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    Annotated Bibliography

    Before the bombing:

    Books:Allen, Thomas B. Remember Pearl Harbor: American and Japanese Survivors Tell TheirStories. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2001. Print.

    From this book, we learned that America was friends with China, so when Japaninvaded China, Japan became Americas enemy. Germany had been allies withJapan, and Germany allowed Japan to take over the Pacific colonies. When theAmericans realized, Franklin D. Roosevelt moved US Navys Pacific Fleet fromCalifornia to Pearl Harbor. Later, Japanese troops went into Indochina, and theUS cut off all oil exports from the US and China to Japan. So, Admiral IsorokuYamamoto thought that if Japan were to attack the US Navy ships, then the USwould have to surrender, negotiate, and let Japan extend its empire and get its

    oil. During the attack on December 7, 1941, Mitsuo Fuchida sent out twomessages: to and ra, which meant to launch the attack and that the attackselement of surprise was successful, respectively. The main targets of the attackwere the Navy battleships Nevada, Arizona, Tennessee, West Virginia,Maryland, Oklahoma, and California. Kazuo Sakamaki and Chief WarrantKiyoshi Inagaki were in a midget submarine, which was caught in a coral reef.As a result, Kiyoshi drowned while trying to swim to shore, and Kazuo becamethe first American prisoner of war.

    Davenport, John. The Attack on Pearl Harbor: The United States Enters World War II.New York: Chelsea House, 2009. Print.

    This book helped give us a better understanding of what events preceded theJapanese bombing Pearl Harbor. To begin, Japan was in war with Russia, calledthe Russo-Japanese War, during the years 1904 and 1905. Observing theJapanese militarys tactics and skills, US president Franklin D. Rooseveltadmired the Japanese. However, the majority of the US did not. Japaneseimmigrants were discriminated against. In fact, some of the Japanese Americanswere forced to go to school with the Chinese rather than the Caucasians. In fearof war, Roosevelt tried to end this discrimination against Japanese. Japan, inreturn, agreed to discourage its people from moving to America. Despite thisnegotiation, resentment lingered. Consequently, both Japan and the USanticipated war. America had it War Plan Orange while Japan had its plan ofattacking Hawaii, specifically Pearl Harbor. Looking back at World War I, bothJapan and America had come out as winners. As well as both being champions,both empires were looking to expand their influence over China and trade withthem. Since the first world war weakened any other non-Asian rivalries, it wasonly America against Japan in terms of gaining trade-control over China. Soon,Japan was gaining influence over China. Despite China being upset with theTwenty-One Demands placed on them by Japan and Americas objections, China

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    gave Japan full economic and military power over itself in May, 1915. Although,right after World War I, there was some settlement between Japan and the US,there was none during the 1920s and 1930s. Soon, there would be war in Asiaand Europe.Nevertheless, Japan and America sought accommodation between themselves in

    hope of preventing war. Eventually, however, their influence over the Pacificwas expanding to a point of near collision. As a result, the US was deciding overhow to limit Japan, specifically by the use of weapons. In the meantime, Japanwas concerned with the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. In this agreement,Japan felt that they didnt earn enough from having contributed in defeatingGermany in World War I. While the US and Britain earned 500,000 tons worthof ships, Japan only received 300,000 tons, and Japan felt insulted. For the statusit would give, Japan wanted equality with the US and Britain. They felt that thisinequality was US hostility. Rather accurately, as future events have shown,Brigadier General Billy Mitchel predicted that Japan would put a surprise attackon Pearl Harbor. Planning for the attack, Japanese naval officer Isoroku

    Yamamoto proposed that torpedoes, dropped from airplanes, should attack theAmerican warships at Pearl Harbor. Throughout the 1920s, the US and Japanmonitored each other. While America tried to break Japans military code, Japan

    tried to learn about the U.S. During this time period, Japan began to think aboutbeing Asias dominant power. Because they had gained some control over China,Japan was able to use China as its food source. Soon, China became the center ofJapans foreign policy. By having military control in China, Japan had the abilityto fight any American military forces trying to gain Asian lands. Using their onlyavailable weapon to fight against Japans ambitions, US Congress put an

    embargo on Japan on exports of high grade scrap metals and high-octane fuel forJapan.

    Internet:"A Japanese View of the Race Issue at the Paris Peace Conference." A Japanese View ofthe Race Issue at the Paris Peace Conference. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

    This website tells us the view of the Japanese on the League of Nations. OnFebruary 15, the first draft of the compact of the League of Nations was acceptedby the Peace Congress at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. It was noted that,on February 13, Japan suggested adding an article that would abolish racialdiscrimination, but the Peace Conference dismissed the idea without giving Japana hearing. This was rather disappointing for the Japanese. When America statedthat peace can only exist between equals, Japan felt that, unsure about Britainscurrent position on the matter, America might listen to their proposal of addingthe article. However, Japan was disappointed once again when America offeredno encouragement for their proposed article. For the Japanese, it was importantthat this article be included. By the agreement among the Occidental Powers, orWestern Powers, cant encourage Japanese immigration to other countries. Their

    population was immense and was growing at an average rate of 400,000 per year.Issues concerning food supply was becoming increasingly serious. European

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    countries, on the other hand, have the ability to encourage emigration. The onlything that Japan wanted was fair treatment for Japanese immigrants moving to thewestern countries.

    Albertson, Mark. "Dec. 7 Has Importance beyond Pearl Harbor Attack." Hour, 3 Dec. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2013.

    The Japanese plan of worldwide expansion, titled Hakku-Ichiu, means literallybringing the eight corners of the world under one roof. This plan was not unlikethe Germans ideas. The embargo the United States placed on Japan impeded the

    Hakku-Ichiu, and so the Japanese became more aggressive towards the U.S.

    "FDR and Pearl Harbor." FDR and Pearl Harbor - Pearlharbor.pdf. N.p., n.d. Web. 21Nov. 2013.

