Arbiters Manual 2013

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  • FIDEARBITERSCOMMISSION

    ARBITERSMANUAL2013

  • 2

    CONTENTS:AshorthistoryoftheLawsofChess page 3

    FIDELawsofChess page 5

    Preface page 5

    BasicRules page 5

    CompetitionRules page 15

    Appendices page 29

    Rapidplay page 29

    Blitz page 30

    Algebraicnotation page 31

    Quickplayfinishwithoutanarbiter page 33

    BlindandVisuallyhandicappedplayers page 33

    Chess960Rules page 35

    AdjournedGames page 37

    TypesofTournaments page 39

    SwissSystem page 40

    TiebreakSystems page 47

    FIDETournamentRules page 56

    VarmaTables page 63

    FIDETitleRegulations page 66

    Tableofdirecttitles page 83

    Guidelinefornormchecking page 85

    FIDERatingRegulations page 87

    RegulationsfortheTitleofArbiters page 94

    TheroleoftheArbitersandtheirduties page 99

    Applicationforms page 103

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    AshorthistoryoftheLawsofChessFIDEwasfoundedinParison20July1924andoneofitsmainprogramswastounifytherulesofthegame.Thefirstofficialrulesforchesshadbeenpublishedin1929inFrenchlanguage.Anupdateoftheruleswaspublished(oncemoreinFrenchlanguage)in1952withtheamendmentsofFIDEGeneralAssembly.Afteranothereditionin1966withcommentstotherules,finallyin1974thePermanentRulesCommissionpublishedthefirstEnglisheditionwithnewinterpretationsandsomeamendments.InthefollowingyearsthePermanentRulesCommissionmadesomemorechanges,basedonexperiencefromcompetitions.Thelastmajorchangewasmadein2001whenthemoreorlessactualLawsofChesshadbeenwrittenandsplitinthreeparts:theBasicRulesofPlay,theCompetitionRulesandAppendices.Thefirstpartarticles1to5isimportantforallpeopleplayingchess,whilethesecondpartarticles6to14ismainlyvalidforchesstournaments.InthethirdpartoftheLawsofChesstherearesomeappendicesandtheguidelinesforadjournedgames.Startingfrom2001theFIDERulesandTournamentRegulationCommission(RTRC)makeschangesoftheLawsofChessonlyeveryfouryears,comingintoforceon1stJulyoftheyearfollowingthedecision.Letusfinishthehistorywiththeprefacesofthe1958and1974RulesofChess:

    1958GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. The Laws of Chess cannot, and should not, regulate allpossiblesituationsthatmayariseduringagame,northeycanregulateallquestionsoforganization.InmostcasesnotpreciselyregulatebyanArticleoftheLaws,oneshouldbeabletoreachacorrectjudgmentbyapplyinganalogousstipulationsforsituationsofa similar character.As to thearbiters tasks, inmost casesonemustpresuppose thatarbitershavethecompetence,soundofjudgment,andabsoluteobjectivitynecessary.Aregulationtoodetailedwoulddeprivethearbiterofhisfreedomofjudgmentandmightprevent him from finding the solution dictated by fairness and compatible with thecircumstancesofaparticularcase,sinceonecannotforeseeeverypossibility.1974FIDE INTERPRETATIONS.During recent years the Commission has beenmore or lessoverwhelmedbyasteadilygrowingnumberofproposalsandquestions.That,ofitself,isa good thing. However, there is a marked tendency in those many questions andproposalstobringmoreandmorerefinementsanddetailsintotheLawsofChess.Clearlythe intention is togetmoreandmoredetailed instructions concerning how toact insuchandsuchcase.Thismaybeprofitableforacertaintypeofarbiter,butatthesametime may be a severe handicap for another, generally the best, type of arbiter. TheCommission in itsentirely takes the firmposition that the lawsofChess shouldbeasshort and as clear as possible. The Commission strongly believes that minor detailsshouldbelefttothediscretionofthearbiter.Eacharbitershouldhavetheopportunity,incaseofaconflict,totake intoaccountallthe factorsofthecaseandshouldbenotbound by too detailed subregulations which may be not applicable to the case inquestion.AccordingtotheCommission,theLawsofChessmustbeshortandclearandleave sufficient scope to the arbiter to deal with exceptional or unusual cases. TheCommissionsappealstoallchessfederationstoacceptthisview,whichisintheinterestof the hundreds of thousands of chess players, as well as of the arbiters, generally

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    speaking. Ifanychess federationwantsto introducemoredetailedrules, it isperfectlyfreetodoso,provided:a)theydonotinanywayconflictwiththeofficialFIDErulesofplay;b)theyarelimitedtotheterritoryofthefederationinquestion;andc) theyarenotvalidforanyFIDEtournamentplayedintheterritoryofthefederationin

    question.

  • 5

    FIDELAWSofCHESSTheFIDELawsofChesscoverovertheboardplay.TheEnglishtextistheauthenticversionoftheLawsofChess,whichwasadoptedatthe79thFIDECongressinDresden(Germany),November2008,comingintoforceon1July2009.IntheseLawsthewordshe,himandhisincludesheandher.

    PREFACETheLawsofChesscannotcoverallpossiblesituationsthatmayariseduringagame,norcantheyregulatealladministrativequestions.WherecasesarenotpreciselyregulatedbyanArticleoftheLaws,itshouldbepossibletoreachacorrectdecisionbystudyinganalogoussituationswhicharediscussed in the Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, soundjudgementandabsoluteobjectivity.Toodetailedarulemightdeprivethearbiterofhisfreedomofjudgementandthuspreventhimfromfindingthesolutiontoaproblemdictatedbyfairness,logicandspecialfactors.FIDEappealstoallchessplayersandfederationstoacceptthisview.Amemberfederationisfreetointroducemoredetailedrulesprovidedthey:a. donotconflictinanywaywiththeofficialFIDELawsofChess;b. arelimitedtotheterritoryofthefederationconcerned;andc. arenot valid for any FIDEmatch, championshiporqualifyingevent,or for a FIDE titleor

    ratingtournament.ThePrefaceoftheLaws isoneofthemost importantparts.Ofcourse,theLawscannotcoverallpossiblesituationsarisingduringagameofchess.Sometimesonlyasmallpartofasituation ischangedandonlythearbiterknowswhathappened.Thereforeitisnecessarythatanarbiterisfreeinhisdecisionandinhiswaytosolveaconflict.

    BASICRULESOFPLAY

    Article1:Thenatureandobjectivesofthegameofchess1.1 Thegameofchess isplayedbetweentwoopponentswhomovetheirpiecesalternately

    onasquareboardcalledachessboard.Theplayerwiththewhitepiecescommencesthegame.Aplayer is said to have themove,whenhisopponentsmovehasbeenmade.(seeArticle6.7)

    1.2 Theobjectiveofeachplayeristoplacetheopponentskingunderattackinsuchaway

    thattheopponenthasno legalmove.Theplayerwhoachievesthisgoal issaidtohavecheckmated theopponents king and tohavewon the game. Leavingonesown kingunderattack,exposingonesownkingtoattackandalsocapturingtheopponentskingarenotallowed.Theopponentwhosekinghasbeencheckmatedhaslostthegame.

    1.3 Ifthepositionissuchthatneitherplayercanpossiblycheckmate,thegameisdrawn.Thisfirstarticledefineswhatagameofchessis,howithastobestartedandwhatshouldbethegoalofeachchessplayer.Everyoneunderstandsthataplayercannotmaketwomoves inarow.

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    Article1allowsaplayertomakehisnextmoveafterhisopponenthadmadeamoveandamoveismade,afterthepiecehasdeliberatelyleftthehandofaplayer.ThemaincontentofArticle1istopreventtheplayersofmakingmorethanonemoveinarowbythesameplayerandtofinishagameifitisnotpossibletocheckmatetheopponentsking.Furthermore there is thedefinitionofKingunderattack (checkwithpossibility toescape)andcheckmate(nowaytosavethekingandthereforeendofthegame).Checkmateisapositioninwhichthepieceattackingthekingcannotbecaptured,thereisnosquareavailablefortheKingandnoneoftheownpiecescanbeplacedonasquaretointerrupttheattack.Itisexplainedthatitisnotallowed(=itisillegal)toexposetheownkingtoattackorleaveitunderattackorcapturetheopponentsking.Sometimes, neither white nor black can checkmate the opponent. In such a case the game isdrawn.Theeasiestexample iswhenonthechessboardthereareonlythetwokings.OthercasesareKingandKnightvsKing,KingandBishopvsKing,KingandBishopvsKing and Bishop of thesamecolour.

    Article2:Theinitialpositionofthepiecesonthechessboard

    2.1 The chessboard is composedofan8x8gridof64equal squaresalternately light (the

    whitesquares)anddark(theblacksquares).Thechessboardisplacedbetweentheplayersinsuchawaythatthenearcornersquaretotherightoftheplayeriswhite.

    2.2 Atthebeginningofthegameoneplayerhas16lightcolouredpieces(thewhitepieces);

    theotherhas16darkcolouredpieces(theblackpieces).Thesepiecesareasfollows:

    Awhiteking usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Awhitequeen usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twowhiterooks usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twowhitebishops usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twowhiteknights usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Eightwhitepawns usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Ablackking usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Ablackqueen usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twoblackrooks usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twoblackbishops usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Twoblackknights usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    Eightblackpawns usuallyindicatedbythesymbol

    2.3 Theinitialpositionofthepiecesonthechessboardisasfollows:

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    2.4 The eight vertical columns of squares are called files. The eight horizontal rows ofsquaresarecalledranks.Astraightlineofsquaresofthesamecolour,runningfromoneedgeoftheboardtoanadjacentedge,iscalledadiagonal.

    Achessboardcanbemadeofdifferentmaterial,but thecolourof thesquares (dark=brownorblackandlight=whiteorcream)mustbeclearlydifferent.Itisusefulthatitisnotshinytoavoidreflectsanddisturbanceofplayers.Thedimensionofthechessboardmustfitwiththedimensionofthepieces.(FormoreinformationseeFIDEHandbookC.06FIDETournamentRules).Article2.2statesthekindandnumberofpiecesatthebeginningofagame.Article2.3istheplacementofthesepiecesbeforestartingthegame.Article2.4definesafile,arankandadiagonal.It isvery importanttochecktheorientationofthechessboardandthecorrectpositionofallthepiecesbefore starting thegame.Doing thisanarbiters canavoida lotofpossible claimsaboutreversedKingsandQueensorKnightsandBishops.Sometimesthereisadisagreementbetweenplayershowtoplacetheknights.Eachplayerhashisownhabitregardingthis.Eachplayermayplacehisownknightsashelikesbeforethestartingofthegameor, ifhedoes itduring the game,onlyafterhehas informedhisopponent thathe isgoingtoadjustthem(SeeArticle4:JadoubeIadjust).

    Article3:Themovesofthepieces3.1 Itisnotpermittedtomoveapiecetoasquareoccupiedbyapieceofthesamecolour.If

    apiecemoves toa squareoccupiedbyanopponentspiece the latter is capturedandremoved from the chessboard as part of the samemove.A piece is said to attack anopponents piece if the piece couldmake a capture on that square according to theArticles3.2to3.8.Apieceisconsideredtoattackasquare,evenifsuchapieceisconstrainedfrommovingto that square because itwould then leave or place the king of its own colour underattack.

    Asquarecanbeoccupiedbyonepieceonly.Ifthereisapieceofthesamecolour,itisnotpossibleto leave on the same squareanotherpiece. If there isapiece of the opposite colour itwillbecapturedandhastoberemovedfromthechessboard.Thenthesquarebecomesemptyandmaybeoccupiedbyanothernewpiece.

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    3.2 Thebishopmaymovetoanysquarealongadiagonalonwhichitstands.

    EachplayerhastwoBishops,oneofthemmovesonlightsquares,theotheroneondarksquares.Ifithappens thataplayerhasbothBishopsonsquaresof thesamecolourmostlyan illegalmovewasplayed.Anotherpossibility isthatthesecondBishop istheresultofapromotion(Seearticle3.7.e)3.3 Therookmaymovetoanysquarealongthefileortherankonwhichitstands.

    3.4 Thequeenmaymove to any square along the file, the rankor adiagonalonwhich it

    stands.

    3.5 Whenmakingthesemovesthebishop,rookorqueenmaynotmoveoveranyintervening

    pieces.

    Bishop,RookandQueencannotoverpassanotherpiece,theymuststopwhentheymeetapieceofthesamecolourortheycancapturethefirstopponentspiecetheymeet.

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    3.6 Theknightmaymovetooneofthesquaresnearesttothatonwhichitstandsbutnotonthesamerank,fileordiagonal.

