Appendix 978-1-137-59613...آ  2017-08-28آ  2010 (%) 2014 (%) World 100 100 100 100 100 100...

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Transcript of Appendix 978-1-137-59613...آ  2017-08-28آ  2010 (%) 2014 (%) World 100 100 100 100 100 100...

  • 233© Th e Author(s) 2017 K. Verico, Th e Future of the ASEAN Economic Integration, DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-59613-0

    Appendix

    Table P.1 Share of regional trade fl ows (% of Merchandise Export) 2006

    Region North America

    South and Central America Europe

    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Africa

    Middle East Asia Total

    North America 53.9 6.4 16.6 0.5 1.3 2.5 18.7 100 South and

    Central America 31.4 25.9 20.1 1.4 2.6 1.8 14.4 100

    Europe 8.7 1.3 73.6 2.9 2.4 2.6 7.4 100 Commonwealth

    of Independent States (CIS)

    5.7 1.8 57.9 18.9 1.3 3.1 10.7 100

    Africa 22.0 3.1 40.8 0.4 9.0 1.7 20.0 100 Middle East 11.2 0.7 15.9 0.5 3.2 11.1 52.6 100 Asia 21.6 2.1 18.4 1.5 2.1 3.4 50.0 100

    Source : http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2007_e/its07_world_trade_ dev_e.htm , as of Table 1.5 accessed October 26, 2015

    http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2007_e/its07_world_trade_dev_e.htm http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2007_e/its07_world_trade_dev_e.htm

  • 234 Appendix

    Table P.2 World’s FDI infl ows (%) by host regions 1990–2014

    % FDI infl ows to world 1990 (%)

    1995 (%)

    2000 (%)

    2005 (%)

    2010 (%)

    2014 (%)

    World 100 100 100 100 100 100 European Union 47 38 50 49 27 21 North America 27 20 28 14 17 12 Africa 1 2 1 3 3 4 East Asia 3 12 4 10 9 11 South-East Asia 6 8 2 5 8 11 India 0 1 0 1 2 3 Australia and New Zealand 5 4 1 −3 3 4 Latin America and the Caribbean 4 9 6 8 10 13 Other Countries 6 6 8 14 21 20

    Source : Author’s calculation using UNCTAD, FDI/TNC database Note : European Union of 28 members, North America covers Canada and USA,

    East Asia covers China, Japan, and South Korea, and Southeast Asia covers all ten ASEAN members

    South-East Asia 1995 (%)

    2000 (%)

    2005 (%)

    2010 (%)

    2014 (%)

    Brunei Darussalam 2 2 1 0 0 Cambodia 1 1 1 1 1 Indonesia 15 −20 19 13 17 Lao PDR 0 0 0 0 1 Malaysia 20 17 9 9 8 Myanmar 1 0 0 6 1 Philippines 5 10 4 1 5 Singapore 42 69 42 52 51 Thailand 7 15 19 9 9 Vietnam 6 6 5 8 7

    Source : Author’s calculation using UNCTAD, FDI/TNC database

    Table P.3 FDI infl ows in ASEAN by host countries (%)

  • Appendix 235

    Table P.4 FDI infl ows to ASEAN countries by host country (%) 2014

    Country

    Share to total, 2014 Share to total net infl ow, 2014

    Intra- ASEAN

    Extra- ASEAN

    Total net infl ow

    Intra- ASEAN

    Extra- ASEAN

    Total net infl ow

    Brunei 0.6 0.4 0.4 24.9 75.1 100 Cambodia 1.5 1.2 1.3 21.6 78.4 100 Indonesia 55.2 7.9 16.4 60.4 39.6 100 Lao PDR 0.6 0.7 0.7 15.1 84.9 100 Malaysia 11.4 7.1 7.9 25.9 74.1 100 Myanmar 2.8 0.2 0.7 72.2 27.8 100 Philippines 0.3 5.5 4.6 1.3 98.7 100 Singapore 18.6 60.4 52.9 6.3 93.7 100 Thailand 2.7 9.7 8.5 5.7 94.3 100 Vietnam 6.3 6.8 6.8 16.8 83.2 100 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 17.9 82.1 100 ASEAN 6 1 88.8 91.0 90.6 17.5 82.5 100 CLMV 2 11.2 9.0 9.4 21.4 78.6 100

    Source : ASEAN Foreign Direct Investment Statistics Database as of May 26, 2015 on http://www.asean.org/news/item/foreign-direct-investment-statistics

    1 ASEAN 6 by alphabetical order are Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Singapore

    2 ASEAN 4 by alphabetical order are Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam

    http://www.asean.org/news/item/foreign-direct-investment-statistics

  • 236 Appendix

    Table 2.1 Selected variables, hypothesis, and sources of data model of AFTA analysis

    Independent variable

    Expected sign Source of data

    Aggregate FDI Infl ows for testing the impact of AFTA on Investment Creation

    1. Value of GDP (GDP)

    + 1. ADB Statistic

    2. Value of Consumption (CONS)

    + 2. ADB Statistic

    + 3. ADB Statistic (ADB Statistic &

    The World Bank – GDF)