    This article contained helpful information regarding why the bombing happened.During the 1930s, the Japanese invaded China, which the United States did notlike. The US responded by trying a numerous amount of different strategies todeter Japan. In the July of 1941 when Japan conquered French Indochina,president Roosevelt decided to place an embargo on Japan for oil. As theJapanese military depended heavily on America for oil, they were in a hugecrisis. At this point, the Japanese had two choices. One was to capture more ofSoutheast Asia, where there was more oil, but the Americans would oppose. Thesecond choice was to go to war with the US. After deciding on the latter option,the Japanese kept their secret safe, hoping that the surprise attack on PearlHarbor would weaken the Americans.In a letter from Franklin D. Roosevelt to his good friend, he addressed theconcerns of what would happen to Britain if the US was at war with theJapanese. The issue was that if America placed all its military strength in thegoal to defeat the Japanese, then Britain would have less of Americas help andmight lose the European wars. However, Roosevelt confidently assured hisfriend that the British were very strong and didnt need the United States to assistthem. In another letter, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the US Secretary of the Treasury,estimated the number of oil barrels Japan needed for a full-scale war to be forty-one million barrels a year.

    "How Roosevelt Attacked Japan at Pearl Harbor." How Roosevelt Attacked Japan atPearl Harbor. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    This website helped us understand more about how the president, Franklin D.Roosevelt, was involved in the bombing of Pearl Harbor. When deciding who toblame for the bombing, certain critics called the Pearl Harbor revisionistsbelieved it was the presidents fault. Their goal seemed to have been to make the

    nation know that Roosevelt tried to make the Japanese leaders attack so that theUS would have a reason to join the European conflict. However, in reality, the

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    presidents goal was to find a way to stop Japan from making certain actions.

    While the president was rather forceful and aggressive in the Atlantic, he wasmore willing to hold back in the Pacific. Consequently, he ignored numerouscabinet members, including Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, whosuggested that the US stop sending oil shipments to Japan. Roosevelt felt that

    this would hurt their opportunity at getting Japan to join their side and neutralizeIndochina as a country. In response to Japans unresponsiveness, Roosevelt frozeall of Japans valuable items situated in the US. Although the president didnt

    reveal his intentions or reasons, it was understood that a complete trade embargowas placed on Japan, ending the sending of oil shipments. Soon, Rooseveltlearned that using the strategy of patience only aggravated the Japaneses

    aggressiveness. Revising his tactics, the president began sending late responsesto the Japanese which, ultimately, threatened the US, as seen by the USgovernment.The Pearl Harbor revisionists always wanted to display Roosevelt as being abad president. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimsons diary for November 25,

    1941, showed that Roosevelt wanted Japan to fire at the US without them beinghurt. The revisionists have tried to portray Roosevelt as being a president tryingto bring Japan into war. However, this is not true, since Japan had turned to apolicy of force, which they had created on their own with no help from thepresident. The US operation Magic was making translations and interceptingJapanese diplomatic messages. However, issues with lack of personnel andseveral procedures that had to be followed through. Despite some claims, themessages being sent between Japanese bases gave no information about tacticsor strategies, only foreign policies. There was no hint whatsoever about an attackon Hawaii. on December 7. Regulating it about a year before the attack, it waslearned that Japan was interested in ships moving in and out of Pearl Harbor.Japan was very interested in vital information in other areas as well, includingmajor West Coast posts in the US and Canada, the Philippines, Southeast Asia,consisting of the Dutch East Indies, and Panama Canal. Sent on September 24, inTelegram Number 83, Japan told a spy agent in Honolulu to put Pearl Harborinto five distinct regions and report if there are at least two watercrafts linedalong the same dock. Rather late, this telegram was interpreted by theintelligence czarMagic on October 9. While two men in Washington wereconcerned about the telegram, their troubles were dismissed. Important hints andclues in this telegram were not detected by important military and naval officialsin the War Plans and Intelligence Divisions in Washington. As a result, vitalinformation was not given to commanders in the field who should have beennotified at once. Sending a message to Winston Churchill, Roosevelt displayedthat he knew that danger was nearing, and that they must prepare. When USSecretary of State Cordell Hull handed the famous note of November 26 to anambassador in Japan, the Japanese rejected Americas proposal and found it tobe humiliating. When a committee of the Congress in 1945 asked Hull about theeffect of the note of November 26, Hull was enraged about the idea that his notebegan the war. On December 3, 1941, Roosevelt made the rather validobservation that the Japanese were stalling until they were ready. After having

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    received a message from the Japanese government stating that they cant acceptHulls proposal, Roosevelt knew that it meant war. Had Roosevelt not died in the

    spring of 1945, he would have been able to deny the ideas the Pearl Harborrevisionists proposed. Legally, the arguments of the revisionists were neitherclear nor convincing, so they should have been rejected. Moreover, the bombing

    of Pearl Harbor was only one part of the Japaneses armys offensive. The attackon the Philippines would have brought the US into war with Japan even if thebombing on Pearl Harbor had not taken place. However, the bombing was thelast straw for the US. Roosevelt simply could not have known that the Japanesearmy had chosen Hawaii as one of its major targets, nor how the Japanese weregoing to deal with the unresolved argument with the US.