    TheKnight is theonlypiece thatcanmoveover interveningpieces,because it jumps.AKnightthatstartsfromadarksquarewillalwaysendthemoveonalightsquareandviceversa.3.7 a. Thepawnmaymoveforwardtotheunoccupiedsquareimmediatelyinfrontofiton

    thesamefile,orb. on itsfirstmovethepawnmaymoveas in3.7.a;alternatively itmayadvancetwo

    squaresalongthesamefileprovidedbothsquaresareunoccupied,orc. the pawn may move to a square occupied by an opponents piece, which is

    diagonallyinfrontofitonanadjacentfile,capturingthatpiece.

    d. Apawnattackingasquarecrossedbyanopponentspawnwhichhasadvancedtwo

    squaresinonemovefromitsoriginalsquaremaycapturethisopponentspawnasthoughthelatterhadbeenmovedonlyonesquare.Thiscaptureisonlylegalonthemovefollowingthisadvanceandiscalledanenpassantcapture.

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    e. When a pawn reaches the rank furthest from its starting position it must be

    exchangedaspartof thesamemoveon thesamesquare foranewqueen, rook,bishoporknightofthesamecolour.Theplayerschoice isnotrestrictedtopiecesthathavebeencapturedpreviously.Thisexchangeofapawn foranotherpiece iscalledpromotionandtheeffectofthenewpieceisimmediate.

    Apawnhasdifferentpossibilitiestomove:fromitsinitialpositionitmaymoveforwardonesquareortwosquares,ifthesesquaresarenotoccupied.Afterwardsitmovesforwardonlyonesquare.Apawnmaycaptureanypieces,butonlydiagonallyforward.Article 3.7.d describes the capture "en passant in the case a pawn was moved two squaresforward from its initial position. This option stays open only for the move by the opponentfollowingthepawnsmove.Oncetheopponenthastouchedanotherpiecehelosesthisright.When a pawn reaches the last row opposite from its starting position, itmust be immediatelychangedtoanyotherpieces.TheplayercanchooseaBishop,aKnight,aRookoraQueenofhisowncolour.Iftheneededpiece isnotavailable,theplayerhastherighttostophisclockandaskfor thearbitersassistance,according toArticle6.12.bof the LawsofChess,beforemakinghismove.The effect of this promoted piece starts as soon as it touches the promotion square on thechessboard.Thecorrectwaytopromoteapawnis:thepawnismovedtotheeighthrank,theplayerremovesthepawnfromthesquareandputsthepromotedpieceonthesamesquare,thenhestopshisclockandstartstheopponentsclock.Itisacceptableanditisnotconsideredasanillegalmove,thataplayerremovesapawnfromtheseventhrankandplacesthepromotedpieceonthecorrectpromotionsquare.It isconsideredasan illegalmovetoputanupsidedownrookasapromotedpiece(queen,etc.),even incase that theneededpiece isnotavailable. Insuchcases theplayerhas just tostop theclockandaskfortheArbiter'sassistance.It isconsideredasan illegalmoveto letthepawnontheeighthrankandpresstheclockbeforereplacingthepawnwithanotherpiece.InbothcasestheArbiterhastoactaccordingtotheArticle7.4(Irregularities)oftheLawsofChessandimposepenalties.3.8 a. Therearetwodifferentwaysofmovingtheking,

    bymovingtoanyadjoiningsquarenotattackedbyoneormoreoftheopponentspieces

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    orcastling.Thisisamoveofthekingandeitherrookofthesamecolouralongtheplayersfirstrank, counting as a singlemove of the king and executed as follows: the king istransferred from its original square two squares towards the rook on itsoriginalsquare,thenthatrookistransferredtothesquarethekinghasjustcrossed.

    Beforewhitekingsidecastling AfterwhitekingsidecastlingBeforeblackqueensidecastling Afterblackqueensidecastling

    Beforewhitequeensidecastling AfterwhitequeensidecastlingBeforeblackkingsidecastling Afterblackkingsidecastling

    b. (1) Therighttocastlehasbeenlost:

    [a] ifthekinghasalreadymoved,or[b] witharookthathasalreadymoved.

    (2) Castlingispreventedtemporarily:[a] if the square onwhich the king stands, or the squarewhich itmust

    cross,orthesquarewhichitistooccupy,isattackedbyoneormoreoftheopponent'spieces;

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    [b] ifthereisanypiecebetweenthekingandtherookwithwhichcastlingistobeeffected.

    3.9 Thekingissaidtobe'incheck'ifitisattackedbyoneormoreoftheopponent'spieces,

    evenifsuchpiecesareconstrainedfrommovingtothatsquarebecausetheywouldthenleaveorplacetheirownkingincheck.Nopiececanbemovedthatwilleitherexposethekingofthesamecolourtocheckorleavethatkingincheck.

    Article4:Theactofmovingthepieces4.1 Eachmovemustbemadewithonehandonly.Itisnotallowedtousetwohandsformovingorcapturingapiece.4.2 Provided that he first expresses his intention (for example by saying jadoube or I

    adjust),theplayerhavingthemovemayadjustoneormorepiecesontheirsquares.Article4.2mayonlybeusedtocorrectdisplacedpieces.Inthecasetheopponentisnotpresentattheboardaplayerhastoinformthearbiterbeforehestartstoadjustpiecesonthechessboard.4.3 Exceptasprovided inArticle4.2, if theplayerhaving themovedeliberately toucheson

    thechessboarda. oneormoreofhisownpieces,hemustmovethefirstpiecetouchedwhichcanbe

    moved,orb. one ormore of his opponents pieces, hemust capture the first piece touched

    whichcanbecaptured,orc. onepieceofeachcolour,hemustcapturetheopponentspiecewithhispieceor,if

    this is illegal,move or capture the first piece touchedwhich can bemoved orcaptured. If it is unclear,whether the players own piece or his opponentswastouched first, the players own piece shall be considered to have been touchedbeforehisopponents.

    4.4 Ifaplayerhavingthemove

    a. deliberatelytoucheshiskingandrookhemustcastleonthatsideifitislegaltodoso,or

    b. deliberatelytouchesarookandthenhiskingheisnotallowedtocastleonthatsideonthatmoveandthesituationshallbegovernedbyArticle4.3a.,or

    c. intendingtocastle,touchesthekingorkingandrookatthesametime,butcastlingonthatsideisillegal,theplayermustmakeanotherlegalmovewithhisking(whichmayincludecastlingontheotherside).Ifthekinghasnolegalmove,theplayerisfreetomakeanylegalmove,or

    d. promotesapawn,thechoiceofthepiece isfinalised,whenthepiecehastouchedthesquareofpromotion.

    4.5 Ifnoneofthepiecestouchedcanbemovedorcaptured,theplayermaymakeanylegal

    move.

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    4.6 When,asalegalmoveorpartofalegalmove,apiecehasbeenreleasedonasquare,itcannotbemovedtoanothersquareonthismove.Themove isthenconsideredtohavebeenmade:a. in the case of a capture,when the captured piece has been removed from the

    chessboard and the player, having placed his own piece on its new square, hasreleasedthiscapturingpiecefromhishand;

    b. inthecaseofcastling,whentheplayer'shandhasreleasedtherookonthesquarepreviously crossed by the king.When the player has released the king from hishand,themoveisnotyetmade,buttheplayernolongerhastherighttomakeanymoveotherthancastlingonthatside,ifthisislegal;

    c. inthecaseofthepromotionofapawn,whenthepawnhasbeenremovedfromthechessboardandtheplayer'shandhasreleasedthenewpieceafterplacingitonthepromotion square. If the player has released from his hand the pawn that hasreachedthepromotionsquare,themoveisnotyetmade,buttheplayernolongerhastherighttoplaythepawntoanothersquare.

    The move is called legal when all the relevant requirements of Article 3 have beenfulfilled.Ifthemoveisnotlegal,anothermoveshallbemadeinsteadasperArticle4.5.

    4.7 AplayerforfeitshisrighttoaclaimagainsthisopponentsviolationofArticle4oncehe

    deliberatelytouchesapiece.IfanarbiterobservesaviolationofArticles4.3or4.4healwayshasto interfere immediately.Heshouldnotwaitforaclaimtobesubmittedbyaplayer.

    Article5:Thecompletionofthegame5.1 a. The game is won by the playerwho has checkmated his opponents king. This

    immediately ends the game, provided that themove producing the checkmatepositionwasalegalmove.

    b. The game is won by the player whose opponent declares he resigns. Thisimmediatelyendsthegame.

    Therearedifferentwaystoresignagamebyaplayer:stoppingtheclockknockingoverthekingreachingouthishandtotheopponentsigningascoresheet,etcAllofthesepossibilitiesaredangerousandmightbemisunderstood.Thereforeanarbiteralwayshastoclarifysuchasituation.Theonlycorrectwaytoresignagameistowritedowntheresultonthescoresheetandtosignit.Ifaplayerwhodoesnotwish tocontinueagameand leaveswithout resigningornotifying thearbiter isdiscourteous.Hemaybepenalised,atthediscretionoftheCA, forpoorsportsmanship(seeArticle12.cofFIDETournamentRules).5.2 a. Thegameisdrawnwhentheplayertomovehasnolegalmoveandhiskingisnotin

    check. The game is said to end in stalemate. This immediately ends the game,providedthatthemoveproducingthestalematepositionwaslegal.

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    b. The game is drawn when a position has arisen in which neither player cancheckmatetheopponentskingwithanyseriesoflegalmoves.Thegameissaidtoend ina deadposition.This immediatelyendsthegame,providedthatthemoveproducingthepositionwaslegal(seeArticle9.6).

    c. Thegameisdrawnuponagreementbetweenthetwoplayersduringthegame.Thisimmediatelyendsthegame(seeArticle9.1).

    d. Thegamemaybedrawnifanyidenticalpositionisabouttoappearorhasappearedonthechessboardatleastthreetimes(seeArticle9.2).

    e. Thegamemaybedrawn ifeachplayerhasmadeat least the last50consecutivemoveswithout themovementofanypawn andwithout any capture (seeArticle9.3).

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    COMPETITIONRULES

    Article6:Thechessclock6.1 Chessclockmeansaclockwithtwotimedisplays,connectedtoeachotherinsuchaway

    thatonlyoneofthemcanrunatonetime.ClockintheLawsofChess,meansoneofthetwotimedisplays.Eachtimedisplayhasaflag.Flagfallmeanstheexpirationoftheallottedtimeforaplayer.

    Somedigitalclocksshowinsteadofaflag.6.2 a. Whenusingachessclock,eachplayermustmakeaminimumnumberofmovesor

    all moves in an allotted period of time and/or may be allocated an additionalamountoftimewitheachmove.Allthesemustbespecifiedinadvance.

    Agamemayhavemorethanoneperiod.Therequirementsoftheallottednumberofmovesandtheadditionalamountoftimewitheachmoveforeachperiodmustbespecifiedinadvance.

    b. Thetimesavedbyaplayerduringoneperiodisaddedtohistimeavailableforthe

    nextperiod,exceptinthetimedelaymode.Inthetimedelaymodebothplayersreceiveanallottedmainthinkingtime.Eachplayer also receives a fixedextra timewitheverymove. The countdownof themain timeonly commencesafter the fixed timehasexpired.Provided theplayerstopshisclockbeforetheexpirationofthefixedtime,themainthinkingtimedoesnotchange,irrespectiveoftheproportionofthefixedtimeused.

    1. Fischermode: In theFischermodeeachplayerhasamain thinking timeand receivesa fixed

    extratime(increment)foreachmove.Thisincrementforhisfirstmoveisaddedbeforehestartshisgameand immediatelyafterhehascompletedamove forhis followingmove. Ifaplayercompleteshismovebeforetheremainingtimeofthisincrementexpires,thisremainingtimewillbeaddedtothemainthinkingtime.

    2. Bronsteinmode:IntheBronsteinmodeeachplayerreceivesamainthinkingtime.Additionallyeachplayerreceivesafterhehascompletedhismoveanextratime(increment)whichisequaltothetimehehasspentforthismove,atmosttheinadvancefixedextratime.

    3. Timedelaymode:Eachplayerreceivesamainthinkingtime.Whenaplayerhasthemovetheclockwillnotstartcountingforafixedperiod(increment).Afterthisperiodexpiredtheclockiscountingdownthemainplayingtime.

    6.3 Immediatelyafteraflagfalls,therequirementsofarticle6.2a.mustbechecked.Itmeansthatthearbiterhastocheckiftheminimumnumberofmoveshavebeencompleted.Ingameswithmorethanonetimeperiod(i.e.90minutesfor40movesand30minutesfortheendofthegameetc.)therearetwopossibilitiesatwhichmomentthesecondtimeperiodisstarted:(a) aftertheallottednumberofthemoves(usually40)havebeencompleted,or(b) aftertheexpirationoftheallottedtime(usually90minutes).Incaseof(b)themovecounteroftheclockisnottakenintoconsideration.