    3. Percentage of Economic Growth (GR)

    + 4. ADB Statistic Intra-Regional

    Trade (IRT) for testing the impact of AFTA on trade creation

    4. Number of Population (POP)

    + 5. ADB Statistic

    5. Number of Employed Worker (EMPL)

    ARIC, the ADB, for calculation IMTP & country level (adapted from Verico, 2007)

    + 6. The World Bank (World Development Indicator/WDI)

    6. Government Expenditure on Education (EDU)

    + 7. The WB (WDI)

    + 8. WTO Statistic 7. Electricity

    Consumption (ELECONS)

    + 9. ADB Statistic

    − 10. ADB Statistic and IMF (Country Economic Outlook)

  • Appendix 237

    Independent variable

    Expected sign Source of data

    8. Degree of Openness (DOO)

    + 11. The World Bank (Global Development Finance: Profi t Remittance on FDI in US$)

    9. Real Wage (RW)

    10. Exchange Rate (ER)

    11. FDI Profi t (FDIPROFIT)

    + 12. Own calculation based on ARIC, the ADB Dataset and WTO Statistic

    + 13. Year of signature (1992)

    12. Intra-Regional Trade

    + 14. Year of fi rst signature BFTA (Malaysia:2004; Thailand:2005 & Indonesia:2006)

    13. Dummy AFTA 14. Dummy BFTA

    Source : Author’s Hypotheses

    Table 2.1 (continued)

  • 238 Appendix

    Table 3.1 BFTAs of fi ve ASEAN founding members and ASEAN+3 members 2010

    Country BFTA

    China Mexico (1999), ASEAN (2003), Australia, Costa Rica, Peru (2010), Singapore (2009), Pakistan (2007), India (2007), Hong Kong (2004), Macao (2004), Chile (2006), New Zealand (2008)

    Japan ASEAN (2008), Indonesia (2008), Philippines (2008), Malaysia (2006), Thailand (2007), Singapore (2006), Vietnam (2009), Brunei (2008), Mexico (2005), Chile (2007), Switzerland (2009)

    South Korea ASEAN, Singapore (2006), India, EFTA (2006), Chile (2004), Peru, USA

    Singapore China, Japan (2002), South Korea (2006), India (2005), Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Australia (2003), EFTA (2003) Chile, Jordan (2006), Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, New Zealand (2001), Australia (2003), Panama(2006), Peru (2009), USA (2004)

    Malaysia Japan (2006), Pakistan (2008) Thailand Japan (2007), Australia (2005), India, Peru, New Zealand (2005),

    Singapore, Laos (1991) Philippines Japan (2006) Indonesia Japan (2008)

    Source : Author’s identifi cation based on http://www.worldtradelaw.net/fta/ ftadatabase/ftas.asp , http://rtais.wto.org/UI/PublicAllRTAList.aspx

    Table 3.2 Selected variables, hypothesis, and sources of data model of BFTA analysis

    Dependent variable Independent variable

    Expected sign Source of data

    FDI Infl ows at country level for testing BFTA impact on Investment Creation in own country

    1. Value of GDP (GDP)

    + 1. ADB Statistic

    2. Value of Consumption (CONS)

    + 2. ADB Statistic

    3. Percentage of Economic Growth (GR)

    + 3. ADB Statistic

    4. Number of Population (POP)

    + 4. ADB Statistic

    (ADB Statistic & The World Bank – GDF)

    5. Number of Employed Worker (EMPL)

    + 5. ADB Statistic

    http://www.worldtradelaw.net/fta/ftadatabase/ftas.asp http://www.worldtradelaw.net/fta/ftadatabase/ftas.asp http://rtais.wto.org/UI/PublicAllRTAList.aspx

  • Appendix 239

    Dependent variable Independent variable

    Expected sign Source of data

    6. Government Expenditure on Education (EDU)

    + 6. The World Bank (World Development Indicator/WDI)

    7. Electricity Consumption (ELECONS)

    + 7. The WB (WDI)

    8. Degree of Openness (DOO)

    + 8. WTO Statistic

    9. Real Wage (RW) + 9. ADB Statistic 10. Exchange Rate

    (ER) - 10. ADB Statistic and

    IMF (Country Economic Outlook)

    11. FDI Profi t (FDIPROFIT)

    + 11. The World Bank (Global Development Finance/GDF)

    12. Intra-Regional Trade (IRT) at country level

    + 12. Verico, 2007

    13. Dummy BFTA + 13. Year of fi rst BFTA’s signature (Malaysia: 2004; Thailand: 2005, Indonesia: 2006)

    14. Dummy AFTA + 14. Comprehensive implementation of AFTA is in 1999 (Nesadurai 2003)

    Source : Author’s hypotheses

    Table 3.2 (continued)

  • 240 Appendix

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