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  • 1. Greek ArtGroup 1

2. Questions 1. What is the Lost Wax Process? 2. What is the debate surrounding the Elgin Marbles all about? 3. Do you believe that this is national or universal heritage? Should we interfere to protect it when we feel it is endangered? 4. In what ways are so many of the attitudes of Athenian society evident in the sculpture / architecture of the 5th Century BC? 5. What difference does sculpting in marble or bronze make in terms of physical appearance and expressive qualities? 6. Can you label the orders (Doric, Ionic & Corinthian)? Do you think their differences are purely aesthetic or is there a meaning behind each? 3. What is the Lost Wax Process? 4. Lost Wax Process Also known as Lost Wax Method, Lost Wax Casting or cire-perdue (French term) Used in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome Became popular during the Early Classical period (480-450 B.C.), and Greece developed a widespread change from marble to bronze for large-scale sculpture Casts hollow metal statues Captures exquisite detail in metal objects The Lost Wax Process is still employed today in the areas of sculpture, fine jewelry, restorative work in dentistry and in the industrial setting 5. Two types of Lost Wax Process Direct 1. 2. 3. 4.Sculpture Clay Casting Burn-Out Metal CastingIndirect sive n x pe E Heavyunsightly bubble s and cracks 6. Two types of Lost Wax Process Indirect 1. Sculpture 2. Wax Casting 3. Wax Chasing 4. Spruing & Gating 5. Ceramic Shell Casting 6. Burn-Out 7. Metal Casting 8. Break-Out/Devesting 9. Welding 10. Metal Chasing 7. Zeus. c. 460 B.C. Bronze, height 610 (2.08m). National Archaeological Museum, Athens 8. Knidian Aphrodite. Roman copy after an original of c. 340 B.C. by Praxiteles. Marble, height 68 (2m). Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Gabinetto della Venere, Citta del Vaticano, Rome 9. REFERENCES Adams, L.S. (2011). A History of Western Art (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Janson, A.F., & Janson, H.W. (2006). A Basic History of Western Art (7 th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Collins, N. (2007). Lost Wax Casting. Retrieved from http://www.lost-wax-casting.com/HISTORY%20OF%20LOST%20WAX%20CASTING.htm Lost Wax Method. (2006). Retrieved from http://canequest.com/lost-wax.asp The Original Lost Wax Casting Process. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.frbronze.com/casting.htm Bronze Art Casting Process. (2011) Retrieved from http://www.americanbronze.com/process.html 10. What is the debate surrounding the Elgin marbles? 11. The Elgin Marbles The Elgin marbles (a.k.a Parthenon sculptures) are a series of ancient Greek statues mainly from the Parthenon and buildings around the same area, Created as a dedication unto the goddess Athena nearly 2500 years ago. The building survived changes and alterations over centuries until an explosion occurred in the mid-sixteenths, which landed it in ruins ever since. The British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Thomas Bruce, had a love for Greek art and had obtained a firman from the sultan to remove and bring several surviving sculptures back to England. It is now stationed at the British museum in London. 12. Relocation debate : Should the artifacts be returned to Greece? Or should they remain in Britain? 13. Reasons for returning to Greece : Illegal means were used to get the sculptures. It should therefore be returned to its rightful place. The museum in Greece was built to imitate its natural climate (temperature and humidity etc..) and would therefore be a more apt place to store the artifacts. The intepretation of the piece of artwork would be better if it was all in one piece rather than being scattered around the globe. The British museum could use casts of the sculptures, while the originals should be in the museum at Athens. 14. Reasons for remaining in Britain : The museum wouldnt be a museum if it didnt have artifacts from around the world. Britain had saved the sculptures before they could be destroyed by natural disasters and pollution in Athens. The statues are too fragile to be transported back to Greece. Even if the sculptures were returned, the set in Greece would still be very incomplete. The removal of the statues had been approved by the ruling government at that point of time. 15. Public opinion on the matter : A survey carried out by Ispos MORI, the second largest market research organisation in the United Kingdoms, was conducted in 2002. - 40% in favour of returning the marbles to Greece - 16% in favour of keeping them at the British Museum - The remainder had no opinion or chose not to vote. 16. REFERENCES Encyclopdia Britannica, Elgin Marbles, 2008, O.Ed. Casey, Christopher (October 30, 2008). ""Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations. Volume III, Number 1. Retrieved 2009-06-25. Linda Theodorou; Facaros, Dana (2003). Greece (Cadogan Country Guides). Cadogan Guides. p. 55. ISBN 1-86011-898-4. Mark Ellingham, Tim Salmon, Marc Dubin, Natania Jansz, John Fisher, Greece: The Rough Guide,Rough Guides, 1992,ISBN 1-85828-020-6, p.39 King, Dorothy (2004-07-21). "Elgin Marbles: fact or fiction?". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-06-25. Nicoletta Divari-Valakou, (Director of the Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Athens), "Revisiting the Parthenon: National Heritage in the Age of Globalism" in Mille Gabriel & Jens Dahl, (eds.) Utimut : past heritage future partnerships, discussions on repatriation in the 21st Century, Copenhagen : International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs and Greenland National Museum & Archives, (2008) Brabant, Malcolm (2006-11-10). "Swede gives back Acropolis marble". BBC News Online. Retrieved 2010-01-03. "TA NEA On-line". Tanea.gr. Retrieved 2009-01-20. Bernard Tschumi New Acropolis Museum British Museum press release on the Elgin Marbles". 17. Do you believe that this is national or universal heritage? Should we interfere to protect it when we feel it is endangered? 18. The Athenian Acropolis, the corner stone of the Classical Greek era, in becoming a world monument also became the national monument of Greece par excellence -Eleana Yalouri 19. http://youtu.be/UWy1UzF8JVI 20. REFERENCES Brabant, M. (Producer). (2008, May 7th ). Acropolis Museum girds for battle over Marbles [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWy1UzF8JVI Zeman, A. (2012) A Game Changer? The Complexities of Cultural Heritage in the Debate Over the Elgin Marbles. Retrieved from http://digitalwindow.vassar.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1066&context=senior_capstone Rakic, T., & Chambers, D. World Heritage: exploring the tension between the national and the universal . Retrieved from http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/1133/1/fulltext.pdf 21. In what ways are so many of the attitudes of Athenian society evident in the sculpture / architecture of the 5th Century BC? 22. Masculinity and honor 23. Devotion 24. Hubris and Nemesis 25. Towards life and death 26. REFERENCES Walcot, P. Greek Attitudes towards Women: The Mythological Evidence. Retrieved from http ://lamar.colostate.edu/~jgaughan/courses/309/texts/WalcottGreekAttitudes.htm Cartwright, M. (2013). Greek Architecture. Retrieved from http://www.ancient.eu.com/Greek_Architecture/ Death, Burial, and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece (2013). Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dbag/hd_dbag.htm Giants. Retrieved from http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Giants.html#b 27. What difference does sculpting in marble or bronze make in terms of physical appearance and expressive qualities? 28. BronzePoseidon or Zeus from Cape Artemisiumc. 455. 29. BronzeThe Charioteer of Delphi, 470s B.C. Bronze, 5ft.11in. high. Delphi Museum, Greece. 30. MarbleHermes bearing the good person by Praxiteles. Parian marble 31. MarbleVenus de Milo (Aphrodite from Melos). Parian marble Carved by Alexandros, a sculptor of Antioch 32. Bronze vs MarbleMarathon Boy or Ephebe of Marathon Media: BronzeMichelangelo's David 33. REFERENCES Bronze. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/23492/data/bronze.htm Greek Sculpture. Retrieved from http://www.portergaud.edu/academic/faculty/mcarver/cmcarver/grsc.html Donatellos David. Retrieved from http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth213/donatello_david.html Spencer, R.B. (2010, Dec 14th). Top 10 Greatest Sculptures. Retrieved from http://listverse.com/2010/12/14/top-10-greatest-sculptures/ Marble. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/23492/data/marble.htm The Marble Sculpture- Advantages and Disadvantages. Retrieved from http://whatafy.com/the-marble-sculpture-advantages-and-disadvantages.html Marble Sculpture. Retrieved from http://arts.indianetzone.com/sculpture/1/marble_sculpture_india.htm Marble Sculpture. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/sculpture/marble.htm Llgreek, I. (2012, Jul 30). Greatest Greek Bronze Statues [Web blog post]. Retrieved from http://its-all-greek.blogspot.sg/2012/07/greatest-greek-bronze-statues.html 34. Can you label the orders (Doric, Ionic & Corinthian)? Do you think their differences are purely aesthetic or is there a meaning behind each? 35. 3 Greek Orders DoricIonicCorinthian 36. Doric 37. Ionic 38. Corinthian 39. REFERENCES Plato. (January 28, 2013). Classical Wisdom Weekly. In Not Just Another Column. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from http://classicalwisdom.com/not-just-another-column/. Dietsch, D. K. (n.d). For Dummies. In Greek Architecture: Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian?. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/greek-architecture-doric-ionic-or-corinthian.html. Cline, A. (n.d). Columns of Greek Temples. In Ancient Greek Mythology, Religion, Art. Retrieved August 29, 2013, from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blgrk_temples03.htm. Emerson, M. (2007) Greek Sanctu