  • 16

    6.4 Beforethestartofthegamethearbiterdecideswherethechessclockisplaced.Inindividualtournamentsthechessclockisnormallyplacedontherightsideoftheplayerwhohastheblackpieces.Thechessboardsshallbeplacedinawaysothatthearbiterwillbeabletocheckat once as many clocks as possible. In case of a lefthanded player the arbiter may turn thechessboard.Thisisnotpossibleinteamcompetitions.Beawarethatithappensquiteofteninteamcompetitionsthataplayerpressestheclockofhisneighbour.6.5 At the timedetermined for the startof thegame the clockof theplayerwhohas the

    whitepiecesisstarted.In small tournaments thearbiter startsallclocks. In tournamentswithmanyplayers thearbiterannounces the startof the roundand requests theplayerwhohas theblackpieces, to starthisopponentsclock.After thisannouncement thearbitercheckswhetherallclocksare running.Hethenshallstartallnonrunningchessclocks.6.6 a. Anyplayerwhoarrivesatthechessboardafterthestartofthesessionshalllosethe

    game.Thus thedefault time is0minutes.The rulesofacompetitionmayspecifyotherwise.

    Thestartofthesessionisthemoment,whenthearbiterannouncesit.Ifthedefaulttimeis0,thearbiterhastodeclarethegamelostfortheabsentplayers.Article8.doftheFIDETournamentRulesstatesthatforeventswithmorethan30participantsalargedigital countdowndevicemustbe installed in theplayinghall.ForFIDEeventswith fewerthan30playersanappropriateannouncementmustbemade fiveminutesbefore the startandagainoneminutebeforestartofthegame.

    b. If the rules of a competition specify a different default time, the following shallapply.Ifneitherplayerispresentinitially,theplayerwhohasthewhitepiecesshallloseall the time thatelapsesuntilhearrives;unless the rulesof thecompetitionspecifyorthearbiterdecidesotherwise.

    Ifthedefaulttimeisnot0,itisadvisablethatthearbiterpubliclyannouncesthetimeofthestartoftheroundandthathewritesdownthestartingtime.If thedefault time is for example30minutesand the roundwas scheduled (it iswritten in theregulationsoftheevent)tostartat15.00,butwasstartedat15.15,thentheplayerwhocomesat15.35hasnottherighttostarthisgame.6.7 a. Duringthegameeachplayer,havingmadehismoveonthechessboard,shallstop

    hisownclockandstarthisopponentsclock.Aplayermustalwaysbeallowed tostophisclock.Hismoveisnotconsideredtohavebeencompleteduntilhehasdoneso,unless themove thatwasmadeends thegame. (See theArticles5.1.a,5.2.a,5.2.b,5.2.cand9.6).Thetimebetweenmakingthemoveonthechessboardandstoppinghisownclockand starting his opponents clock is regarded as part of the time allotted to theplayer.

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    Sometimesthefollowingsituationoccurs:Aplayermakesamoveandbeforehehasstoppedhisclock,theopponentmakesamove.Inthissituationtheplayerhasstilltherighttostophisclockandtostarthisopponentsclock.

    b. Aplayermust stophisclockwith the samehandas thatwithwhichhemadehis

    move.Itisforbiddenforaplayertokeephisfingeronthebuttonortohoveroverit.

    Sometimesthefollowinghappens:Aplayerdisplacessomepieces;inthissituationtheopponentkeepshisfingerontheclockbuttontoavoidthattheplayerpresseshisclock.ThisisforbiddenaccordingtothisArticle.

    c. Theplayersmusthandlethechessclockproperly.Itisforbiddentopunchitforcibly,

    to pick it up or to knock it over. Improper clock handling shall be penalised inaccordancewithArticle13.4.

    Ifaplayerhandlestheclockinanimproperway,thearbitermustwarnhimatfirstinstance.

    d. Ifaplayer isunabletousetheclock,anassistant,whomustbeacceptabletothe

    arbiter,maybeprovidedbytheplayertoperformthisoperation.Hisclockshallbeadjustedbythearbiterinanequitableway.

    It isclear that theplayerhimselfhas toprovideanassistant.Hehas topresent thisassistant intimetothearbiter,notafewminutesbeforetheround. It isusualthat10minutesaredeductedfromthetimeoftheplayerwhoneedsanassistant.6.8 A flag is considered to have fallenwhen the arbiter observes the fact orwhen either

    playerhasmadeavalidclaimtothateffect.Aflagisconsideredtohavefallenwhenitisnoticedorclaimed,notwhenitphysicallyhappened.Onlythetwoplayersandthearbiterareinvolved,notwitnesses.6.9 ExceptwhereArticle5.1.a,5.1.b,5.2.a,5.2.b,5.2.capplies,ifaplayerdoesnotcomplete

    the prescribed number ofmoves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player.However,thegameisdrawn,ifthepositionissuchthattheopponentcannotcheckmatetheplayerskingbyanypossibleseriesoflegalmoves.

    Thissituationoccurswhentheopponenthasabareking.6.10 a. Everyindicationgivenbytheclocksisconsideredtobeconclusiveintheabsenceof

    any evident defect. A chess clockwith an evident defect shall be replaced. Thearbiter shall replace the clock and use his best judgmentwhen determining thetimestobeshownonthereplacementchessclocks.

    Tohavethepossibilitytodetermineasaccuratelyaspossiblethetimesonthereplacedchessclock,itisadvisabletochecktheclocksduringtheround,forinstanceeach30minutes,andtorecordthetimesandthenumberofmovesmade.

  • 18

    If a chess clockmust be replaced it is advisable tomark this defect chess clock and to keep itseparatedfromtheother,correctworkingchessclocks.

    b. Ifduringagame it isfoundthatthesettingofeitherorbothclockswas incorrect,

    eitherplayerorthearbitershallstoptheclocksimmediately.Thearbitershallinstallthe correct settingandadjust the timesandmove counter.He shallusehisbestjudgementwhendeterminingthecorrectsettings.

    Itisadvisabletowritedownalltheknowndetailsofthetwoclocks.6.11 Ifbothflagshavefallenanditisimpossibletoestablishwhichflagfellfirstthen

    a. the game shall continue if it happens in any period of the game except the lastperiod;

    b. the game isdrawn if ithappens in theperiodof a game, inwhich all remainingmovesmustbecompleted.

    Therearetwotypesofchessclocks:analogueanddigitalchessclocks.Ifdigitalclocksareused,itisalwaysclearwhichflaghasfallenfirst.Aproblemmayariseonlywhenanaloguechessclocksareused.Thereforeitisadvisabletouseinatournamentonlyonetypeofchessclocks.6.12 a. Ifthegameneedstobeinterrupted,thearbitershallstoptheclocks.Ifthesituationrequiresthatallchessclocksmustbestopped,thearbitershallannouncethattheplayersshallstopthechessclocks.

    b. A playermay stop the clocks only in order to seek the arbiters assistance, forexamplewhenpromotionhastakenplaceandthepiecerequiredisnotavailable.

    Alsoincasesthataplayerfeelsdisturbed,forinstancebyhisopponentorspectatorshemaystoptheclocks.Togototoiletteisnotavalidreasontostoptheclocks.

    c. Thearbitershalldecidewhenthegameistoberestartedineithercase.

    Ifaplayerwithoutthepermissionofthearbiterstartshisopponentsclock,heshallbepenalised.d. Ifaplayerstopstheclocksinordertoseekthearbitersassistance,thearbitershall

    determine if theplayerhadanyvalidreason fordoingso. If it isobvious that theplayer hadno valid reason for stopping the clocks, the player shall be penalisedaccordingtoArticle13.4.

    SeethelistofpossiblepenaltiesinArticle13.

    6.13 Ifanirregularityoccursand/orthepieceshavetoberestoredtoapreviousposition,the

    arbitershallusehisbestjudgementtodeterminethetimestobeshownontheclocks.Heshallalso,ifnecessary,adjusttheclocksmovecounter.

    6.14 Screens, monitors, or demonstration boards showing the current position on the

    chessboard,themovesandthenumberofmovesmade,andclockswhichalsoshowthe

  • 19

    numberofmoves,areallowed intheplayinghall.However,theplayermaynotmakeaclaimrelyingsolelyoninformationshowninthismanner.

    An arbiter has to take into account that the screens, monitors or demonstration boards canproducewronginformation.

    Article7:Irregularities7.1 a. Ifduringagameitisfoundthattheinitialpositionofthepieceswasincorrect,the

    gameshallbecancelledandanewgameplayed.Beawarethattheincorrectnesswasfoundduringandnotafterthegame.Itisnotmentionedwhoorhowthemistakewasfound.Ifagameisplayedonanelectronicchessboard,itcanhappenthatthecomputerstops torecord themoves. Insuchcases theoperatormay inform thearbiterthatsomethingwentwrongandthearbiterhasthedutytocheckwhathappened.

    b. IfduringagameitisfoundthatthechessboardhasbeenplacedcontrarytoArticle2.1,thegamecontinuesbutthepositionreachedmustbetransferredtoacorrectlyplacedchessboard.

    7.2 Ifagamehasbegunwithcoloursreversedthenitshallcontinue,unlessthearbiterrules

    otherwise.Incasethe irregularitywasfoundearlyenough,forexamplewithinthefirstfiveminutes,andnoexchangesofpawnsorpieceshavebeenmade,thentheArbitermaydecidethegametostartfromthebeginningwiththerightcolors.The Arbiter shall not start a new game when there is a possibility that the schedule of thetournamentwillbeindanger.7.3 Ifaplayerdisplacesoneormorepieces,heshallreestablishthecorrectpositiononhis

    owntime.Ifnecessary,eithertheplayerorhisopponentshallstoptheclocksandaskforthearbitersassistance.Thearbitermaypenalisetheplayerwhodisplacedthepieces.

    ThisisadangerousArticle.SupposeplayerAhasthemoveandhisclockisrunning.ThenplayerBdisplacesoneofhisownpieces(byaccident).ItisnotcorrectthatplayerAstartsplayerBsclock.Ofcourse, ifplayerA isreallydisturbed,heshallsummonthearbiter,afterhehasstoppedbothclocks.ThisArticleshouldbeappliedwithflexibility.7.4 a. If during a game it is found that an illegalmove, including failing tomeet the

    requirements of the promotion of a pawn or capturing the opponents king, hasbeen completed, the position immediately before the irregularity shall bereinstated.Ifthepositionimmediatelybeforetheirregularitycannotbedeterminedthegameshallcontinuefromthe last identifiablepositionpriortothe irregularity.TheclocksshallbeadjustedaccordingtoArticle6.13.TheArticles4.3and4.6applytothemovereplacingtheillegalmove.Thegameshallthencontinuefromthisreinstatedposition.

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    Firstofall,itisveryimportantthattheirregularitymustbediscoveredduringthegame.Aftertheplayershavesignedthescoresheetsorinanotherwayitisclearthatthegameisover,correctionsarenotpossible.The result stands.Furthermore incase the irregularity isdiscoveredduring thegame, it is important, that thegamecontinueswith thepiece the irregularmovewasplayedorthatthepiecewhichwastakenwillbetakenwithanotherpiece,ifpossible.

    b. AftertheactiontakenunderArticle7.4.a,forthefirsttwoillegalmovesbyaplayerthearbitershallgivetwominutesextratimetohisopponentineachinstance;forathirdillegalmovebythesameplayer,thearbitershalldeclarethegamelostbythisplayer.However,thegameisdrawnifthepositionissuchthattheopponentcannotcheckmatetheplayerskingbyanypossibleseriesoflegalmoves.

    7.5 If during a game it is found that pieces have been displaced from their squares, the

    positionbeforetheirregularityshallbereinstated.Ifthepositionimmediatelybeforetheirregularity cannot be determined, the game shall continue from the last identifiablepositionprior to the irregularity.Theclocks shallbeadjustedaccording toArticle6.13.Thegameshallthencontinuefromthisreinstatedposition.

    Itisadvisablethattheinvestigationtodeterminefromwhichpositionthegameshallbecontinued,willtakeplaceundersupervisionofthearbiter.

    Article8:Therecordingofthemoves8.1 In thecourseofplayeachplayer is required to recordhisownmovesand thoseofhis

    opponent inthecorrectmanner,moveaftermove,asclearlyand legiblyaspossible, inthealgebraicnotation(AppendixC),onthescoresheetprescribedforthecompetition.It is forbidden to write the moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a drawaccording to Article 9.2 or 9.3 or adjourning a game according to the Guidelines ofAdjournedGamespoint1.a..Aplayermayreplytohisopponentsmovebeforerecording it, ifhesowishes.Hemustrecordhispreviousmovebeforemakinganother.Bothplayersmustrecordtheofferofadrawonthescoresheet.(AppendixC.13)Ifaplayer isunabletokeepscore,anassistant,whomustbeacceptabletothearbiter,maybeprovidedby theplayer towrite themoves.His clock shallbe adjustedby thearbiterinanequitableway.