    Kawabata, Tai. "Pearl Harbor: Memo Sheds Light on Japan's Failure to Make a'declaration' of War | The Japan Times." Japan Times RSS. The Japan Times, 6 Dec.1999. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    In this article, Tai Kawabata explores the idea that Japan had purposely sent thedeclaration of war to America late, contrary to popular belief. Kawabata saysthat the memorandum sent to the US contained many garbled and missing words,whichhe believes is one of Japans waysto try to be as indirect and secretive in tellingthe US about the war. Also, in addition to the slow Japanese typers, Japaninsisted that the memorandum was to be sent a day after the attack happened.This website helped us to understand what factors other than timing led toJapans attack on Pearl Harbor being labeled as a sneak-attack. Professor TakeoIguchi stated that the memorandum that was sent from Japan to Cordell Hull wasconstructed to try to deceive not only the US government but also the Japaneseembassy working there. The professor discovered the Draft Final Memorandumof the Imperial Government Addressed to the US Government, dated for

    December 3, 1941. It stated that Japan was ending its negotiations with the USand was entering into war. He reasoned that, had this document been sent ontime, the US government could not call the attack on Pearl Harbor to be a sneak-attack. The draft dated for December 5 was less explicit, and the US would nothave been able to understand that Japan was going to attack. The third draftdisplayed that Japan was trying to avoid telling the US that they were endingtheir negotiation. The final document that was sent to Hull was only a slight bitdifferent from the draft of December 5. Iguchi also found the Confidential WarDiary, which displayed that, while Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto wanted to sendan advanced warning of military action to the US, the army and navy made nointention to do so. This, Iguchi noted, proved the popular theory that the navywas not given a voice in this matter to be false. Japan tried to frame the JapaneseEmbassy for having deceived the US by having two diplomats, Nomura andKurusu, deliver the memorandum rather than Togo. In the final memorandumthat was sent it was not very clear that Japan was terminating their negotiationswith the US and entering war.

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    "Pearl Harbor: A Rude Awakening." BBC News. BBC, 30 Mar. 2001. Web. 24 Nov.2013.

    The Japanese thought that they deserved to be the ruler of Asia because of racial

    superiority. Although evidence pointed towards war between the United Statesand Japan, America was still poorly prepared for the bombing of Pearl Harbor.After all, the US had even cracked Japans diplomatic code and could decode the

    message extremely quickly. A theory as to why this may be says that presidentRoosevelt actually wanted to join World War II, but had no solid reason to. TheJapanese bombing provided an excuse for the problem, similar to a backdoor forthe US into the war.

    "Pearl Harbor Articles & Newspapers." Pearl Harbor Newspaper. N.p., n.d. Web. 25

    Nov. 2013.This website helped us understand the events leading up to the attack on PearlHarbor better. During the 1930s, people in the US began feeling resentmentagainst the Japanese, mostly due to how the Japanese were fighting a ratherbloody war in China and how they destroyed a US Navy gunboat. The US,Britain, East Indies, and the Netherlands all decided to put an embargo of oil andsteel on Japan. This embargo caused a major issue in Japan. Congress declaredwar on December 11, when Japans allies of Germany and Italy declared war onthe US. On January 27, 1941, the US ambassador for Japan reported toWashington that the Japanese were planning an attack on Pearl Harbor, butnobody was willing to believe it. On November 27, 1941, Admiral Kimmel and

    General Short received a warning from Washington stating that the Japanesewere planning on attacking the US in the Pacific. On December 8, 1941,Congress and Roosevelt declared war on Japan, and so the US entered WorldWar II.Japanese and German newspapers stated the Pearl Harbor attack to be a victory.Japan claimed that they took out the West Virginia and Oklahoma ships duringthe attack on Pearl Harbor. They also stated that over 60% of the US Navalforces were present, and were therefore damaged. It was proclaimed that Japanhad showed that it was more superior to the US.

    In addition, in a Pearl Harbor newspaper article, it was stated that, in decidingwhether or not to declare war with Japan, the House of Representatives voted

    388 to 1, with Jeanette Rankin of Montana being the only one opposing the idea.In Senate, the vote was 82 to 0.

    "The Great Depression." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 16 Nov.2013.

    At this website, we were able to get a summary of what the Great Depressionwas. The Great Depression, which lasted from 1929-39, was the greatest fall in

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    economics in history for the Western world. Soon after the stock market crash inOctober 1929, Wall Street ran into a panic and millions of investors lost theirmoney. Over the following years, consumers began spending less and lessmoney on products, and the rate of construction of these products began to fall.Failing companies had to let go their workers, and the unemployment rate and

    industry began to fail. At its peak, the 13 million out of 15 million Americanswere unemployed and 1 out of 2 banks were bankrupt. During the 1930s,president Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to help fix the economy, yet thefinancial system would only be revived once World War II began and putAmericas industry to work again.

    "The Pearl Harbor Attack, 7 December 1941." The Pearl Harbor Attack, 7 December1941. Naval History and Heritage Command, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    The bombing of Pearl Harbor was caused by a series of events. In 1937, Japan

    started a campaign to capture China, and in 1940, they became a part of the AxisAlliance, consisting of Germany and Italy. Because East Asia was important to theUnited States both politically and economically, the US clashed with Japan. TheUnited States stopped shipping oil and other materials to Japan, aided Chinafurther, and strengthened their army in the Pacific. Since Japans resources mostlycame from other countries, they decided to invade Southeast Asia, where therewere plentiful resources. The Admiral in charge of taking down the carriers inPearl Harbor was Isoroku Yamamoto, although when the bombing happened, noneof the carriers were present at Pearl Harbor. The main element he needed for theplan was surprise. The Americans radars had detected the first wave of the

    Japanese attack, but it was deemed of little importance and labeled as an Americangroup of planes scheduled to arrive that morning.

    "The History Place - World War II in Europe Timeline: December 7, 1941 - JapaneseBomb Pearl Harbor." The History Place - World War II in Europe Timeline: December 7,1941 - Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    From this website, we learned more about what happened the day before theattack, the day of the attack, and the day following the attack. On Saturday,December 6, the day before the attack, the president made a final attempt tomake peace with Japan, who made no response. After having interpreted 13 partsof a 14-part message, America believes that Japan is planning an attack,probably in Southeast Asia. However, it was, as shown on Sunday, December 7,in Hawaii. After having deciphered the rest of the message and another message,the US War Department realizes that Japan is aiming for Hawaii. However,when the warning reaches Hawaii, it was four hours since the attack begun. OnDecember 8, the US and Britain declare war on Japan. On December 11,Germany and Italy join Japan. Soon it became a conflict between Japan,Germany, and Italy, against America, France, Britain, and their other Allies.

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    Townsend, Susan. "Japan's Quest for Empire 1931 - 1945." BBC News. BBC, 30 Mar.2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.

