out cookies. Avoid baking sheets that are too thin as they encourage quick browning on the bottom of the cookies and can make an uneven texture. Techniques 17. Consider using parchment paper instead of greasing the pan to avoid the extra fat. Rethink how you shape your cookies. Drop cookies will spread, however, a deep spoon, a melon baller or a small ice cream scoop will give you high, round pieces of dough that tend to spread less. Make sure your oven is calibrated to the right temperature. Check it with an oven thermometer, and pre-heat the oven if directed by the recipe. 18. Bake the cookies just under the recommended time. That way, the centers remain soft but baked through and the edges are a beautiful golden color. Re-using cookie sheets to make extra batches, let them cool down considerably. A hot pan will start spreading the dough even before you bake the cookies because the heat is melting the fat. If you cannot wait between batches, invest in two or more pans. Allow cookies to cool on the pan up to five minutes before transferring to a cooking rack. Transferring them too earlier encourages crispness 19. Use good tools and utensils. Assemble all the bowls, pans, and utensils you will need on your counter or worktable before starting. Use standard measuring cups and spoons. Use correct pan sizes. Use the type of pan specified in the recipe. Recipes are carefully calculated as to yield and changing the pan size also alters the baking temperature and time. Larger, shallower pans need increased heat; smaller, deeper pans need decreased heat. The size of a baking pan or dish is measured across the top of the container from the inside edge to inside edge. The depth also is measured on the inside of the pan or dish from the bottom to the top of the rim. Prepare the pan carefully according to the recipe. Place pans as near the center of the oven as possible. Do not place pans directly over another and do not crowd the oven (this makes for uneven baking). 20. Use top-quality ingredient and assemble the ingredients before starting. You can't expect a first-rate product using second-rate ingredients. Be sure your ingredients are fresh and of the finest quality. If your recipe says the ingredient must be room temperature, be sure it is room temperature before proceeding. Baking Powder and Baking Soda: Check expiration dates of Baking Powder and baking soda, replacing if necessary. For testing purposes, baking soda should bubble when added to vinegar and baking powder should bubble when added to hot water. Be sure to mix baking powder and/or baking soda into the flour before adding to the wet ingredients; this distributes everything evenly so your cookies won't end up with large holes. 21. Eggs: Check your "use-by" date on your egg carton. Check out Sell Date of Eggs (Sell Date of Eggs - Date Codes on Egg Cartons). Flour: Don't substitute flour types. If your recipe calls for all- purpose flour, that's what you need to use. Cake flour and bread flour will not behave the same. Learn about the different types of flour. When a recipe calls for all- purpose flour, it means the bleached variety. 22. Nuts: Smell and taste nuts before using. Oils in nuts can turn rancid quickly. Store any leftover nuts in the freezer for longest shelf life. Butter: Cookies often require softened butter (65 to 67 degrees F.) or room temperature butter. Softened butter creams easily and is more easily incorporated into the dough than cold butter. The additional mixing necessary to incorporate cold butter may adversely affect the dough and the texture of the baked cookies. How to judge when butter is properly softened: The butter should blend with little resistance and without cracking or breaking. The butter should give slightly when pressed but still hold it shape. Shortening: Check shortening before using. Shortening, especially new trans fat-free brands) can go bad, introducing off-flavors to your cookies that you worked hard making. 23. Sugar: The type of sugar your use in your cookies can promote spread in baked cookies. To understand this, you need to know that sugar is a tenderizer which interferes with the formation of structure. Sugars with a finer granulation promote more spread (probably because they dissolve sooner and only dissolved sugars tenderize). Powdered sugar (confectioner's sugar), when it contains cornstarch, prevents spread in cookies despite its finer grind. Measure the quantities correctly. This is a baking must. One common cause of cooking failures is inaccurate measurement of ingredients. You can use the best ingredients in the world, but if you do not measure correctly, the recipe will not come out properly. Also always use level measurements (all measurements in a recipe 24. Measuring Liquids: Use a glass or plastic measuring cup. The glass or plastic permits you to see the level of the liquid being measured. The cup for liquids should have additional space above the one-cup line, so that a full cup can be accurately measured without spilling. To get an accurate reading in a liquid measuring cup, set the cup on a level surface and bend down to check the measurement at eye level. Oven temperature: Preheat the oven 10 to 15 minutes before you begin baking cookies. These is usually consistent unless a recipe specifically calls for you to start with a cold oven. 25. Cookies can be baked best on a baking sheet because it is open on three sides and the circulation of heat is more even. There should be at least inch between the baking sheet and the sides of the oven. Bake cookies on the top shelf of the oven, so that it browns evenly on both sides without burning on the bottom. Cookies rich in sugar are baked at lower oven temperature than those which are rich in fat but less in sugar content. Baking the cookies 26. Making the dough is pretty consistent with all cookies. Mix your dry ingredients in a medium-sized bowl. In a large bowl, cream your butters and sugars, then add your slightly beaten eggs and vanilla. To this mixture, slowly add the dry ingredients until well mixed. Usually at this point the extra flavorings are added to the dough. Then the dough is prepared the way dictated by the cookie type. 27. Cooling the cookies When baked, cookies should be removed carefully from the baking sheet at once with a flat knife or spatula on a wire to cool. Storage of cookies After loosening carefully the cookies and removing them from the baking sheets, they are kept in a covered container, such as cookie jars. They may be frozen. Frozen cookies are thawed at room temperature or a baking sheet for three to five minutes. Cooling and storage of cookies 28. CRITERIA 5 4 3 2 1 Presentation: (20pts.) Appearance Creativity Originality Resourcefulness Quality Following Direction: (20pts.) Achieve the given directions Attain quality of output Minimum errors and conflicts Proper Use of Tools Cleanliness and Orderliness: (10 pts.) Self-Initiative Care for the tools and equipment Maintain cleanliness Concern with the surroundings Awareness in sanitation Skills Development: (10 pts.) Develop self-esteem Achieve efficiency Attain proficiency Integrate skills and ability Accomplish with necessary modifications Show and acquire talents Legend: 5 Excellent 4 Very satisfactory 3 Satisfactory 2 Fair 1 Needs improvement