AP Environmental Science Chapter 1 Environmental Problems, Causes, and Sustainability

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Transcript of AP Environmental Science Chapter 1 Environmental Problems, Causes, and Sustainability

  • Slide 1
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 1 Environmental Problems, Causes, and Sustainability
  • Slide 2
  • Exponential vs. Linear Exponential growth is currently occurring with our population doubles quickly, sneaky 6.2 billion another billion in 12 - 15 years (from 2000) Linear growth is obvious straight line
  • Slide 3
  • Types of growth J-curve, exponential growth Linear growth
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Solar and Earth Capital Solar - energy 99% Earth - resources, support systems climate control air and water purification recycling matter (iron, sulfur, nitrogen, etc.) renewable energy renewable matter resources Pest and disease control and more.
  • Slide 6
  • Sustainability Are we living sustainably? A sustainable society manages its economy and population size without exceeding all or part of the planets ability to absorb environmental insults, replenish its resources, and sustain human and other forms of life over a specific period (usually a human lifetime of 100 years)
  • Slide 7
  • Carrying Capacity The maximum size of a population an area can support and maintain over a period of time Carrying capacity of the Earth for people is around 12 billion. What may affect that number?
  • Slide 8
  • Fig. 1.1, p. 2 16 15 14 13 12 11 Billions of people ? ? ? 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2-5 million years 8000600040002000 2100 Hunting and gathering Black Deaththe Plague Time Industrial revolution Agricultural revolution B.C.A.D.
  • Slide 9
  • World Population reached 1 billion in 1804 2 billion in 1927 (123 years later) 3 billion in 1960 (33 years later) 4 billion in 1974 (14 years later) 5 billion in 1987 (13 years later) 6 billion in 1999 (12 years later) World Population May Reach 7 billion in 2013 (14 years later) 8 billion in 2028 (15 years later) 9 billion in 2054 (26 years later) Fig. 1.3, p. 5
  • Slide 10
  • Doubling Time Rule of 70 divide 70 by the percent growth rate and you will find how long it takes the population to double. 70/1.43(current growth rate approx.) = 49 years (we started counting in 2000)
  • Slide 11
  • Populations and Economy Developed - highly industrialized 20% population, 85% wealth, 88% resources, 75% pollution and waste, high GNP per capita Developing - low to moderate industrialization 80% population, 15% wealth, 12% resources, 15% pollution and waste, low GNP per capita
  • Slide 12
  • Resources Renewable - can be replenished in a lifetime (wind) Potentially renewable - can be renewable if we change our current habits (soil) Nonrenewable - only a fixed amount on Earth (minerals)
  • Slide 13
  • Fig. 1.11, p. 11 Resources PerpetualNonrenewable Renewable Fresh air Fresh water Fertile soil Plants and animals (biodiversity) Direct solar energy Winds, tides, flowing water Fossil fuels Metallic minerals Non- metallic minerals (iron, copper, aluminum) (clay, sand, phosphates)
  • Slide 14
  • United States The Netherlands India Country Per Captia Ecological Footprint (Hectares of land per person) 10.9 5.9 1.0 Fig. 1.10a, p. 11
  • Slide 15
  • Country Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares) United States The Netherlands India 3 billion hectares 94 million hectares 1 billion hectares Fig. 1.10b, p. 11
  • Slide 16
  • Major Environmental Degradation to Potentially Renewable Resources Urbanization Salinization of soil Wetland destruction Groundwater depletion Livestock overgrazing Poor soil management Deforestation Pollution Reduction of biodiversity
  • Slide 17
  • Time Production rate of resource Area under curve equals the total amount of the resource. Economic depletion (80% used up) Fig. 1.12, p. 13
  • Slide 18
  • Pollutants Point source vs. nonpoint source concentration - ppm, ppb, ppt persistence - degradable, slowly degradable (DDT) or nondegradable $Always less expensive to prevent, instead of trying to clean up.
  • Slide 19
  • Causes of Environmental Problems Rapid population growth wasteful use of resources degradation of earths life support systems poverty failure to encourage environmentally and economically sustainable growth lack of full cost pricing human urge to conquer mother nature
  • Slide 20
  • Air Pollution Global climate change Stratospheric ozone depletion Urban air pollution Acid deposition Outdoor pollutants Indoor pollutants Noise Biodiversity Depletion Habitat destruction Habitat degradation Extinction Water Pollution Sediment Nutrient overload Toxic chemicals Infectious agents Oxygen depletion Pesticides Oil spills Excess heat Waste Production Solid waste Hazardous waste Food Supply Problems Overgrazing Farmland loss and degradation Wetlands loss and degradation Overfishing Coastal pollution Soil erosion Soil salinization Soil waterlogging Water shortages Groundwater depletion Loss of biodiversity Poor nutrition Major Environmental Problems Fig. 1.13, p. 14
  • Slide 21
  • Major Environmental Problems Air Pollution Water Pollution Biodiversity Depletion Food Supply Problems Waste Production
  • Slide 22
  • Rapid population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works Fig. 1.14, p. 15
  • Slide 23
  • Developing Countries Population (P) Consumption per person (affluence, A) Technological impact per unit of consumption (T) Environmental impact of population (I) Developed Countries X X X XX X= = = Fig. 1.15, p. 15
  • Slide 24
  • What needs to happen to be sustainable Switch to pollution prevention, not cleanup switch to waste prevention and recycling protecting habitats instead of species environmental restoration of degraded areas lower resource use (less wasteful) ZPG - stabilized population