    This website explored the causes of the United States and Japans long, clashinghistory. First, there was the Manchurian Crisis in which the Japanese delegates

    walked out of the League of Nation during 1933. The Manchurian Crisis resulted

    in Japan being isolated from the rest of the war. Then, in 1937, Japan and Chinahad a minor battle at the Marco-Polo Bridge. This small clash led to undeclaredwar between the two nations.

    "Twenty-one Demands (East Asian History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

    In this website, we received a summary of the Twenty-One Demands that wereplaced on China by Japan. The Twenty-One Demands were placed on China bythe Japanese government. These claims gave Japan special privileges in China

    which European countries could not object to due to their focus on World War I.On May 7, Japan sent its last demand, and, the Chinese president Yuan Shikaisurrendered by signing the Sino-Japanese agreements on May 25. The Twenty-One Demands gave Japan political, economical, and military control over China.Due to Yuans forced surrender and acceptance, many Chinese began to resentthe Japanese.

    "Welcome to the Official Site of the Attack on Pearl Harbor." Pearl Harbor History: WhyDid Japan Attack? Eyewitness Accounts, Casualty List, Background.,n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    From this website, we learned more about the cause of the bombing at PearlHarbor. In September 1940, the United States placed an embargo on Japan bynot allowing exports of aviation fuel, steel, and oil. This was punishment for theJapanese taking over northern French Indochina. In the July of 1941, Japanconquered southern Indochina, which led the US and Britain to prevent Japanfrom buying oil. Near the end of 1941, Japan desperately tried to get much-needed oil by trying to take it from southeast Asia, which upset the Americans,although they did not want to go to war. Before December, Japan was devising awar plan. Japans biggest problem was the US Pacific Fleet stationed in Pearl

    Harbor, so they tried to take it down with aerial bombardment and torpedoes.The day after the bombing, the United States declared war on Japan.

    The events of the bombing:Journal:Ginger. "Sunday, December 7. 1941." Ginger's Diary (n.d.): 1. Essential Pearl Harbor.Osprey Publishing, 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.

    These excerpts from Gingers diary helped us understand his point of view of the

    bombing. He was a 17 year old senior in high school who lived in Hickam Field,Hawaii. When he woke up on Sunday morning of the bombing, Ginger thought

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    that something exciting was happening. He noticed black smoke and explosionsoutside, and when he went outside of his house with his mom, he observed threeplanes flying in the sky. There was fire on the barracks, which housed thesoldiers, and a whole hangar line was destroyed. When driving on the road,Ginger and his family had to move aside every now and then to let ambulances

    pass by.

    Photos:"Air Raid Pearl Harbor This Is No Drill !!!" Air Raid Pearl Harbor. US Navy, NationalArchives, NHC Naval Historical Center, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.

    Many of the pictures show the resulting damage and/or explosions on the ships.There are also pictures of each damaged ship such as the USS Nevada,Oklahoma, West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Arizona, and many more. Thewebsite containing these pictures includes one colored picture of the minelayer


    N.d. Photograph. Military History. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.This black and white photograph is of an explosion taking down a ship that islikely to be the American USS Arizona due to the large explosion. The explosionwas exceptionally violent because of the ignition of over a million pounds ofgunpowder. The gunpowder was stored in the basement of the ship.

    Interviews:Gano, Margaret Ellen, and Hubert Gano. "About Our Experience." Interview. Interviewwith Pearl Harbor Eyewitnesses. Scholastic, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. .

    This interview was about Hubert Dale Gano, who was a retired US NavyCommander, and his spouse Margaret Ellen Johnie Gano who both witnessed

    the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Both were 25 years of age and lived in Pearl City,on a peninsula which stretched towards Pearl Harbor. Johnie saw sunken USNavy ships and, when she reached Ford Island, she saw several dead or woundedsailors on the ground. Both Dale and Johnie were in a state of shock as theywatched Pearl Harbor being attacked and damaged and thousands of peopledying. When the bomb fell, Johnie and Dale were deciding on whether or not togo to church. The couple didnt see any bombs, but they did see tracers, or

    ammunition that, when shot, left a trail of smoke behind. Dale was not assignedto a ship, but to the Naval Air Station. Damage to building to this station wasvery minor. Although ships and airplanes were destroyed, no buildings werebombed.After the attack, all Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps inCalifornia. Dale blamed President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his supporters for

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    their unpreparedness. He believed that the president should have been suspectingan attack from Japan.

    Miller, Jim D., G. S. Flannigan, W. J. Bush, A. R. Schubert, J. S. Doherty, and S. Q.Fuqua. "USS Arizona (BB-39) Action Report: 7 Dec 1941." USS Arizona (BB-39)Action Report: 7 Dec 1941. Naval Historical Center, 11 June 2001. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.

    From these interviews, we learned that the raid alarm of the USS Arizona wassupposed to signal three blasts, although most people only heard one before theexplosion happened. According to Jim D. Miller, the captain was not on the shipat the time of the attack. To G. Flannigan, there was nothing on the speakersystem and there was too much smoke to see anything. Another man named W.Bush had desperately tried to extinguish the fires, but there were no availablesupplies on hand. A. Schubert was on deck when the attack started, and so hesaw low-winged monoplanes with the meatballs (the Japanese red disc

    symbolizing the sun) on the underside of the wings. To Doherty, the air raidalarm had sounded too late, at the exact same time the bombing started. At 7:55,fifteen torpedo planes, a dive bomber, and around thirty other planes werespotted attacking USS Arizona. Another man onboard the ship named S. Fuquarecalled that around 9:00 AM, USS Arizona had run out of anti-airplaneammunition, and everyone had to abandon ship.

    "Oral History Pearl Harbor Attack: Oral History: LT Erickson." Oral History PearlHarbor Attack: Oral History: LT Erickson. Naval History and Heritage Command, n.d.Web. 18 Nov. 2013.

