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  • Solar Photovoltaics and RenewableEnergyChallenges and Solutions for Grid Integration

    Antonis Marinopoulos, ABB Corporate Research PSL, AUTh, 2014-04-14

  • Some words about the speaker

    Antonis Marinopoulos, PhD Education: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

    5-year Diploma in Electrical and Computer Engineering (2003)

    PhD in Power Systems Impact of PV penetration into distribution grid (losses, powerquality) (2009)

    Senior Scientist, ABB Corporate Research, Sweden

    Wind power systems modeling and control (2010)

    Transients in off-shore wind cables (2011)

    Synchronous generator inter-turn fault protection (2010)

    Smart grids (2010)

    Large solar PV power systems (2011-)

    Future European transmission network (2010-2012)

    Innovative substation concepts (2012-13)

    Areas of special interest:

    Grid integration of renewables, PV system modeling and design optimization,distributed generation, energy storage

    23 April 2014 | Slide 2

    ABB Group

  • Short presentation of ABB R&D Center

    Renewable Energy Sources and PV Systems Introduction to RES

    PV system applications

    PV system components, design and metrics

    ABB in solar PV

    Future PV plant designs

    Grid Integration issues of PV Technical challenges and Grid Codes

    Policy and market issues

    ABB solutions on Grid Integration

    Energy storage solutions

    Future Vision

    Overview of the presentation

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 3

  • Short presentation of ABB

  • A global leader in power and automation technologiesLeading market positions in main businesses

    ~150,000 employees in more than 100countries

    $43 billion in revenue (2013)

    Formed in 1988 as a merger of Swiss(BBC, 1891) and Swedish (ASEA, 1883)engineering companies

    Publicly owned company with head officein Switzerland

    ABB R&D: More than $1.5 billion investedannually, 8,000 scientists and engineers,collaboration with 70+ Universities

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 5

  • Power and productivity for a better worldABBs vision

    As one of the worlds leading engineering companies, wehelp our customers to use electrical power efficiently, toincrease industrial productivity and to lower environmentalimpact in a sustainable way.

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 6

  • How ABB is organizedFive global divisions

    Ultrahigh, highand mediumvoltage products(switchgear,capacitors, )

    Distributionautomation

    Transformers

    Electricals,automation andcontrol for powergeneration

    Transmissionsystems andsubstations

    Networkmanagement

    Control systemsand application-specificautomationsolutions forprocessindustries

    Machines

    Motors

    Drives

    Robotics

    Contactors

    Instrumentation

    Panels

    Soft-starters

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 7

  • Research centers close to talent and customer base

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 8

  • Global Lab and Research Programs structure

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 9

    MechanicsMechanics

    ElectromagneticsElectromagnetics

    ControlControl

    SoftwareSoftware

    Power electronicsPower electronics

    CommunicationCommunication

    MaterialsMaterials

    SensorsSensors

    SwitchingSwitching

    ABB Corporate Research

    Local LabsLocal Labs Research AreasResearch AreasResearch AreasResearch Areas

    Baden-Dttwil

    Vsters/Oslo

    Ladenburg

    Krakow

    Raleigh/NC

    Bangalore

    Beijing/Shanghai

    Global Research LabAutomation and Power Technologies

  • ABB Group R&D, Scandinavian Research Center

    Measure

    Simulation

    Vsters

    PhD

    MSc

    Lic.

    BSc

    HSE

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 10

    n ~280 Employees (+ 50 temp)>50% PhD and above10 Adjunct Professors~50 nationalities

    n Extensive Laboratory FacilitiesSupporting research and prototyping of results

    n More than 12,000 m2 laboratory facilities

    n In-house PowerfulComputer Simulation Capacityn For multi-physics simulations

  • Research focus areas in CRC Scandinavia

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 11

    Grid connected power electronics Drives and power electronic

    applications Electrical machines Switching apparatus Transformer physics Electrical insulation systems

    Modeling and optimization ofindustrial processes & systems

    Mechatronics and robotics design Wired and wireless

    communication networks Embedded systems design Software architecture User Experience and interaction

    Calculations in solid and structure mechanics Mechanical properties of materials of materials and components Earthquake simulation of complex structures Chemical analysis Corrosion and surface treatment