    Noticethatitisforbiddentorecordthemoveinadvance.Onlyincaseofadrawclaim(Article9.2.and9.3)andadjourningitisallowed.Itispermittedtorecordthemovesasapair(hisopponentsmoveandhisownmove),butthescoresheethastobeuptodatebeforemakingthenextmove.8.2 Thescoresheetshallbevisibletothearbiterthroughoutthegame.NowadaystherearegenerallynoproblemswiththisArticle.Inthepast,whenrecordingthemovebeforemakingitwasallowed,someplayershadthehabittocoverthenextmovebytheirpen.Thishappensnowonlywhentheopponent is intimetroubleanddoesnotrecordthemoves.Butstillthearbiterhasfullrighttoremovethepenfromthescoresheet.

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    8.3 Thescoresheetsarethepropertyoftheorganisersoftheevent.Aplayerisnotallowedtokeephisscoresheet,hehastodeliverittothearbiterwhenthegameisfinished.8.4 Ifaplayerhaslessthanfiveminutesleftonhisclockatsomestageinaperiodanddoes

    not have additional time of 30 seconds ormore addedwith eachmove, then for theremainder of the period he is not obliged to meet the requirements of Article 8.1.Immediatelyafteroneflaghasfallentheplayermustupdatehisscoresheetcompletelybeforemovingapieceonthechessboard.

    8.5 A. If neither player is required to keep score under Article 8.4, the arbiter or an

    assistant should try tobepresentandkeep score. In this case, immediatelyafteroneflaghasfallen,thearbitershallstoptheclocks.Thenbothplayersshallupdatetheirscoresheets,usingthearbitersortheopponentsscoresheet.

    Ithappensquiteoftenthatinthistimetroublephasetheplayerasksthearbiterhowmanymovesare leftuntil the timecontrol.Thearbitershallnevergiveany informationabout thenumberofmademoves, even not after a player or both players have completed the required number ofmoves.Onlyafteraflagfallthearbitershallcomeintoaction:hestopsbothclocksandorderstheplayerstoupdatethescoresheets.Only after both players have updated their score sheets the arbiter shall start the clock of theplayerwhohasthemove.

    b. IfonlyoneplayerisnotrequiredtokeepscoreunderArticle8.4,hemust,assoon

    aseither flaghas fallen,updatehisscoresheetcompletelybeforemovingapieceon the chessboard. Provided it is the playersmove, hemay use his opponentsscoresheet,butmustreturnitbeforemakingamove.

    Noticethat,inthissituation,afteraflagfall,thearbiterdoesnotstoptheclocks.

    c. Ifnocompletescoresheetisavailable,theplayersmustreconstructthegameona

    second chessboardunder the controlof the arbiteror anassistant.He shall firstrecordtheactualgameposition,clocktimesandthenumberofmovesmade,ifthisinformationisavailable,beforereconstructiontakesplace.

    Itisclearthatthereconstructiontakesplaceaftertheclockshavebeenstopped.

    8.6 Ifthescoresheetscannotbebroughtuptodateshowingthataplayerhasoverstepped

    theallotted time, thenextmovemadeshallbeconsideredas the firstof the followingtimeperiod,unlessthereisevidencethatmoremoveshavebeenmade.

    Illustrationwithanexample.Supposetherequirednumberofmovesuntilthetimecontrolis40.Ifonly37movescanbefound,thenthenextmoveonthescoresheetwillbemove41;ifonly42canbefoundand it issurethatmoremoveswerecompleted,butnotexactlyhowmanymoves,thenthenextmovewillbecountedasmovenumber43.

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    8.7 At theconclusionof thegamebothplayers shall signboth score sheets, indicating theresultof the game. Even if incorrect, this result shall stand,unless the arbiterdecidesotherwise.

    Atthemomentthearbiterseesthatagamehasbeenfinished,heshouldrushtothatboardandrequesttheplayerstowritetheresultofthegameandtosignthescoresheets.Thearbitershouldimmediatelycheckthatbothscoresheetsshowtheidenticalresults.

    Article9:Thedrawngame9.1 a. The rules of a competition may specify that players cannot agree to a draw,

    whetherinlessthanaspecifiednumberofmovesoratall,withouttheconsentofthearbiter.

    Ifacompetitionappliesthisrule,thementionednumberofmovesornoagreementatall,shouldbecommunicatedwiththeplayers inthe invitationtothetournament. It isadvisablebeforethestartofthetournamenttorepeattheruleofthetournament.Beawaretheruleappliesonlyforadrawagreement.TheArticles9.2,9.3and9.6stillapplyduringthewholegame.

    b. Iftherulesofacompetitionallowadrawagreementthefollowingapply:

    (1) Aplayerwishingtoofferadrawshalldosoafterhavingmadeamoveonthechessboardandbeforestoppinghisclockandstarting theopponentsclock.Anofferatanyother timeduringplay is stillvalidbutArticle12.6mustbeconsidered.Noconditionscanbeattachedtotheoffer.Inbothcasestheoffercannotbewithdrawnandremainsvaliduntiltheopponentacceptsit,rejectsit orally, rejects it by touching a piece with the intention of moving orcapturingit,orthegameisconcludedinsomeotherway.

    (2) Theofferofadraw shallbenotedbyeachplayeronhis scoresheetwithasymbol(SeeAppendixC.13).

    (3) AclaimofadrawunderArticle9.2,9.3or10.2shallbeconsideredtobeanofferofadraw.

    Thecorrectsequenceofadrawofferisclear:1.makingamove2.offeringofadraw3.pressingtheclock.Ifaplayerdeviatesfromthisorder,theofferstillstandsandisinfactincorrect.Thearbiterhasinthiscasetopenalisetheplayer.Noconditionscanbeattached.Someexamples:Theplayerforcestheopponenttoaccepttheofferwithin2minutes.Inateamcompetition:adrawisofferedundertheconditionthatanothergameinthematchshallberesignedorshallbedrawnaswell.Inbothcasestheofferofadrawisvalid,butnottheattachedcondition.Regarding(3):Ifaplayerclaimsadraw,theopponenthasthepossibilitytoagreeimmediatelytothe draw. In this case the arbiter does not need to check the correctness of the claim. But becareful. If there isadraw restriction (forexample:nodrawoffersareallowedbefore30moveshavebeencompletedbybothplayers)and theclaimhasbeen submittedbefore thatmove (i.e.

  • 23

    after28moves),thentheclaimhastobecheckedbytheArbiterinanycase,eveniftheopponentwouldagreetoadraw.9.2 Thegame isdrawnuponacorrectclaimbytheplayerhavingthemove,whenthesame

    position,foratleastthethirdtime(notnecessarilybyarepetitionofmoves)a. isabouttoappear,ifhefirstwriteshismoveonhisscoresheetanddeclarestothe

    arbiterhisintentiontomakethismove,orb. hasjustappeared,andtheplayerclaimingthedrawhasthemove.Positions as in (a) and (b) are considered the same, if the sameplayerhas themove,piecesofthesamekindandcolouroccupythesamesquares,andthepossiblemovesofallthepiecesofbothplayersarethesame.Positionsarenot thesame ifapawn thatcouldhavebeencapturedenpassantcannolongerbecapturedinthismanner.Whenakingorarookisforcedtomove,itwillloseitscastlingrights,ifany,onlyafteritismoved.

    Itisadvisabletocheckthecorrectnessofaclaiminthepresenceofbothplayers.Itisalsoadvisabletoreplaythegameandnottodecidebyonlyusingthescoresheets.Ifelectronicboardsareuseditispossibletocheckitonthecomputer.9.3 Thegameisdrawn,uponacorrectclaimbytheplayerhavingthemove,if

    a. hewriteshismoveonhisscoresheetanddeclares to thearbiterhis intention tomakethismove,whichshallresultinthelast50moveshavingbeenmadebyeachplayerwithoutthemovementofanypawnandwithoutanycapture,or

    b. the last 50 consecutive moves have been made by each player without themovementofanypawnandwithoutanycapture.

    Seecommenttoarticle9.2.

    9.4 IftheplayertouchesapieceasinArticle4.3withouthavingclaimedthedrawhelosesthe

    righttoclaim,asinArticle9.2or9.3,onthatmove.Toavoidanymisunderstanding:theplayerloseshisrighttoclaimadrawonlyatthatmove.Hehasalwaysthepossibilitytomakeanewclaiminthegamebasedontheactualposition.9.5 If a player claims a draw as inArticle 9.2 or 9.3 hemay stop both clocks (seeArticle

    6.12.b).Heisnotallowedtowithdrawhisclaim.Until2009theplayerwhowantedtoclaimadraw,hadtostoptheclocks.Therulestatesnowthathemaystoptheclocks.

    a. Iftheclaimisfoundtobecorrect,thegameisimmediatelydrawn.b. If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall add threeminutes to the

    opponentsremainingthinkingtime.Thenthegameshallcontinue.Iftheclaimwasbasedonanintendedmove,thismovemustbemadeasaccordingtoArticle4.

    Itismentionedthattheintendedmovemustbeplayed,butiftheintendedmoveisillegal,anothermovewiththispiecemustbemade.AlltheotherdetailsofArticle4arealsovalid.

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    9.6 Thegameisdrawnwhenapositionisreachedfromwhichacheckmatecannotoccurby

    anypossible seriesof legalmoves.This immediatelyends thegame,provided that themoveproducingthispositionwaslegal.

    Thesearethepositions:Kvs.K,K+Bvs.K,K+Nvs.K,K+Bvs.K+B(withBishopsofthesamecolour).

    Article10:QuickplayFinish10.1 Aquickplayfinishisthephaseofagame,whenallthe(remaining)movesmustbemade

    inalimitedtime.IngameswithatimecontrolwithincrementthisArticleisnotapplicable.10.2 Iftheplayer,havingthemove,haslessthantwominutesleftonhisclock,hemayclaima

    draw before his flag falls.He shall summon the arbiter andmay stop the clocks (seeArticle6.12.b).a. Ifthearbiteragreestheopponent ismakingnoefforttowinthegamebynormal

    means,orthatitisnotpossibletowinbynormalmeans,thenheshalldeclarethegamedrawn.Otherwiseheshallpostponehisdecisionorrejecttheclaim.

    Itisquitedifficulttodescribewhatmeans:makingnoefforttowinbynormalmeans.Anexample:thepositioniswKe1,wQf1andbKa8.Suppose thecontinuation is::1.Qa6+Kb82.Qb6+Kc83.Qc6+Kd84.Qd6+Ke85.Qe6+Kf86.Qf6+Kg87.Qg6+Kh88.Qh6+Kg89.Qg6+andafter9Qg6blackclaimsadraw.ItisclearthatWhitehasawinningposition,but thearbiterdeclares thegamedrawn,becauseWhitedidnotmakeanyefforttowinthegamebynormalmeans,i.e.bycheckmatingtheblackking.

    b. If the arbiter postpones his decision, the opponentmay be awarded two extraminutesandthegameshallcontinue,ifpossibleinthepresenceofanarbiter.Thearbitershalldeclarethefinalresultlaterinthegameorassoonaspossibleafteraflaghasfallen.Heshalldeclarethegamedrawnifheagreesthatthefinalpositioncannotbewonbynormalmeans,orthattheopponentwasnotmakingsufficientattemptstowinbynormalmeans.

    c. If the arbiter has rejected the claim, the opponent shall be awarded two extraminutestime.

    Noticethatin10.2.athearbitermustawardtwoextraminutestimetotheopponent,in10.2.bhemayawaretwominutesextratimetotheopponent.

    d. Thedecisionofthearbitershallbefinalrelatingto10.2.a,borc.

    AppealsagainstadecisionofthearbiterinrelationtoArticle10arenotpossible.

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    Article11:Points11.1 Unlessannouncedotherwise inadvance,aplayerwhowinshisgameorwinsbyforfeit,

    scoresonepoint(1),aplayerwho loseshisgameor losesbyforfeitscoresnopoints(0)andaplayerwhodrawshisgamescoresahalfpoint().

    Anotherscoringsystemfromtimetotimeused isforawin3points,foradraw1pointandforalostgame0points.

    Article12:Theconductoftheplayers12.1 Theplayersshalltakenoactionthatwillbringthegameofchessintodisrepute.ThisisanArticlewhichcanbeusedforallinfringementsnotmentionedintheLawsofChess12.2 Playersarenotallowedtoleavetheplayingvenuewithoutpermissionfromthearbiter.