    This interview was about a nurse named Ruth Erickson, who tended to injuredsurvivors of the bombing. We learned that normally, there were aircraft practiceson weekends for the military and that at first, the people werent bothered by theplanes. The civilians went on with life, thinking that the deadly planes were partof a normal drill. Erickson had many patients who were burnt on their faces,arms, and legs.

    Newspapers:"Japan Wars on US and Britain; Makes Sudden Attack on Hawaii; Heavy Fighting at SeaReported." The New York Times, 8 Dec. 1941. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    To the minority of the American citizens, it seemed that the Japanese hadattacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with no real reason or valid ulterior motive. Thisattack came as a complete surprise to Americans, as they did not makeprovisions for such an offense. The attack inspired confusion, unity, anger,anxiety, and determination among the Americans.

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    "YesterYear Once More." YesterYear Once More. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.The Americans saw the bombing of Pearl Harbor as a horrid massacre, andnewspapers did not mention anything about self-defense, which gave theimpression of being defenseless. The pictures in the newspaper depict neitherAmericans holding guns nor American war planes. This was a tactic to show the

    American citizens that the Japanese were brutal and could not be trusted. Also,there were many pictures of navy men placing objects on memorials and picturesof annihilated and destroyed ships, planes, and more. Overall, the Americannewspaper articles were very biased towards their own side.

    Books:Burgan, Michael. Perspective: The Attack on Pearl Harbor | US Entry into WW II |.Selangor Darul Ehsan: Benchmark, 2011. Print.

    From this book, we learned that warfare is based on deception. On the Sunday ofDecember 7, 1941, Japan released 182 aircrafts into the air, commanded by

    Mitsuo Fuchida. The leading captain of the first wave of airplanes, Fuchida andhis pilots announced the success of the element of surprise by saying, Tora,tora, tora, which translates to Tiger, tiger, tiger. The later signal, To, to, to,

    which is an abbreviation for totsugeki, means charge in Japanese. Althoughsome aircrafts were detected by the United States, they made no effort to stop theattacks. Five minutes to 8:00 AM, the Japanese pilots dropped bombs on Oahu,aiming for the US war planes stationed there. The bombing lasted until about8:30 AM and the final result was that approximately 2,400 people died and 1,200were critically hurt. Also, 21 US Navy ships were either sunk or had beendamaged, with over 300 warplanes destructed.

    Dolan, Edward F. America in World War II: 1941. Brookfield: Millbrook, 1991. Print.In this book, we learned more information about figures involved in the bombingof Pearl Harbor as well as some events that followed the attack. General HidekiTojo was the first in rank of Japan during the time of the attack. While manyJapanese officials were against it, Tojo proposed the attack on Pearl Harbor.Some of the officials opposing such an idea were former Prime MinisterFuminaro Konoye and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. Yamamoto led the JapaneseNavy during the early stage of World War I. Although he was ordered to planand command the attack on Pearl Harbor as well as the air force on Oahu,Yamamoto was strongly against entering war with a strong nation like the US. In1943, two years after the Pearl Harbor attack, Yamamoto was killed in the SouthPacific in air ambuscade. In America, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel was incharge of the US Pacific Fleet while Lieutenant General Walter C. Short was incommand of the US Army Troops based in Hawaii. These two Americans werecriticized severely for not having been able to prepare their troops for an attackfrom Japan.Having survived the first wave of Japanese attack in the Philippines and thenreturning to retaliate at a Japanese fleet of ships, three bombs hitting the

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    battleship Haruna, Captain Colin P. Kelly was considered to be one of the firstAmerican war heroes. However, his plane was shot down and he crashed landed.Several days after the attack, the phone company of San Francisco put up a wallof sandbags to protect themselves from Japanese attacks that never came. DuringWorld War II, women worked at recording numbers at factories that produced

    materials for war and defense plants.

    Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt. The Air War in the Pacific: Air Power Leads the Way. Vol. 13.New York: Franklin Watts, 1964. Print. The Military History of World War II.

    This book informed us more about the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese FirstAir Fleet left Hitokappu Bay, in the Kurile Islands, on November 26, 1941. Thefleet consisted of 414 planes, 6 aircraft carriers. In addition to the air force, therewere 2 battleships and 12 more warships. In command of the fleet was ViceAdmiral Chuichi Nagumo. The US was unprepared on account of how PremierTojo ordered the two Japanese ambassadors to act as if they were continuing the

    negotiations with the US, Nagumo led his fleet with caution, and the US Armyand Navy were lacking alertness in Oahu. Although the US deciphered Japaneseradio signals, without Japan knowing, and found out that an attack would takeplace on either December 7 or December 8, they focused their attention on theSouth China Sea, where Japanese military was rather active. The attackportrayed Japans great air force power.

    Harris, Nathaniel. Pearl Harbor. London: Dryad, 1986. Print.We learned that President Roosevelt had placed an embargo earlier on all warmaterials, not just oil on Japan. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Americansinitially thought that it was a drill. However, over the radio, a message that said,AIR RAID PEARL HARBOR. THIS IS NOT A DRILL was sent and alertedcitizens and the navy men. After the attack, it was recorded that the first and thelast shots of the Japanese bombing came from American guns.\

    Skipper, G. C., and Robert L. Messer. Pearl Harbor. Chicago: Childrens, 1983. Print.From this printed source, we were able to get more background information on the whythe Americans were so poorly prepared and why Japan attacked. The Japanese believedin the concept of Hakko Ichiu, meaning bringing the eight corners of the world under

    one roof. In other words, the Japanese believed that their destiny was to rule Asia. Tostart this process, Japan had to gain control of the Asian countries that composed theAsian continent. In 1910, Japan gained control of Korea, and in 1937, Japan beganwaging war with China. In July, 1941, when Japan tried to get Indochina, or the regioncontaining present-day Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, the US put an embargo on Japanto prevent them from taking more Asian countries. To Japan, this embargo meant war.America was unaware of this aspect of war with Japan, except for a few who wereclueless on where they would strike. To the Americans, there were a couple of reasonsfor poor preparations. For one, America believed that the Japanese military was inferior

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    to theirs. Due to the Great Depression from the 1930s, America also had little money tospend on servicemen and military equipment. To add on, they thought that Pearl Harborwas too shallow for any underwater torpedoes. Although America did crack the secretJapanese diplomatic code, the code was guarded and important people in Pearl Harborhad no access to the information. However, America did worry some about sabotage at

    Pearl Harbor. They prepared ships and planes, but this only made for an easier target.Inspite of the fact that they were trying to negotiate a peace treaty with the US in late 1941,General Hideki Tojo began planning for war and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto beganplanning strategies for attacking Pearl Harbor.

