Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2001 · PDF file3 Title of...

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Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2001 and inventory report 2003 Submission to the UNFCCC secretariat Prepared by Bernd Gugele, Kati Huttunen and Manfred Ritter European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change With input from European Commission (Eurostat, Joint Research Centre) Project managers: André Jol, Andreas Barkman European Environment Agency Technical report 95
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    Annual European Communitygreenhouse gas inventory 19902001

    and inventory report 2003

    Submission to the UNFCCC secretariat

    Prepared byBernd Gugele, Kati Huttunen and Manfred Ritter

    European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change

    With input fromEuropean Commission (Eurostat,

    Joint Research Centre)

    Project managers:Andr Jol, Andreas Barkman

    European Environment Agency

    Technical report 95

  • 2 Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 19902001 and inventory report 2003

    Layout: Brandenborg a/s

    Legal noticeThe contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the European Commission or other European Communities institutions. Neither the European Environment Agency nor any person or company acting on behalf of the Agency is responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.

    A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int)

    EEA, Copenhagen, 2003

    Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

    ISBN: 92-9167-521-0

    European Environment AgencyKongens Nytorv 6DK-1050 Copenhagen KTel. (45) 33 36 71 00Fax (45) 33 36 71 99E-mail: [email protected]: http://www.eea.eu.int

  • 3

    Title of inventory Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 19902001 and inventory report 2003

    Contact names Jos Delbeke, Lars Mller (Environment DG)Andr Jol, Andreas Barkman (EEA), Manfred Ritter, Bernd Gugele, Kati Huttunen (ETC/ACC)

    Organisation European Commission, Environment DGEuropean Environment Agency (EEA)

    European Commission address European CommissionDirectorate-General for the EnvironmentBU9 5/163B-1049 BrusselsBelgium

    Fax (32-2) 296 99 70

    Phone (32-2) 299 05 65

    E-mail [email protected]

    European Environment Agency address Kongens Nytorv 6DK-1050 CopenhagenDenmark

    Phone (45) 33 36 71 00

    Fax (45) 33 36 71 99

    E-mail [email protected]@eea.eu.int

  • 4 Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 19902001 and inventory report 2003

    Contents

    Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    2. Summary of emission- and removal-related trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    3. Overview of source and sink category emission estimates and trends . . 7

    4. Information on indirect greenhouse gas and sulphur dioxide emissions . 8

    1. Introduction to the European Community greenhouse gas inventory . . . . . . . 10

    1.1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.2. A description of the institutional arrangements for inventory preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    1.3. A description of the process of inventory preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    1.4. A general description of methodologies and data sources used . . . . . . 15

    1.5. A description of key source categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    1.6. Information on the quality assurance and quality control plan . . . . . . . . 17

    1.7. General uncertainty evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    1.8. General assessment of the completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    1.9. Differences between European Community submissions and Member State submissions in 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    2. European Community greenhouse gas emission trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.1. Aggregated greenhouse gas emission trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.2. Greenhouse gas emission trends by gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    2.3. Greenhouse gas emission trends by source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    2.4. Greenhouse gas emission trends by Member State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    2.5. Emission trends for indirect greenhouse gases and sulphur dioxide . . . 32

    3. Energy (CRF Sector 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    3.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    3.1. Methodological issues and uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    3.3. Sector-specific quality assurance and quality control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    3.4. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    3.5. Comparison between the sectoral approach and the reference approach 42

    3.6. International bunker fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    4. Industrial processes (CRF Sector 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    4.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    4.2. Methodological issues and uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    4.3. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    5. Solvent and other product use (CRF Sector 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    5.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    5.2. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

  • Contents 5

    6. Agriculture (CRF Sector 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    6.1. Overview of the sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    6.2. Methodological issues and uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    6.3. Sector-specific quality assurance and quality control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    6.4. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    7. Land-use change and forestry (CRF Sector 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    7.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    7.2. Sector-specific quality assurance and quality control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    7.3. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    8. Waste (CRF Sector 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    8.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    8.2. Methodological issues and uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    8.3. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    9. Other (CRF Sector 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    9.1. Overview of sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    9.2. Sector-specific recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    10. Recalculations and improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    10.1. Explanations and justifications for recalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    10.2. Implications for emission levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    10.3. Implications for emission trends, including series consistency . . . . . . . . 74

    10.4. Recalculations, including in response to the review process, and planned improvements to the inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    Units and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    Annexes: (all annexes are published on CD-ROM and the EEA website only)

    Annex 1: Key sources of the European Community

    Annex 2: CRF Tables of the European Community

    Annex 3: Status Reports

    Annex 4: CRF Tables Summary 1.A for the EC Member States

    Annex 5: Member States CRF Tables including Member States inventory reports

  • 6 Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 19902001 and inventory report 2003

    Executive summary

    1. Background information on greenhouse gas inventories and climate change

    The European Community, as a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reports annually on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories within the area covered by its Member States.

    The legal basis for the compilation of the EC inventory is Council Decision 99/296/EC amending Council Decision 93/389/EC for a monitoring mechanism of Community carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions (1). The purpose of this decision is to monitor all anthropogenic GHG emissions not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in the Member States and to evaluate progress towards meeting GHG reductio