    Theplayingvenue isdefinedastheplayingarea,restrooms,refreshmentarea,areasetasideforsmokingandotherplacesasdesignatedbythearbiter.Theplayerhavingthemoveisnotallowedtoleavetheplayingareawithoutpermissionofthearbiter.

    Ifpossible, spectators shouldnotenter theplayingarea. It isadvisable tohaveallother roomsalwaysundercontrolofassistants.12.3 a. During play the players are forbidden to make use of any notes, sources of

    informationoradvice,oranalyseonanotherchessboard. TheLawsofChessmustbealwaysavailableintheplayingarea.PlayershavetherighttoreadtheLawsduringtheirgame.It iswritten thataplayermaynotanalyseonanotherboard. Themeaning is thathemaynotanalysehisowngame,ifitisstillinprogress,onanotherboard.

    b. Withoutthepermissionofthearbiteraplayerisforbiddentohaveamobilephone

    orotherelectronicmeansofcommunication intheplayingvenue,unlesstheyarecompletelyswitchedoff.Ifanysuchdeviceproducesasound,theplayershall losethegame.Theopponentshallwin.However,iftheopponentcannotwinthegamebyanyseriesoflegalmoves,hisscoreshallbeadraw.

    Ifamobileringsthegame is lostfortheplayer.Hisopponentshallwin,but ifcannotwinbyanyseriesoflegalmoves,hisscoreshallbedraw.Itmeansthattheresultofthegameis0or0.Supposethefollowingsituationoccurs:Thereisnozerotolerance.PlayerAisintheplayinghallatthestartoftheround.Hisopponent,PlayerBisabsent.ImmediatelyafterplayerAmadehisfirstmovehismobilerings.ThearbiterdeclaresthegamelostforPlayerA.Someminuteslater,butstillontime,PlayerBarrives.Thescoreis/+,itisnotaplayedgameanditcannotberated.

    c. Smokingispermittedonlyinthesectionofthevenuedesignatedbythearbiter.

  • 26

    Ifpossible,thissmokingareashouldbeclosetotheplayingarea.

    12.4 Thescoresheetshallbeusedonlyforrecordingthemoves,thetimesoftheclocks,theoffersofadraw,andmattersrelatingtoaclaimandotherrelevantdata.

    Itisalsoforbiddentocommentthemovesbyadding?and!.12.5 Playerswhohavefinishedtheirgamesshallbeconsideredtobespectators.Itmeansthattheplayers,whofinishedtheirgames,havetoleavetheplayingarea.Nevertheless,givethemafewminutestowatchtheotherboards.12.6 Itisforbiddentodistractorannoytheopponentinanymannerwhatsoever.Thisincludes

    unreasonable claims,unreasonableoffersof adrawor the introductionof a sourceofnoiseintotheplayingarea.

    Probablythedrawoffersorclaimsarequitereasonable,butrepeatingthemtoooftencanannoytheopponent.12.7 InfractionofanypartofArticles12.1 to12.6shall lead topenalties inaccordancewith

    Article13.4.12.8 PersistentrefusalbyaplayertocomplywiththeLawsofChessshallbepenalisedbyloss

    ofthegame.Thearbitershalldecidethescoreoftheopponent.ItisverydifficulttogiveageneralguidelineforapplicationofthisArticle,butifanarbiterforthethirdorfourthtimehastowarntheplayer,there isagoodreasontodeclarethegame lost. It isadvisabletoinformtheplayer,thatArticle12.8shallbeappliedatthenextinfringement.12.9 IfbothplayersarefoundguiltyaccordingtoArticle12.8,thegameshallbedeclaredlost

    bybothplayers.12.10 InthecaseofArticle10.2.dorAppendixDaplayermaynotappealagainstthedecisionof

    thearbiter.Otherwiseaplayermayappealagainstanydecisionofthearbiter,unlesstherulesofthecompetitionspecifyotherwise.

    Thedetailsofappealsshouldbepartoftheregulationsoftheevent.

    Article13:TheroleoftheArbiter(seePreface)13.1 ThearbitershallseethattheLawsofChessarestrictlyobserved.Itmeansthat, incasethearbiterobservesan infringement,hemay interfere.Hehasnottowaitforaclaimfromtheopponent.Example:Aplayertouchesapieceandplayswithanotherone.Thearbitershallforcetheplayertoplaythetouchedpiece.

  • 27

    13.2 Thearbitershallactinthebestinterestofthecompetition.Heshouldensurethatagood

    playing environment is maintained and that the players are not disturbed. He shallsupervisetheprogressofthecompetition.

    TheArbitermustbepresentandcontrolthegames.13.3 The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players are short of time,

    enforcedecisionshehasmadeandimposepenaltiesonplayerswhereappropriate.13.4 Thearbitercanapplyoneormoreofthefollowingpenalties:

    a. warning,b. increasingtheremainingtimeoftheopponent,c. reducingtheremainingtimeoftheoffendingplayer,d. declaringthegametobelost,e. reducingthepointsscoredinthegamebytheoffendingparty,f. increasingthepointsscoredinthegamebytheopponenttothemaximumavailable

    forthatgame,g. expulsionfromtheevent.

    Article13.3.gmaybeappliedincooperationwiththeorganizeroftheevent.13.5 The arbitermay award either or both players additional time in the event of external

    disturbanceofthegame.13.6 ThearbitermustnotinterveneinagameexceptincasesdescribedbytheLawsofChess.

    Heshallnotindicatethenumberofmovesmade,exceptinapplyingArticle8.5,whenatleast one flag has fallen. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a player that hisopponenthascompletedamoveorthattheplayerhasnotpressedhisclock.

    ThisArticleincludesalsothatthearbitershallnotinforma(walking)playerthathehasthemove.13.7 a. Spectatorsandplayersinothergamesarenottospeakaboutorotherwiseinterfere

    inagame.Ifnecessary,thearbitermayexpeloffendersfromtheplayingvenue.Ifsomeoneobservesanirregularity,hemayinformonlythearbiter.

    ThisArticleincludesalsocallingofaflagfall.

    b. Unlessauthorisedbythearbiter,itisforbiddenforanybodytouseamobilephone

    oranykindofcommunicationdeviceintheplayingvenueandanycontiguousareadesignatedbythearbiter.

    ThisArticleappliesalsotoorganisersandarbiters.

    Article14:FIDE14.1 MemberfederationsmayaskFIDEtogiveanofficialdecisionaboutproblemsrelatingto

    theLawsofChess.

  • 28

    OnlyfederationsandnotindividualsMayaskforanofficialdecisionaboutproblemsrelatedtotheLawsofChess.

  • 29

    APPENDICES

    A.RapidplayA.1 ARapidplaygameisonewhereeitherallthemovesmustbemadeinafixedtimeofatleast

    15minutesbut less than60minutes foreachplayer;or the timeallotted+60 timesanyincrementisatleast15minutes,butlessthan60minutesforeachplayer.

    Example:AccordingtotheTournamentRegulationsofanevent,thetimecontrolis30minutesforthewholegameand30secondsincrementforeachmove.Thatis:for60moveswewouldget30'+(30"x60)=30'+30'=60'.SoasaccordingtotheArticleA1"ARapidplay" isagamewhereallmovesmustbemade in lessthan60minutesforeachplayer,thensuchagameisconsideredtobenormalchess.Example2:AccordingtotheTournamentRegulationsofanevent,thetimecontrol is10minutesforthewholegameand5secondsincrementforeachmove.Thatis:for60moveswewouldget10'+(5x60)=10'+5'=15'.SoasaccordingtotheArticleA.1"ARapidplay"isagamewhereallmovesmustbemadeatleast15minutesforeachplayer,thensuchagameisconsideredtobeRapidplaychess.A.2 Playersdonotneedtorecordthemoves.Playersareallowedtorecordthemoves,buttheymaystoprecordinganytimetheywish.A.3 Where there is adequate supervision of play, (for example one arbiter for atmost three

    games)theCompetitionRulesshallapply.LawsofRapidplayapplyonlyinthosecaseswheretheplayingconditionsdonotprovideadequatesupervision, it means we dont have at least one Arbiter per three games. In case we haveadequatesupervision,thentheCompetitionRulesshallapply.ItmeanstheArbiterhastointerfereinanycaseofirregularities,hecallstheflagfalletc.A.4 Wheresupervision is inadequatetheCompetitionRulesshallapply,exceptwheretheyare

    overriddenbythefollowingLawsofRapidplay:a. Once each player has completed three moves, no claim can be made regarding

    incorrectpieceplacement,orientationofthechessboardorclocksetting.Incaseofreversekingandqueenplacementcastlingwiththiskingisnotallowed.

    Example:Ifaplayermadehisthirdmoveontheboard,tookhishandfromthepiece,butbeforehepressestheclockherealisesthatthepiecesintheinitialpositionhadbeenplacedincorrectlyandclaimedtotheArbiter,theArbitermustaccepttheclaimandthegamemustbereplayed.Ifafterthegamehasbeenstartedandthearbiterrealisesthatthepiecesintheinitialpositionhadbeenplacedincorrectly,hehasnorighttointerveneunlessaclaimismadebyoneoftheplayers.

    b. Thearbitershallmakearulingaccording toArticle4 (Theactofmoving thepieces),

    onlyifrequestedtodosobyoneorbothplayers.

    Ifduringthegamethearbiternoticesthatoneoftheplayersmadeanillegalmove,hehasnorighttointerveneunlessaclaimismadebyoneoftheplayers.

  • 30

    c. An illegal move is completed once the opponent's clock has been started. The

    opponent is thenentitled toclaim that theplayercompletedan illegalmovebeforethe claimant hasmade hismove.Only after such a claim, shall the arbitermake aruling. However, if both Kings are in check or the promotion of a pawn is notcompleted,thearbitershallintervene,ifpossible.

    Example:Whitemovesapawnonthe8thrankwithoutreplacingitbyanotherpiece(orreplacesitwitha rookupsidedown,announcing that it isaQueen)and starts theopponentsclock. If theopponentdoesnt reactand thearbiterobserves it,hemust stop theclock,punishWhite foranillegalmoveandforcehimtocompletehismove.

    d. 1. Theflagisconsideredtohavefallenwhenaplayerhasmadeavalidclaimtothat

    effect.Thearbitershallrefrainfromsignallingaflagfall,buthemaydosoifbothflagshavefallen.

    Ifwehaveinadequatesupervision,thearbitermaynotcallafallenflaginagame.Onlyafterbothflagsaredownheshallstopthegame.

    2. Toclaimawinontime,theclaimantmuststopbothclocksandnotifythearbiter.

    For the claim to be successful the claimants flag must remain up and hisopponentsflagdownaftertheclockshavebeenstopped.

    3. Ifbothflagshavefallenasdescribed in(1)and(2),thearbitershalldeclarethegamedrawn.

    Ifaplayerclaimsthathisopponentoversteppedtheallottedtimeandhedidnotstoptheclocks,andthenhisflagfeltdownbeforethearbiterfixedtheresult,thegameshallbedeclaredadraw.

    B.BlitzB.1 A blitz game isonewhere all themovesmustbemade in a fixed timeof less than15

    minutes for each player; or the allotted time + 60 times any increment is less than 15minutes.

    AccordingtotheTournamentRegulationsofaneventthetimecontrolis10minutesforthewholegameand5secondsincrementforeachmove.Thatis:for60moveswewouldget10'+(5'x60)=10'+5'=15'.SoasaccordingtotheArticleB1in"Blitz"allthemovesmustbemadeinatimelessthan15minutes,thensuchagameisconsideredtobeRapidplaychess.B.2 Where there isadequate supervisionofplay, (onearbiter foronegame) theCompetition

    RulesandArticleA.2shallapply.

    Laws of Blitz apply only to those caseswhere the playing conditions do not provide adequatesupervision, itmeanswe dont have at least oneArbiter per game. In casewe have adequatesupervision,thentheCompetitionRulesshallapply.InsuchcasestheArbiterhastointerfereinanycaseofirregularities,callstheflagfalletc.

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    B.3 Wheresupervisionisinadequatethefollowingshallapply:a. PlayshallbegovernedbytheRapidplayLawsasinAppendixAexceptwheretheyare

    overriddenbythefollowingLawsofBlitz.b. TheArticles10.2andA.4.cdonotapply.c. An illegal move is completed once the opponents clock has been started. The

    opponentisentitledtoclaimawinbeforehehasmadehisownmove.However,iftheopponentcannotcheckmate theplayerskingbyanypossible seriesof legalmoves,thentheclaimantisentitledtoclaimadrawbeforehehasmadehisownmove.Oncethe opponent hasmade his ownmove, an illegalmove cannot be corrected unlessmutuallyagreedwithoutinterventionofanarbiter.