    Tanaka, Shelley, and David Craig. Attack on Pearl Harbor: The True Story of the DayAmerica Entered World War II. New York: Hyperion For Children, 2001. Print.

    This book told us about the Japanese flag, which used to be a circle with linesexpanding from it. The white background symbolizes the sky, and the red circlewith lines extending from it symbolize the rising sun. A survivor named George

    DeLong was on USS Oklahoma when it rolled over capsized. The KaneoheNaval Air Station in Hawaii was attacked, as it contained United States armybattle and airplanes.


    Antill, Peter. "Pearl Harbor: The Day of Infamy, 7 December 1941." Pearl Harbor: TheDay of Infamy, 7 December 1941. History of War, 28 Oct. 2001. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    This website gives a detailed account of what happened during the bombing ofPearl Harbor, Hawaii. At 7:49 AM, or 0749 hours, commander Fuchida signaledthe torpedo bombers to attack by firing one shot from his flare gun. Fuchida fireda second time to make sure all the bombers had seen the flare, but the second flarewas misinterpreted by Takahashi, who ordered his dive-bombers to strike. Thecode words Tora, Tora, Tora sent at 7:53 indicated that the approach was

    successfully a surprise to the Americans. At 7:55, the first bomb exploded in ahangar. Japanese torpedo bombers sent their torpedoes into the water. The attackscontinued and caused great confusion and chaos. The second wave arrived shortlyafter the first. At first, the Japanese considered sending a third wave, but theydecided not to because the American defense would be alert.

    "Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 - The Japanese View." Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 - TheJapanese View. Eyewitness to History, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.

    This website includes an oral interview of the commander of the Japanese attacks,Mitsuo Fuchida. The original Japanese goal was to bomb and destroy as manycarriers as they could. When Fuchida got to Hawaii, however, he saw that alleight of the ships were there, but not one carrier. Still, he continued with his plan

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    and tapped out the message TO,TO,TO... Fuchida recalls how he had attemptedto release several bombs and had missed because of a cloud before he was finallysuccessful.

    "Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 - The Japanese View." Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 - TheJapanese View. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013.

    From this website, we learned more about the Japanese preparation and the attackon Pearl Harbor. The Japanese attack fleet left Japan on November 26. The flightcommander Vice Admiral Nagumo got his final orders on December 1, and on themorning of December 7 the fleet was 275 miles north of the destination ofHawaii. Getting into positions at 6:00 AM, the air attack was composed of fighteraircrafts, high-level bombers, dive-bombers, and torpedo bombers. Although therewere eight battleships present, no carriers were in sight. At 7:49, or 0749 hours,Commander Mitsuo Fuchida commanded the radioman to send the signal to

    attack. Lieutenant Commander Murata led his torpedo bombers away. LieutenantCommander Itayay led his fighters down to eliminate any enemy fighters in theair. Takahashi led his dive-bombers straight up into the sky. Commander MitsuoFuchida led his bombers towards Barbers Point to regulate the attack schedule.There was no action from the US on the ground. It was certain that the goal ofachieving the element of surprise was reached. The attack began with the drop ofthe first bomb on Wheeler Field. Soon, there were dive-bombing attacks onHickam Field and Ford Island. There was no real attempt from the US at takingthe command of the air away from the Japanese.

    "Beyond the Movie: Pearl Harbor." Beyond the Movie: Pearl Harbor. NationalGeographic, 2001. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    Although there were sure signs of Japan intending to bomb Pearl Harbor, the U.S.was too busy trying to help Britain in the European war to notice. Also, at PearlHarbor, there was a warning radar, fighter aircraft, and guns, but the commandersof the Pearl Harbor military unit had not established a working air defense system.The reasons why the Japanese were so successful in their attack were because forone, they traveled on a path rarely used, and they did not use radios so they werenot detected. Also, the Japanese had practiced the bombing many times and werewell prepared. Last but not least, the Japanese planes were superior to the ones onOahu. Prior to the attack, there were many warnings the United States shouldhave picked up on about the upcoming attack. The first one came as a codedcablegram from the U.S. ambassador to Japan. The message said that the Japanesewere going to surprise attack Pearl Harbor, but the warning was brushed off as arumor. Another warning was when the Americans realized that the Japanese fleetof ships the Americans had been tracking by radio had been ordered to stop usingtheir radios. In 1940, the United States code breakers built a machine, codenamedPurple, that could read the Japaneses coded messages. However, this machine did

    not reveal any information about the attack on Pearl Harbor. When the bombingactually happened, the U.S. military units in Hawaii immediately responded. TheJapanese lost 29 aircrafts, 54 fliers, all five of their midget submarines, and nine

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    onboard the submarines. The one person who survived the submarine sinkingbecame the first POW, or prisoner of war.

    "Bushido (Japanese History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica,n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.This website helped us to understand the Japaneses belief of Bushido, which

    some pilots in the attack on Pearl Harbor still took seriously, better. Bushidomeant the Way of the Warrior in Japanese. It was the samurai code of conduct.During the mid-19th century, this code of conduct was the basis for standardtraining. This contributed in the rise of Japanese nationalism, or love for thecountry of Japan, and Japans pride for war. Samurai were trained to obey thecommands of their masters and to be loyal, even if it were to mean violating thelaw.