    Automation Power

    Technology support

  • Renewable Energy Sources and PVSystems

  • Renewable energy sources

    PV system applications

    PV system main components

    PV modules and technologies,inverters, rest of Balance of Systems

    PV system design and evaluation

    Design and O&M issues, evaluationmetrics

    ABB solutions on solar PV

    Converters, transformers,switchgear, PV plants

    Future concepts for Utility scale PVplants

    RES and PV SystemsOutline

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 13

    http://stage-www.abb.com/global/gad/gad02477.nsf/vwImages/45A922AA0375285FC12575050048AD4A/$File/CE2U9132_dark02b.jpg

  • Why renewable energy?Increasing energy demand

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 14

    Securing affordableenergy to supporteconomicdevelopment

    The economicdevelopment ofemerging economiesdrives the increase ofenergy demand

    Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2012

  • Why renewable energy?Sizeable contribution to CO2 emissions reduction

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 15

    World energy-related CO2 savings potential by policy measureunder 450 Policy Scenario relative to Current Policies Scenario

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    2008 20352020

    *Carbon capture and storage

    CO2 emissions (Gt)

    Current trend2020 2035

    Efficiency 73% 47%

    Renewables 15% 23%

    Biofuels 2% 4%

    Nuclear 5% 8%

    CCS* 4% 17%

    450 PolicyScenario

    Source: IEA, World Energy Outlook 2012

  • Wind Power Hydro Power Solar Power

    Geothermal Power Biomass Wave/Tidal

    Renewable Energy SourcesOverview

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 16

  • Renewable Energy SourcesSolar Technologies

    Photovoltaic (PV) Converts solar irradiation directly into electricity typically using a

    silicon based semi-conductive material Only the absorbed irradiation generates electricity

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) CSP technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight

    onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heatthrough a medium i.e. water

    This thermal energy can then be used to generate electricity in asteam turbine or heat engine coupled to a generator

    CSP is applicable in high DNI regions

    Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Large area of solar irradiation is focused onto the solar cell with the

    help of an optical device Requires direct solar irradiation rather than diffused irradiation, so

    also beneficial in high DNI regions

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 17

  • Renewable Energy SourcesABB in solar

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 18

    1998: ABB supplies thecontrol system for the firstDirect solar steam loop at

    Plataforma solar deAlmeria, Spain

    ISCC: Integrated Solar Combined CycleEPC: Engineering, Procurement and Commissioning

    2011: Acquisition ofPowercorp, leader in theintegration of renewableenergies into microgrids

    More than 890 MWp of PVplants installed, either asan EPC contractor or as a

    balance of systemcomponent supplier

    2010: ABB supplies thecontrol system for the firstof its kind Integrated SolarCombined Cycle (ISCC)plant in Kuraymat, Egypt

    ABB is the largest lowvoltage component

    supplier to leading invertermanufacturers

    More than 500 MWac ofcentral solar inverters and

    Megawatt stationsinstalled worldwide

    2013: Acquisition ofPower-One, 2nd largest

    solar inverter manufacturerglobally

  • PV System ApplicationsOverview and Applications

    PV: Utility

    CSP

    PV:Commercial

    PV:Residential

    Integration ofrenewables into the grid

    Microgrids

    PV:Commercial

    On-gridapplications

    Off-gridapplications

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 19

  • PV System Main ComponentsMain Components

    PV

    Mod

    ules Convertingsunlight to DC

    electric power Comprising of PV

    cells based onsemiconductortechnology

    PV

    Inve

    rters Converting theDC power of PV

    modules to AC Performing

    MPPT Connecting PV to

    grid Providing basic

    monitoring andancillary services

    23 April 2014

    ABB Group

    | Slide 20

  • PV System Main Components

    Monocrystalline Homogeneous crystal structure silicon (wafer) Commercial module efficiency: 18-20%

    Polycrystalline Heterogeneous crystal structure silicon (wafer) Commercial module efficiency: 14-16%

    Thin-film: CIGS Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Commercial module efficiency: 11.5-13%

    Thin-film: CdTe Cadmium Telluride Commercial