    APlayermakesamoveontheboard,takeshishandfromthepiece,butbeforestoppinghisclockhenoticesthattheopponenthasmadean illegalmove.Hecallsthearbitertodeclarethegamelostfortheopponent.Thearbiterhastodecide,thatthegamehastobecontinued,becausetheclaimanthasalreadymadeamoveontheboardandlosttherighttoclaim.

    C.AlgebraicnotationFIDErecognizesforitsowntournamentsandmatchesonlyonesystemofnotation,theAlgebraicSystem, and recommends the use of this uniform chess notation also for chess literature andperiodicals. Score sheets using a notation system other than algebraic may not be used asevidenceincaseswherenormallythescoresheetofaplayerisusedforthatpurpose.Anarbiterwhoobservesthataplayer isusinganotationsystemotherthanthealgebraicshouldwarntheplayeraboutofthisrequirement.

    DescriptionoftheAlgebraicSystemC.1 Inthisdescription,piecemeansapieceotherthanapawnC.2 Each piece is indicated by the first letter, a capital letter, of its name. Example: K=king,

    Q=queen, R=rook, B=bishop, N=knight. (In the case of the knight, for the sake ofconvenience,Nisused.)

    C.3 Forthefirstletterofthenameofthepieces,eachplayerisfreetousethefirstletterofthe

    namewhich iscommonlyused inhiscountry.Examples:F=fou(Frenchforbishop),L=loper(Dutch for bishop). In printed periodicals, the use of figurines for the pieces isrecommended.

    C.4 Pawnsarenot indicatedby their first letter,butare recognizedby theabsenceof sucha

    letter.Examples:e5,d4,a5.C.5 Theeightfiles(fromthelefttorightforWhiteandfromrighttoleftforBlack)areindicated

    bythesmallletters,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,andh,respectively.C.6 The eight ranks (from bottom to top forWhite and from top to bottom for Black) are

    numbered1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,respectively.Consequently, inthe initialpositionthewhitepiecesandpawnsareplacedonthefirstandsecondranks;theblackpiecesandpawnsontheeighthandseventhranks.

  • 32

    C.7 Asaconsequenceofthepreviousrules,eachofthesixtyfoursquaresisinvariablyindicatedbyauniquecombinationofaletterandanumber.

    C.8 Eachmoveofapiece is indicatedbya)thefirst letterofthenameofthepiece inquestion

    andb)thesquareofarrival.Thereisnohyphenbetweena)andb).Examples:Be5,Nf3,Rd1.Inthecaseofpawns,onlythesquareofarrivalisindicated.Examples:e5,d4,a5.

    C.9 Whenapiecemakesacapture,anxisinsertedbetweena)thefirstletterofthenameofthe

    pieceinquestionandb)thesquareofarrival.Examples:Bxe5,Nxf3,Rxd1.Whenapawnmakesacapture,thefileofdeparturemustbeindicated,thenanx,thenthesquareofarrival.Examples:dxe5,gxf3,axb5. In thecaseofan enpassantecapture, thesquareofarrivalisgivenasthesquareonwhichthecapturingpawnfinallyrestsande.p.isappendedtothenotation.Example:exd6e.p.

    C.10 Iftwoidenticalpiecescanmovetothesamesquare,thepiecethatismovedisindicatedas

    follows:1. Ifbothpiecesareonthesamerank:bya)thefirstletterofthenameofthepiece,b)

    thefileofdeparture,andc)thesquareofarrival.2. Ifbothpiecesareonthesamefile:bya)thefirstletterofthenameofthepiece,b)the

    rankofthesquareofdeparture,andc)thesquareofarrival.Ifthepiecesareondifferentranksandfilesmethod1)ispreferred.Inthecaseofcapture,anxmaybeinsertedbetweenb)andc).Examples:1. Therearetwoknights,onthesquaresg1ande1,andoneofthemmovestothesquare

    f3:eitherNgf3orNef3,asthecasemaybe.2. Therearetwoknights,onthesquaresg5andg1,andoneofthemmovestothesquare

    f3:eitherN5f3orN1f3,asthecasemaybe.3. Therearetwoknights,onthesquaresh2andd4,andoneofthemmovestothesquare

    f3:eitherNhf3orNdf3,asthecasemaybe.Ifacapturetakesplaceonthesquaref3,thepreviousexamplesarechangedbytheinsertionofanx:1)eitherNgxf3orNexf3,2)eitherN5xf3orN1xf3,3)eitherNhxf3orNdxf3,asthecasemaybe.

    C.11 Iftwopawnscancapturethesamepieceorpawnoftheopponent,thepawnthatismoved

    isindicatedbya)theletterofthefileofdeparture,b)anx,c)thesquareofarrival.Example:Iftherearewhitepawnsonsquaresc4ande4andablackpawnorpieceonthesquared5,thenotationforWhitesmoveiseithercxd5orexd5,asthecasemaybe.

    C.12 In the case of the promotion of a pawn, the actual pawn move is indicated, followed

    immediatelybythefirstletterofthenewpiece.Examples:d8Q,f8N,b1B,g1R.

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    C.13 Theofferofadrawshallbemarkedas(=).Essentialabbreviations00 =castlingwithrookh1orrookh8(kingsidecastling)000 =castlingwithrooka1orrooka8(queensidecastling)x =captures+ =check++or# =checkmatee.p. =capturesenpassanteItisnotmandatorytorecordthecheck,thecheckmateandcapturingonthescoresheet.Samplegame1.e4e52.Nf3Nf63.d4exd44.e5Ne45.Qxd4d56.exd6e.p.Nxd67.Bg5Nc68.Qe3+3Be79.Nbd20010.000Re811.Kb1(=)

    D.QuickplayfinisheswherenoarbiterispresentinthevenueD.1 Wheregamesareplayedas inArticle10,aplayermayclaimadrawwhenhehas lessthan

    twominutesleftonhisclockandbeforehisflagfalls.Thisconcludesthegame.Hemayclaimonthebasisa. thathisopponentcannotwinbynormalmeans,and/orb. thathisopponenthasbeenmakingnoefforttowinbynormalmeans.Ina)theplayermustwritedownthefinalpositionandhisopponentverifyit.Inb)theplayermustwritedownthefinalpositionandsubmitanuptodatescoresheet.Theopponentshallverifyboththescoresheetandthefinalposition.Theclaimshallbereferredtoanarbiterwhosedecisionshallbefinal.

    E.RulesforplaywithBlindandVisuallyHandicappedE.1 Tournamentdirectorsshallhave thepower toadapt the following rulesaccording to local

    circumstances. In competitive chess between sighted and visually handicapped players(legallyblind)eitherplayermaydemandtheuseoftwoboards,thesightedplayerusinganormalboard,thevisuallyhandicappedplayerusingonespeciallyconstructed.Thespeciallyconstructedboardmustmeetthefollowingrequirements:a. atleast20by20centimetres;b. theblacksquaresslightlyraised;c. asecuringapertureineachsquare;d. everypieceprovidedwithapegthatfitsintothesecuringaperture;e. piecesofStauntondesign,theblackpiecesbeingspeciallymarked.

    E.2 Thefollowingregulationsshallgovernplay:

    1. Themovesshallbeannouncedclearly,repeatedbytheopponentandexecutedonhischessboard. When promoting a pawn, the player must announce which piece ischosen. Tomake the announcement as clear as possible, the use of the followingnamesissuggestedinsteadofthecorrespondingletters,algebraic.

  • 34

    AAnnaBBellaCCesarDDavidEEvaFFelixGGustavHHectorRanksfromwhitetoblackshallreceivetheGermannumbers:1eins2zwei3drei4vier5fuenf6sechs7sieben8achtCastling is announced Lange Rochade (German for long castling) and KurzeRochade(Germanforshortcastling).Thepiecesbearthenames:Koenig,Dame,Turm,Laeufer,Springer,Bauer.

    2. Onthevisuallyhandicappedplayer'sboardapieceshallbeconsideredtouchedwhen

    ithasbeentakenoutofthesecuringaperture.3. Amoveshallbeconsideredexecutedwhen:

    a. inthecaseofacapture,thecapturedpiecehasbeenremovedfromtheboardoftheplayerwhoseturnitistomove;

    b. apieceisplacedintoadifferentsecuringaperture;c. themovehasbeenannounced.Onlythentheopponent'sclockshallbestarted.Asfaraspoints2and3areconcernedthenormalrulesarevalidforthesightedplayer.

    4. Aspeciallyconstructedchessclockforthevisuallyhandicappedshallbeadmissible.It

    shallincorporatethefollowingfeatures:a. Adialfittedwithreinforcedhands,witheveryfiveminutesmarkedbyonedot,

    andevery15minutesbytworaiseddots.b. Aflagwhichcanbeeasilyfelt.Careshouldbetakenthattheflagissoarranged

    astoallowtheplayertofeeltheminutehandduringthelast5minutesofthefullhour.

    5. ThevisuallyhandicappedplayermustkeepscoreofthegameinBrailleorlonghandor

    recordthemovesonataperecorder.6. Aslipofthetongue intheannouncementofamovemustbecorrected immediately

    andbeforetheclockoftheopponentisstarted.7. If during a game different positions should arise on the two boards, theymust be

    correctedwith theassistanceof thecontrollerandbyconsultingbothplayers'game

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    scores.Ifthetwogamescorescorrespondwitheachother,theplayerwhohaswrittenthecorrectmovebutexecutedthewrongonemustadjusthispositiontocorrespondwiththemoveonthegamescores.

    8. If,when such differences occur and the two game scores are found to differ, the

    moves shallbe retraced to thepointwhere the two scoresagreeand thecontrollershallreadjusttheclocksaccordingly.

    9. Thevisuallyhandicappedplayershallhavetherighttomakeuseofanassistantwho

    shallhaveanyorallofthefollowingduties:a. Makeeitherplayer'smoveontheboardoftheopponent.b. Announcethemovesofbothplayers.c. Keepthegamescoreofthevisuallyhandicappedplayerandstarthisopponent's

    clock,(keepingrule3.cinmind).d. Inform the visually handicapped player only at his request of the number of

    movescompletedandthetimeusedupbybothplayers.e. Claimthegameincaseswherethetimelimithasbeenexceededandinformthe

    controllerwhenthesightedplayerhastouchedoneofhispieces.f. Carryoutthenecessaryformalitiesincasethegameisadjourned.

    10. Ifthevisuallyhandicappedplayerdoesnotmakeuseofanassistant,thesightedplayer

    maymakeuseofonewhoshallcarryoutthedutiesmentionedunderpoint9.aandb.

    F.Chess960RulesF.1 BeforeaChess960gameastartingpositionisrandomlysetup,subjecttocertainrules.After

    this,thegameisplayedinthesamewayasstandardchess.Inparticular,piecesandpawnshavetheirnormalmoves,andeachplayer'sobjectiveistocheckmatetheopponent'sking.

    F.2 Startingpositionrequirements

    ThestartingpositionforChess960mustmeetcertainrules.Whitepawnsareplacedonthesecondrankasinregularchess.Allremainingwhitepiecesareplacedrandomlyonthefirstrank,butwiththefollowingrestrictions:a. Thekingisplacedsomewherebetweenthetworooks.b. Thebishopsareplacedonoppositecoloursquares.c. Theblackpiecesareplacedequalandoppositetothewhitepieces.Thestartingpositioncanbegeneratedbefore thegameeitherbyacomputerprogramorusingdice,coin,cards,etc.

    F.3 Chess960CastlingRulesa. Chess960allowseachplayertocastleoncepergame,amovebypotentiallyboththe

    king and rook in a singlemove. However, a few interpretations of standard chessgames rules are needed for castling, because the standard rules presume initiallocationsoftherookandkingthatareoftennotapplicableinChess960.

    b. Howtocastle

    InChess960,dependingontheprecastlingpositiononthecastlingkingandrook,thecastlingmanoeuvreisperformedbyoneofthesefourmethods:

  • 36

    1. Doublemovecastling:Byononeturnmakingamovewiththekingandamovewiththerook.

    2. Transpositioncastling:Bytransposingthepositionofthekingandtherook.3. Kingmoveonlycastling:Bymakingonlyamovewiththeking.4. Rookmoveonlycastling:Bymakingonlyamovewiththerook.

    Recommendation1. Whencastlingonaphysicalboardwithahumanplayer,itisrecommendedthat

    thekingbemovedoutsidetheplayingsurfacenexttohisfinalposition,therookthenbemovedfromitsstartingtoendingposition,andthenthekingbeplacedonhisfinalsquare.

    2. Aftercastling,therookandking'sfinalpositionsareexactlythesamepositionsastheywouldbeinstandardchess.

    ClarificationThus, after cside castling (notated as OOO and known as queenside castling inorthodoxchess), theKing ison thecsquare (c1 forWhiteandc8 forBlack)and theRookisonthedsquare(d1forWhiteandd8forBlack).Aftergsidecastling(notatedasOOandknownaskingsidecastlinginorthodoxchess),theKingisonthegsquare(g1forWhiteandg8forBlack)andtheRookisonthefsquare(f1forWhiteandf8forBlack).