    "Carrier Locations, 7 December 1941." Carrier Locations, 7 December 1941. NavalHistory and Heritage Command, n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    On the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor, none of the three American carrierswere present. USS Enterprise, USS Lexington, and USS Saratoga are the namesof the three planes. Enterprise was at Wake Island, Lexington was at MidwayIsland, and Saratoga was getting repaired on the West Coast.

    Dickson, Keith D. "World War II Comes to America: Pearl Harbor." For Dummies. ForDummies, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.

    The United States Pacific Fleet and around 50,00 soldiers occupied the militarybase on the island of Oahu, which is part of Hawaii. The largest concentration ofthe Pacific military was in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Japanese goal was todestroy the U.S. carriers and battleships, although by chance, the battleshipswere not present that day. The bombing lasted for around an hour and fiftyminutes. The next day, President Roosevelt declared war on Japan, and the PrimeMinister of Britain, Winston Churchill, was overjoyed to get another ally.

    Hideki Tojo." Hideki Tojo. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013.This website taught us more about General Hideki Tojo. He was born in 1884, inTokyo, and died in 1948. He was the Prime Minister of Japan at the time of theattack on Pearl Harbor. This bombing led to the Far East entering war and thedestruction of Hiroshima, Japan, in August 1945. Because he led Japan intoWorld War II, Tojo was labeled as a war criminal and killed for it. In 1940, Tojobecame the Minister of War in the government and saw the future of Japan to beinvolved with European dictators, specifically Hitler.

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    four more were damaged. Additionally, 188 planes were destroyed and threecruiser and destroyer ships were in poor condition due to bomb shrapnel. After1945, Ed Johann decided to become a firefighter because of his will and desire tohelp others in times of need.

    "Pearl Harbor Bombed." A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Nov.2013.

    This website tells us that the Franklin D. Roosevelt knew that a Japanese attackwas probably going to happen, but he did nothing about it. The attack happenedon a Sunday, when many military men were excused to attend religious services.At 7:02 AM, the US detected a large group of planes from the north which werethe Japanese planes, but since a flight of planes from the US were expected atthat time, no alarms were signaled. In this way, when the attack happened, it wasa complete surprise to the Americans. Several of the United States ships weresunk, and a lot were damaged. Fortunately, all three of the carriers were away

    from Pearl Harbor at the time of the attack for training maneuvers.

    "Pearl Harbor, Oahu - The Attack: Facts and Information." RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov.2013.

    After having read this website, we learned more about why the US was unpreparedfor the Pearl Harbor attack. The first warning regard an attack on the US fromJapan was sent by Navy, yet Washington and the War Department found itunlikely and dismissed it. The US also assumed that the Japanese didnt have anyseaborne aircrafts that could capture their B-24 bombers. They also assumed thatthe Japanese were too focused on expanding their military influence in other areasto plan an advanced attack on the US. The US Army and Navy saw no need toprotect Hawaii on a large scale. On the day of the attack, Washington did get amessage stating that Japan was threatening war, yet the US didnt take the deadline

    of 7:30 AM, in Hawaii Aleutian Time Zone, too seriously. Two early warnings ofthe attack came of the Japanese approaching, yet they were both ignored. After theattack, Commander Lieutenant General Walter Short requested a retirement, whichwas accepted when Lieutenant Genearl Delos Emmons took his position.

    After the bombing:Newspapers:"Allies Open Rome Drive." New Castle News 26 May 1944: 1. World War 2 Articles.Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    This newspaper gave us more information on the Allied forces movement

    through Italy. The newspaper expressed the importance of the Allied troopsfighting the Axis, or Germans and Italians, to gain control over the Italianpeninsula. It is stated that the Allied forces were rather successful in this fight.The Allied soldiers also gained Rome from Germany in a battle. LiberatedItalians greeted the American troops with much gratitude. When GeneralMacArthur of the United States side led his troops to Dutch New GuineasMaffin Bay to take control over the airdrome, which is an airplane operation

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    area, situated there, they encountered Japanese troops. By the end of the battle,the number of Japanese casualties was greater than American casualties by alarge amount.

    "Reds Drive Deeper into Berlin." Joplin Globe 25 Apr. 1945: 1. World War 2 Articles.Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    This newspaper helped us understand how the Germans and Russianssurrendered. The day that Soviet and American soldiers met at the Elbe River, inGermany, to march to Munich was the day that the troops took control over Ulm,which was a major communications center for Germany. It was reported thatBerlin was in flames, with Russian armies together to make a final stand as aNazi army. 20, 000 to 30, 000 disarmed Germans marched towards the Alliedlines in surrender. This was one of the largest surrenders ever to have takenplace. Although it was believed that Hitler went into hiding, there were reportsthat he remained in Berlin. The Allied forces also captured the 125-mile longdefense line in Italy. They captured cities and military bases, marking a majorturning point in the World War II.

    "Second World War Breaks." Fairbanks Daily News-Miner 4 Sept. 1939: 1. World War 2Articles. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    This newspaper helped us to understand how people in Alaska, more specificallyFairbanks, processed the events taking place during that time. In London, onSeptember 4, which was Chamberlain Sunday, it was stated that Britain was atwar with Germany. Germany didnt respond to the ultimatum before its

    expiration, leading to Britain and Frances declaration of war. Soon followingwas New Zealand, Egypt, and Australia. Britain began sending military forces toChina, attacking Germans at the German Tennis Club in Shanghai. France begansending troops and help to Poland to try to force the German troops to leave. Thecurrent president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, also mentionedthat the US was to remain neutral and to not get involved in the war. Germanyperformed a torpedo attack on the British ship powered on steam enginesAthenia, killing approximately 1,400 refugees, mainly from Canada. The shipwas bombed only 300 miles east of the country of Scotland.

    "U.S. Declares War." Manitowoc Herald Times 8 Dec. 1941: 1. Pearl Harbor Articles &Newspaper. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    This newspaper gave us more information about the US Congress declaring waron Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor. On December 8, 1941, Congressdeclared war on Japan. Washington admitted that over 3, 000 Americans wereeither hurt or killed, and that aircraft and naval ships were damaged, but howmany it did not mention.

