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Automotive industryFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTheautomotive industryis a term that covers a wide range of companies and organisations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling ofmotor vehicles,towed vehicles,motorcyclesandmopeds. It is one of the world's most importanteconomic sectorsbyrevenue.The termautomotive industryusually does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such asrepair shopsandmotor fuelfilling stations.The termautomotivewas created from Greekautos(self), and Latinmotivus(of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed bySAEmemberElmer Sperry.[1]Contents[hide] 1History 2Safety 3Economy 4World motor vehicle production 4.1By year 4.2By country 4.3By manufacturer 5Company relationships 6Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume 7By total production 8Minor automotive manufacturers 9See also 10References 11External links

[edit]HistoryThe first practical automobile with apetrol enginewas built byKarl Benzin 1885 inMannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, afterBertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (104km (65mi) fromMannheimtoPforzheimand back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 aBertha Benz Memorial Routecommemorates this event.Soon after, in 1889,Gottlieb DaimlerandWilhelm MaybachinStuttgartdesigned a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than ahorse-drawn carriagefitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the firstmotorcycle, theDaimlerReitwagen, in 1885, butItaly'sEnrico Bernardi, of theUniversity of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024horsepower(17.9W) 122cc(7.4cuin) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son'stricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle.[2]:p.26Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[2]:p.26For many decades, the U.S.A. led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3]After WWII the U.S. issued 3/4 of world's auto production. In 1980 the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. By producing 18.4 million units in 2011, China produced more than twice the number of second place the U.S. with 8.7 million units, with in Japan third place with 8.4 million units.[4][edit]SafetyTodays vehicles are graded on stricter and more precise parameters than ever before from weight to safety to durability and anywhere and everywhere in between. New materials have brought out new techniques for construction and vehicle design.[5]The introduction of plastics has advanced the technology used for making newer vehicles.[6]New plastics technologies allow manufactures to answer to the call for advancements. Plastics can be used in various technologies on vehicles for structural safety to visual appearance. These new plastic innovations allow new technologies to be used in vehicles for safety to comfort purposes. Plastics also allow for cost effective changes to be made to newer vehicle while still maintaining high safety and comfort requirements of the industry. These advancements in plastic material usage in modern vehicles are the footholds for the future of the automotive industry.[7][edit]EconomySee also:Automotive industry by countryAround the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[8]The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch ofBoston Consulting Grouppredicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the fourBRICmarkets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets areIranandIndonesia.[9]Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the globallight-vehiclesales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate.[10][11][edit]World motor vehicle productionSee also:List of countries by motor vehicle production[edit]By yearGlobal production of motorvehicles(cars and commercial vehicles)YearProductionChangeSource

199754,434,000[12]

199852,987,000-2.7%[12]

199956,258,8926.2%[13]

200058,374,1623.8%[14]

200156,304,925-3.5%[15]

200258,994,3184.8%[16]

200360,663,2252.8%[17]

200464,496,2206.3%[18]

200566,482,4393.1%[19]

200669,222,9754.1%[20]

200773,266,0615.8%[21]

200870,520,493-3.7%[22]

200961,791,868-12.4%[23]

201077,857,70526.0%[24]

[edit]By countryMain article:List of countries by motor vehicle production[hide] v t e previous yearTop 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2011next year

Motor vehicle production (units)

Country1,000,0002,000,0003,000,0004,000,0005,000,0006,000,0007,000,0008,000,0009,000,00010,000,00011,000,00012,000,00013,000,00014,000,00015,000,00016,000,00017,000,00018,000,00019,000,000

China18,418,87618,418,876

United States8,653,560

Japan8,398,654

Germany6,311,318

South Korea4,657,094

India3,936,448

Brazil3,406,150

Mexico2,680,037

Spain2,353,682

France2,294,889

Canada2,134,893

Russia1,988,036

Iran1,648,505

Thailand1,478,460

UK1,463,999

Czech Rep.1,199,834

Turkey1,189,131

Indonesia837,948

Poland837,132

Argentina828,771

Italy790,348

Reference:"Production Statistics".OICA. Retrieved 2012-03-12.

[edit]By manufacturer[hide] v t e previous year Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2011next year

Total motor vehicle production

Group1,000,0002,000,0003,000,0004,000,0005,000,0006,000,0007,000,0008,000,0009,000,00010,000,000

KeyCarsLight Commercial VehiclesHeavy Commercial VehiclesHeavy Buses

GM9,146,340

Volkswagen8,157,058

Toyota8,050,181

Hyundai Motor6,616,858

Ford4,873,450

Nissan4,631,673

PSA3,582,410

Honda2,909,016

Renault2,825,089

Suzuki2,725,899

Fiat2,399,825

Chrysler2,004,514

BMW1,738,160

Daimler AG1,528,008

Mazda1,165,591

Mitsubishi1,140,282

Dongfeng Motor1,095,065

Tata1,061,229

Geely902,824

Beijing Automotive689,635

Chang'an Automobile681,719

Saipa669,538

Chery637,423

AvtoVAZ635,860

FAW621,271

Fuji580,261

Great Wall486,562

KeyCarsLight Commercial VehiclesHeavy Commercial VehiclesHeavy Buses

Total: 78,799,483Cars: 61,703,020LCV: 13,637,299HCV: 3,111,908Heavy Bus: 347,256

Reference:"World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking of manufacturers, Year 2011".OICA. November 2012.

[edit]Company relationshipsIt is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.Notable current relationships include:[citation needed] Daimler AGholds a 20% stake inEicher Motors, a 10.0% stake inKAMAZ, a 10% stake inTesla Motors, a 6.75% stake inTata Motorsand a 3.1% in theRenault-Nissan Alliance. Dongfeng Motor Corporationis involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world, including:Honda(Japan),Hyundai(South Korea),Nissan(Japan),Nissan Diesel(Sweden), andPSA Peugeot Citroen(France). Fiatholds a 90% stake inFerrariand a 61.8% stake inChrysler. Ford Motor Companyholds a 3% stake inMazdaand an 12.1% share inAston Martin. Geely Automobileholds a 23% stake inManganese Bronze Holdings. General Motorsholds a 7% stake inPSA Peugeot Citroen,Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation(SAIC) have two joint ventures inShanghai General MotorsandSAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake inGeneral Motors India Private Limited. And General Motors holds a 94% stake inGM KoreaandSAIC Groupholds a 6% stake. Hyundai Kia Automotive Groupholds a 33.99% stake inKia Motors,[25]down from the 51% that it acquired in 1998. MAN SEholds a 17.01% voting stake inScania. Porsche Automobil Holding SEhas a 50.74% voting stake inVolkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group. RenaultandNissan Motorshave an alliance(Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share inDaimler AG. Renaultholds a 25% stake inAvtoVAZand 20.5% of the voting stakes inVolvo Group. Toyotaholds a 51% stake inDaihatsu, and 16.5% inFuji Heavy Industries, parent company ofSubaru. Volkswagen Groupholds a 37.73% stake inScania(68.6% voting rights), and a 53.7% stake inMAN SE(55.9% voting rights). Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.Volkswagen Grouphas a 19.9% stake inSuzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen. Paccar inc.has a 19% stake inTatra.[edit]Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volumeThe table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with themarquesproduced by each one. The table is ranked by 2010end of yearproduction figures from theInternational Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers(OICA)[26]for the pare