    Notes1. Toavoidanymisunderstanding, itmaybeusefultostate"Iamabouttocastle"

    beforecastling.2. Insomestartingpositions, thekingorrook (butnotboth)donotmoveduring

    castling.3. Insomestartingpositions,castlingcantakeplaceasearlyasthefirstmove.4. All the squaresbetween the king's initial and final squares (including the final

    square), and all of the squares between the rook's initial and final squares(includingthefinalsquare),mustbevacantexceptforthekingandcastlingrook.

    5. In some starting positions, some squares can stay filled during castling thatwouldhavetobevacantinstandardchess.Forexample,aftercsidecastling(OOO),it'spossiblefortohavea,b,and/orestillfilled,andaftergsidecastling(OO),it'spossibletohaveeand/orhfilled.

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    GuidelinesincaseagameneedstobeadjournedInaccordancewithArticle1.1oftheRulesofChess,chessgameisplayedbetweentwoplayers.Inthemeantime,duetoFIDETournamentRegulationitisforbiddenforplayerstoleavetheplayingareaduringthegame.Consideringtheabovementioned,gameadjournmentcannotbeasanormalphaseofthegame.ButtheremaybesituationswherebecauseofvariousunusualsituationsorfortechnicalreasonstheArbiterhadtointerruptthegameforanindefiniteperiod(e.g.duetopowerfailure).ThissectionoftheLawdefinestheactionsofboththeArbiterandtheplayersinsuchsituations.1. a. Ifagame isnot finishedat theendof the timeprescribed forplay, thearbitershall

    requiretheplayerhavingthemovetosealthatmove.Theplayermustwritehismovein unambiguous notation on his score sheet, put his score sheet and that of hisopponent in an envelope, seal the envelope and only then stop his clockwithoutstartinghisopponent'sclock.Untilhehasstopped theclocks, theplayer retains therighttochangehissealedmove.If,afterbeingtoldbythearbitertosealhismove,theplayermakesamoveonthechessboardhemustwritethatsamemoveonhisscoresheetashissealedmove.

    If the game had to be stopped immediately and the player has no opportunity to think on hissealedmove,thegameshouldbeadjournedwithoutrecordingthesealedmoveafterthepositionontheboard,clockindicationsandthemovingturnarefixed.

    b. A player having themove,who adjourns the game before the end of the playing

    session, shall be considered to have sealed at the nominal time for the end of thesession,andhisremainingtimeshallsoberecorded.

    2. Thefollowingshallbeindicatedupontheenvelope:

    a. thenamesoftheplayersb. thepositionimmediatelybeforethesealedmovec. thetimeusedbyeachplayerd. thenameoftheplayerwhohassealedthemovee. thenumberofthesealedmovef. theofferofadraw,iftheproposaliscurrentg. thedate,timeandvenueofresumptionofplay.

    3. Thearbitershallchecktheaccuracyofthe informationontheenvelopeand isresponsible

    forthesafekeepingofit.4. Ifaplayerproposesadrawafterhisopponenthassealedhismove,theofferisvaliduntilthe

    opponenthasaccepteditorrejecteditasinArticle9.1.5. Beforethegameistoberesumed,thepositionimmediatelybeforethesealedmoveshallbe

    setuponthechessboard,andthetimesusedbyeachplayerwhenthegamewasadjournedshallbeindicatedontheclocks.

    6. Ifprior to the resumption thegame isagreeddrawn,or ifoneof theplayersnotifies the

    arbiterthatheresigns,thegameisconcluded.

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    7. Theenvelopeshallbeopenedonlywhentheplayerwhomustreplytothesealedmove is

    present.8. Except in the casesmentioned in theArticles5,6.9and9.6, thegame is lostbyaplayer

    whoserecordingofhissealedmovea. isambiguous;orb. isrecordedsuchthatitstruesignificanceisimpossibletoestablish;orc. isillegal.

    9. If,attheagreedresumptiontime

    a. theplayerhavingtoreplytothesealedmove ispresent,theenvelope isopened,thesealedmovemadeonthechessboardandhisclockstarted.

    b. theplayerhavingtoreplytothesealedmoveisnotpresent,hisclockshallbestarted.Onhisarrival,hemay stophis clockand summon thearbiter.Theenvelope is thenopenedandthesealedmovemadeonthechessboard.Hisclockisthenrestarted.

    c. theplayerwhosealedthemoveisnotpresent,hisopponenthastherighttorecordhisreplyon thescoresheet,sealhisscoresheet ina freshenvelope,stophisclockandstarttheabsentplayersclockinsteadofmakinghisreplyinthenormalmanner.Ifso,theenvelopeshallbehandedtothearbiterforsafekeepingandopenedontheabsentplayersarrival.

    10. Theplayershall losethegame ifhearrivesatthechessboardmorethanonehour latefor

    the resumptionofanadjournedgame (unless the rulesof the competition specifyor thearbiterdecidesotherwise).However, if theplayerwhomade thesealedmove is the lateplayer, thegame isdecidedotherwise,if:a. the absent player haswon the game by virtue of the fact that the sealedmove is

    checkmate;orb. theabsentplayerhasproducedadrawngamebyvirtueof the fact that the sealed

    move is stalemate, or a position as described in Article 9.6 has arisen on thechessboard;or

    c. theplayerpresentatthechessboardhaslostthegameaccordingtoArticle6.9.11. a. If theenvelopecontaining thesealedmove ismissing, thegameshallcontinue from

    theposition,with the clock times recordedat the timeof adjournment. If the timeused by each player cannot be reestablished the arbiter shall set the clocks. Theplayerwhosealedthemovemakesthemovehestateshesealedonthechessboard.

    b. If it is impossible to reestablish theposition, thegame isannulledandanewgamemustbeplayed.

    12. If,uponresumptionofthegame,eitherplayerpointsoutbeforemakinghisfirstmovethat

    thetimeusedhasbeenincorrectlyindicatedoneitherclock,theerrormustbecorrected.Iftheerror isnotthenestablishedthegamecontinueswithoutcorrectionunlessthearbiterfeelsthattheconsequenceswillbetoosevere.

    13. Thedurationofeachresumptionsessionshallbecontrolledbythearbiterstimepiece.The

    startingtimeandfinishingtimeshallbeannouncedinadvance.

  • 39

  • 40

    TYPESofTOURNAMENTSToestablishthepairingsforachesstournamentthefollowingsystemsmaybeused:1. RoundRobinSystem

    InaRoundRobinTournamentalltheplayersplayeachother.Thereforethenumberofroundsisthenumberofparticipantsminusone,incaseofanevennumberofplayers.Ifthereisanoddnumberofparticipantsthenumberofroundsisequaltothenumberofplayers.UsuallytheBergerTablesareusedtoestablishthepairingsofeachround.4players

    1 2 314 43 2423 12 31

    6players

    1 2 3 4 516 64 26 65 3625 53 31 14 4234 12 45 23 51

    8players

    1 2 3 4 5 6 718 85 28 86 38 87 4827 64 31 75 42 16 5336 73 47 14 51 25 6245 12 56 23 67 34 71

    10players

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9110 106 210 107 310 108 410 109 51029 75 31 86 42 97 53 18 6438 84 49 95 51 16 62 27 7347 93 58 14 69 25 71 36 8256 12 67 23 78 34 89 45 91

    12players

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11112 127 212 128 312 129 412 1210 512 1211 612211 86 31 97 42 108 53 119 64 110 75310 95 411 106 51 117 62 18 73 29 8449 104 510 115 611 16 71 27 82 38 9358 113 69 14 710 25 811 36 91 47 10267 12 78 23 89 34 910 45 1011 56 111

    14players1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    114 148 214 149 314 1410 414 1411 514 1412 614 1413 714213 97 31 108 42 119 53 1210 64 1311 75 112 86312 106 413 117 51 128 62 139 73 110 84 211 95411 115 512 126 613 137 71 18 82 29 93 310 104510 124 611 135 712 16 813 27 91 38 102 49 11369 133 710 14 811 25 912 36 1013 47 111 58 12278 12 89 23 910 34 1011 45 1112 56 1213 67 131

  • 41

    16players1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

    116 169 216 16 10 316 16 11 4 16 16 12 5 16 16 13 616 1614 7 16 16 15 8 16215 108 31 11 9 42 12 10 5 3 13 11 6 4 14 12 75 1513 8 6 1 14 9 7314 117 415 12 8 51 13 9 6 2 14 10 7 3 15 11 84 112 9 5 2 13 10 6413 126 514 13 7 615 14 8 7 1 15 9 8 2 1 10 93 211 10 4 3 12 11 5512 135 613 14 6 714 15 7 8 15 1 8 9 1 2 9 102 310 11 3 4 11 12 4611 144 712 15 5 813 1 6 9 14 2 7 10 15 3 8 111 49 12 2 5 10 13 3710 153 811 1 4 912 2 5 10 13 3 6 11 14 4 7 1215 58 13 1 6 9 14 289 12 910 2 3 1011 3 4 11 12 4 5 12 13 5 6 1314 67 14 15 7 8 15 1

    ThebestsystemforplayersisaDoubleRoundRobinTournament,becauseinsuchasystemallplayershavetoplaytwogamesagainsteachopponent,onewithwhitepiecesandanotheronewithblackpieces.Butmainlythereisnottimeenoughforitandothersystemshavetobeused.For TieBreak systems to be used for Round Robin Tournaments (see chapter TiebreakSystems):

    2. SwissSystems

    InFIDEwehavefivedifferentSwisssystemstobeusedforpairings:a. theDutch System,which is the usual swiss system for open tournamentswell knownby

    playersandorganizers,andwillbedescribedindetailbelow.b.theLimSystem

    pairingsaremade from to top scoregroupdownbefore themiddlegroup, then from thebottomscoregrouptothemiddlegroupandfinallythemiddlescoregroup;

    c.theDubovSystemthewhiteplayersaresortedaccordingtotheirperformance,theblackplayersaccordingtotheirrating.Theplayerwiththehighestperformance inascoregroup ispairedagainsttheblackplayerwiththelowestrating;

    d.theBursteinSystem,whichwasusedforOlympiadbefore2006in a score group the teams are ranked according their Buchholz points (or extendedBuchholzpoints)andthenthetoprankedteam ispairedagainstthe lastrankedteam,thesecondrankedteamagainstthelastbutone,andsoon;

    e.theOlympiadPairingSystemusedinOlympiadsince2006this system is similar to the Dutch system for individual tournaments with only smallamendmentsforteampairings.

    UsingoftheDutchSystem,stepbystep2.1 Scoregroups

    Therearetwotypesofscoregroups:homogeneousscoregroupsallplayershaveequalscoresheterogeneousscoregroupsoneormoreplayershavehigherscores.Aheterogeneousscoregroupofwhichatleasthalfoftheplayerscomedownfromahigherscoregroupisalsotreatedasthoughitwillbeahomogeneousgroup.Thescoregroupsaresortedaccordinga.scoresb.ratingsc.title:GMIMWGMFMWIMCMWFMWCMnotitled.alphabetically

  • 42

    Thecriteriab,canddcorrespondtothestartingnumbersoftheplayers.

    2.2 ColourpreferencesThecolourpreferenceofaplayeristhedifferenceofcolourshehashadbeforetheroundtobepaired(numberofplayedgameswithwhitenumberofplayedgameswithblack).Afterthiscalculationwehavethreekindsofcolourpreference: absolute preference = colour difference is greater than 1 or less than 1, or a playerplayedwiththesamecolourinthetwolastrounds;

    strongpreference=colourdifference isunequal to0; if it is+1 theplayershouldhaveblack,ifitis1heshouldhavewhite;

    mildpreference=colourdifferenceis0;thepreferencebeingtoalternatethecolourwithrespecttothepreviousround.

    2.3 Subgroups

    Eachscoregroupthenisdividedintotwosubgroups,calledS1andS2.Incaseofaheterogeneousscoregroup

    allplayerscomingfromhigherscoregroupsareinS1alltheotherplayersareinS2.

    After pairings are made for all players in S1, then the pairing of the remaininghomogeneousgroupisrestarted.Incaseofahomogeneousscoregroup

    thehigherhalfofthescoregroup,roundeddownwards,areinS1allotherplayersofthescoregroupareinS2.

    2.4 PairingPrinciplesanddefinitions

    Therearesomepairingcriteriatobefollowed:Absolutepairingcriteria thesemaynotbeviolated, ifnecessaryplayerswillbemoveddowntoalowerscoregroup.1a. Twoplayersshallnotmeetmorethanonce1b. Aplayerwhohasreceivedapointwithoutplaying,eitherthroughabyeorduetoan

    opponentnotappearingintime,shallnotreceiveabye2a. Noplayer'scolourdifferencewillbecome>+2or

  • 43

    2.5 Colourallocation

    After the pairings are made the colours are allocated to all players according to thefollowingcriteria:a. grantbothcolourpreferencesb. grantthestrongercolourpreferencec. alternate the colours to themost recent round inwhich theyplayedwithdifferent

    colours=colourhistoryd. grantthecolourpreferenceofthehigherrankedplayer.

    Aplayerishigherrankedifhehasahigherscoreorifhehasabetterstartingnumber.

    2.6 PairingattemptsThe following description ismade just to demonstrate the formal algorithm.An arbiterdoingthepairingsmanuallywilleitherfindmanyshortcutsusinghishumanviewoverthesmallnumberofplayers inasmallscoregrouporwillnothavemanyconflicts ina largescoregroupwhichenforcemanyiterations.ThehighestplayerofS1 ispairedversusthehighestoneofS2,thesecondhighestoneofS1 versus the second highest one of S2, and so on, following the absolute criteria. Thepairingofthewholescoregroup willbeanalyzedaccordingtotheabsoluteandrelativecriteria.Thegoalistohaveapairingwhichhasthemaximumpossiblenumberofpairsfulfillingthecolourpreferenceofallplayers,whileadditionallyallrelativecriteriaaremet.Ifthisgoalisachievedthepairingofthescoregroupisperfect.As longas thepairing isnotperfect the rankingof theplayers inS2willbe changedbytranspositionsduetospecialrulesandthepairingwillberepeated.Ifasolutionmeetsthegoal better than the solutions before the new solution will be candidate for the finalsolution.Thisphasewillbecontinueduntilthepossibilitiesoftranspositionareexhausted.AslongasthepairingisnotperfectplayersofS1willbeexchangedwithplayersofS2duetospecialrulesandthefullpairingprocedurewillberepeatedfromtheverybeginning.Thisphasewillbecontinueduntilthepossibilitiesoftheexchangesareexhausted.As long as the pairing is not perfect the full procedurewill be repeated from the verybeginningIgnoringcriteria6,thenagainignoringcriteria5,then4andthen3.The best pairing found during all these attempts will be the final pairing for thetournament.

    2.7 SpecialrulesIffinally inanoddnumberedscoregrouponeplayer is left,thisone istheFloatertothenextscoregroup.Ifformorethanoneplayerasuitablepairingcannotbefound,then incaseofahomogeneousscoregrouptheremainingplayersaremoveddowntothe

    nextscoregroup;withthisscoregrouptheprocedurewillberestarted.

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    incaseofaheterogeneousscoregrouponlyplayersmoveddownfromahigherscoregrouparepaired.Afterthatthepairingofthehomogeneousremaininggrouppairingswillbestarted..

    If it isnotpossible to findasuitablepairing foraplayers in thescoregroupwithoutviolatingtheabsolutepairingcriteria inahomogeneousscoregroup,thenthisplayerwillbefloateddown;

    incaseofthelowestscoregroupandifanyexchangeofafloaterfromahigherscoregroup gives not suitable result, then the pairing of the penultimate score group isundone. Itwillbetriedto findanotherpairing inthepenultimatescoregroupwhichwill allow apairing in the lowest score group. If in thepenultimate score groupnopairingcanbefoundwhichwillallowacorrectpairingforthelowestscoregroup,thenthetwo lowestscoregroupsare joined intoanew lowestscoregroup.Becausenowanotherscoregroup isthepenultimateonethismayberepeateduntilanacceptablepairingforallplayersisobtained.

    Bye:Shouldthetotalnumberofplayersorteamsinatournamentbe(orbecome)odd,oneplayeroroneteamendsupunpairedandreceivesabye.Inan individualtournamentthisplayer iscountedtohavenoopponent,nocolourand1point.Inateamtournamentthisteamiscountedtohavenoopponent,nocolour,1matchpointand gamepoints equal to 50% of the number of boards in amatch. If the number ofparticipatingteamsislessthantwicethenumberofroundstheteamhavingabyeshouldbecreditedwith2gamepointsinsteadofonly1gamepoint.Abyeisconsideredtobeadownfloat.

    2.8 PublicationofpairingsAfterapairingiscompletesortthepairingbeforemakingthempublic:thescoreofthehigherrankedplayerofthepairinginvolvedthesumofthescoresofbothplayersofthepairinginvolvedtherankaccordingtocriteriaforsortingofthehigherplayerofthepairinginvolved.

    2.9 HandlingofunplayedgamesForhandlingofunplayedgamestherearetwodifferentpointsofviewa. fortheplayerhimself:

    forthecalculationofBuchholzscoreorSonnebornBergerscoreinSwissTournamentsavirtualopponentisused.Thetiebreakpointsfromthisvirtualopponentarecalculatedasfollows:atthestartoftheroundthisvirtualopponenthasthesamenumberofpointsastherealplayer,

    thentheresultoftheroundisadded,finallythevirtualopponentisaddedhalfapointforeachsubsequentround.ForexamplesseechapterTiebreakSystems.

    b. fortheopponentsofaplayer:

    toreducingtheconsequencefortheopponentswhencalculatingBuchholz,eachresultbydefaultofaplayer iscountedasahalfpoint(draw)fortheBuchholzoftheplayersopponents.

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    2.10 Finalremarks

    Byesandpairingnotactuallyplayed,or lostbyoneoftheplayersduetoarriving lateornotatall,willnotbe taken intoaccountwith respect to colours.Suchapairing isnotconsideredtobeillegalinfuturerounds.Playerswhowithdraw from the tournamentwillno longerbepaired.Playersknown inadvancenottoplayinaparticularroundarenotpairedinthatroundandscore0.Apairingofficiallymadepublicshallnotbechangedunlessitviolatestheabsolutepairingcriteria.Ifeitherresultwaswrittendownincorrectly,oragamewasplayedwiththewrongcolours,oraplayer'sratinghastobecorrectedthenthiswillonlyaffectpairingyettobemade.Players who are absent during a round without notification to the arbiter will beconsidered to have withdrawn themselves, unless the rules of the tournament stateotherwise.

    2.11 Manualcheckingofcomputerpairings

    Seeanexampleinchapter7.3. ScheveningenSystem

    TheScheveningensystemismainlyusedforteams.Insuchateamcompetitioneachplayerofoneteammeetseachplayeroftheopposingteam.Thenumberofroundsthereforeisequaltothenumberofplayersinateam.InaSemiScheveningensystemthefirsthalfoftheplayerofoneteammeetseachplayerofthefirsthalfoftheopposingteam,thesecondhalfofoneteamplayversusthesecondhalfoftheotherteam.Example:TeamAandBhaveeightplayerseach.A1,A2,A3andA4playversusB1,B2,B3andB4.AtthesametimeA5,A6,A7andA8playversusB5,B6,B7andB8.Finallyfourroundsarenecessary.

    4. SkalitzkaSystem

    WhenusingaRoundRobinsystemforthreeteamsitisnecessarytoorganizethreeroundsandineachroundoneteamiswithoutanopponent.Skalitzkasystemgivesapossibilitytofindarankingforthreeteamsbyplayingonlytworoundsandtoavoidthatateamhasnoopponent.Each teamhas tobe composedofanevennumberofplayers,allof them ranked ina fixedboardorder.Beforethepairingismadeoneteamismarkedbycapitalletters,thensecondonebysmalllettersandthethirdonebyfigures.Thenthepairingsare:round1 round2Aa 1Ab1 a22B BbCc 3Cd3 c4

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    4D DdEe 5Ef5 e66F Ff

    5.Othersystems.5.1 Matches

    Most matches between two players are played over a restricted number of games.Matchesmay be rated by FIDE if they are registered in advancewith FIDE and if bothplayersare ratedbefore thematch.Afteroneplayerhaswon thematchall subsequentgamesarenotrated.

    5.2 Knockout

    Themain advantage of a knockout system is to create a big finalmatch. The wholescheduleisknowninadvance.Mostlyaknockoutmatchconsistsoftwogames.Asitisnecessarytohaveaclearwinnerof each round another day for the tiebreak games has to be foreseen. Such tiebreakgamesusuallyareorganizedwithtworapidgamesfollowedbytwoorfourblitzgames.Ifstillthetie isunbrokenonefinalsuddendeathmatchshallbeplayed.Theplayingtimeshouldbe5minutesforWhiteand4minutesforBlack,orasimilarplayingtime.Whitehastowin thegame, forBlackadraw issufficient towin thematch.SeechapterTiebreakSystems.

    6.ComputerPairingProgramsendorsedbyFIDE:

    SwissMaster(NederlandseSchaakbond,NED)SwissManager(HeinzHerzog,AUT)WinSwiss(FranzJosefWeber,GER)VEGA(LuigiForlano,ITA)TurneringService(HaraldHeggelung,NOR)TournamentDirector(NeilHayward,ENG).

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    7.Manualcheckingofcomputerpairings

    Usingthedatafromthe11thEuropeanIndividualChessChampionship2010inRijeka,CroatiaChecklistforpairingsofround9ThepairingprogramusedisSwissManagerExplanationsofthecolumnsusedforchecking:Rk=rankColour=coloursinpreviousrounds,

    w=white,=blackC=colourinupcomingroundD=expectedcolourp=floaterdirectioninpenultimateroundl=floaterdirectioninlastroundCd=colourdifferenceSc=samecolourinarow

    Rk. SNo. ti Name Rtg. Pts Colour C D p l Cd Sc Opponentsacc.Rk5 12 GM AkopianVladimir 2688 6 wwww w W + 0 1 (11),3,16,81,91,94,125,177,2516 19 GM FressinetLaurent 2670 6 wwww 0 1 (13),42,51,78,98,128,172,193,304

    7 30 GM BerkesFerenc 2659 6 wwww w W 0 1 (12),16,54,83,87,91,136,152,259

    8 34 GM KhismatullinDenis 2657 6 wwww w W 0 1 (16),10,54,85,105,154,190,260,262

    9 36 GM TimofeevArtyom 2655 6 wwww w W 0 2 (17),1,21,52,85,105,136,145,263

    10 49 GM MamedovRauf 2639 6 wwww 0 1 (14),8,19,60,100,142,158,197,231

    11 58 GM VuckovicBojan 2630 6 wwww W + 0 1 (5),3,21,26,104,196,226,235,236

    12 62 GM MaciejaBartlomiej 2625 6 wwwww 2 1 (7),23,89,91,201,207,227,237,311

    13 79 GM LysyjIgor 2615 6 wwww w W 0 1 (6),19,58,59,108,166,170,206,312

    14 87 GM RodshteinMaxim 2609 6 wwww w W 0 1 (10),26,61,107,161,162,178,214,284

    15 89 GM PotkinVladimir 2606 6 wwww w W 0 1 (),23,25,27,57,63,164,218,285

    16 107 GM PopovValerij 2585 6 wwww 0 1 (8),5,7,68,71,72,223,291,321

    17 110 GM MelkumyanHrant 2582 6 wwwww 2 2 (9),2,28,32,57,70,117,212,294

    Wehave13playersinthisscoregroup,thereforeoneplayerwillremainunpairedandfloateddown.Itisnotpossibletogivewhitepiecestotheplayersranked12and17(Cd=2)andnottoplayersranked9and17(Sc=2for9and2for17).InS1aretheplayersranked5to10,inS2aretheplayersranked11to17.Theopponentdecidedbythepairingprogramisinthelastcolumnwithinbrackets.The expected colours are 8 white and 5 black, therefore one pairing must be made not fulfilling both colourpreferencesandthisisthefirstpairing5vs11.

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    TIEBREAKSYSTEMSIncasetwoormoreplayersfinishatournamentwithequalpointsanorganizermayeitherdeclarealltheseplayerstobetiedatthesamerankandtosharetheirprizesequallyortouseoneofthefollowingtiebreaksystemstoestablishthefinalranking.If there are prizeswhich cannot be divided in some parts, or if the final ranking decides anyqualification,thenitisnecessarytobreakthetie.AllTiebreak systemsneed playedgames togivea fair rankingbetween theplayers finishingwithequalpoints.Ifthereareunplayedgamestheyhavearesultof+,or=,andmainlynoopponentandnocolour.Thereforethefirstdecisionishowtohandletheseunplayedgames.0. Handlingofunplayedgamesfortiebreakcalculation0.1 Tiebreakpointsfortheopponentsofaplayer

    Ifaplayerachievedapointcomingfromabyeorifhehadascore+or,thenallthesescoreswillbecountedtobepointforcalculationoftiebreakpointsforhisopponents.

    0.2 TiebreakpointsfortheplayerhimselfForRoundRobinTournamentsanyunplayedgameshouldbecounted tobeadrawagainsttheplayerhimself.

    0.