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    Books:Dolan, Edward F. America in World War II: 1941. Brookfield: Millbrook, 1991. Print.

    Several days after the attack, the phone company of San Francisco put up a wallof sandbags to protect themselves from Japanese attacks that never came. DuringWorld War II, women worked at recording numbers at factories that produced

    materials for war and defense plants.

    Dunnahoo, Terry. Pearl Harbor: America Enters the War. New York: F. Watts, 1991.Print.

    This book informed us about how the development atomic bomb and the V2rocket spread over the world and also about how the United States concludedthat they needed a warning system for surprise attacks. The Defense EarlyWarning System was set up, which involved a line from the US to the SovietUnion and passed over the North Pole because that was the shortest distance. Theline was called the Dew Line.

    Isserman, Maurice. World War II. New York: Facts on File, 1991. Print. America at War.This book helped us to understand how the US defeated the Japanese in WorldWar II. It was in late 1944 when the US began to positions itself in the bombingcampaign. As the Air Force generals had stated the atomic bombs would, theJapanese surrendered without a single American killed in the process. Althoughthousands of bombs were released onto Japan, the bombs landing on Hiroshimaand Nagasaki were vital in Japans surrender. The use of the atomic bomb not

    only ended the World War II, but it also changed the world. The world was avery different place before the year 1939 in comparison to after 1945.Throughout the war, Japan was merciless about their civilians lives and the livesof the Chinese. Japans civilian government was in little control over the

    Japanese military.

    McGowen, Tom. Midway & Guadalcanal. New York: Franklin Watts, 1984. Print.Turning Points of World War II.

    This book helped us to understand how the US made a comeback after thebombing of Pearl Harbor. On June 4, 1942, although they were outnumbered,Admiral Chester Nimitz used strategy to lead the US into victory against thedetermined Japanese at Midway. Afterwards, the US focused on recapturing theSolomon Islands. On August 7, 1942, the American invasion force arrived onGuadalcanal where they met the Japanese again. After months of fighting, theJapanese were finally defeated on February 7, 1943, when the last Japanese leftthe island. These two major battles signified a major turning point in the Pacificwar for the US.

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    Nardo, Don. World War II: The War in the Pacific. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1991. Print.By reading this book, our group learned that during World War II, the UnitedStates had a lot of power and became nearly invincible because it was the onlycountry possessing the atomic bomb. However, the Soviet Union also gainedpower since at the last second, they declared war on Japan which made them

    victors. The Soviets also developed their own atomic bomb, which drove theUnited States and the Soviet Union into a cold war lasting nearly forty years.This book also was informing about the Axis countries, which containedGermany, Italy, and Japan. The Allies included New Zealand, the United States,France, Britain, South Africa, Canada, and more.

    Seddon, Tom. Atom Bomb. New York: Scientific American for Young Readers, 1995.Print.

    This book gave us some information on the events following the bombing at

    Pearl Harbor. A day after this bombing, US Congress declared war on Japan,who was already at war with China. Being an ally of Japan, Germany declaredwar with the US. Soon, all of the US allies came in to help the US in this war.At this point, almost the whole world was at war. Nine days later, a meeting washeld in which it was agreed to build an atomic bomb.

    Uschan, Michael. The Bombing of Pearl Harbor. New York: World Almanac Library,2006. Print.

    This book helped us learn about the effects of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Firstoff, it made Americans a part of what was going on in the outside world andstunned the United States government out of their isolationism system. Second,the bombing united Americans under one cause, which was to defeat theJapanese and despise them, no matter to which country they were loyal to. Third,this tragic event instilled suspicion in Americans of all Japanese people, even ifthey were American citizens. The United States government was fearful that theJapanese living in America were spies, so they forced all Japanese Americans togo to internment camps, where they were treated terribly. Lastly, the bombing ofPearl Harbor led the United States to join World War II. This created jobs forship, plane, and weapon manufacturers. The new economy created by WorldWar II ended most of the financial issues of the Great Depression.

    Internet:"70 Years since Pearl Harbor Attack | The Japan Times." Japan Times RSS. N.p., n.d.Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

    From this website, we learned what the Japanese take from the bombing of PearlHarbor today. For Japan, the bombing at Pearl Harbor took place on December8, 1941. Although the attack was successful, no major damage was done to theUS aircraft carriers, since they were not present. Japan has been accusednumerous times of having carried out a sneak attack since their Japanese

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    Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura and special envoy Saburo Kurusu handed thefinal memorandum to the US Secretary of State Cordell Hull late by an hour. Tothe Japanese, however, it is still believed that it is the fault of the Japaneseembassy staff in Washington, who were working very inefficiently. If they hadbeen more productive, the memorandum would have been handed on time.

    Nonetheless, this argument is not strong, since the memorandum did not clearlysay that they were entering war. It only stated that Japan was terminating theirnegotiations with the US. It has also often been said that the USs negativeimpact on Japans economy, including the embargo, the freezing of Japanese

    property in the US, and the action of ending the bilateral trade and navigationtreaty, provoked the Japanese to attack Pearl Harbor. However, this, once more,is an invalid argument. The US only performed these actions in response toJapans military aggression against China and its recent attempt at gaining

    French Indochina. Also, one hour before the attack, Japanese military unitslanded in British Malaya and Thailand to carry out operations to prepare forwhen they wage war on China and US. Although many Japanese believe that the

    war that began after the bombing was to mainly bring freedom to Asians fromthe Western Powers, the main goal of the Japanese was to gain dominant controlover the Asia-Pacific region. This cost Japan more than 3 million lives and evenmore for other Asian countries. Among these deceased were people fromJapanese colonies, Japanese areas of control, and imprisoned allies put to forcedlabor. The war between Japan and US only ended in August, 1945, when atomicbombs landed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a devastating event for the Japanese.

    "Editorial: Why We Remember Pearl Harbor." - Our Opinion. Gaston Gazette, 6 Dec.2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    This website explores why we should remember the attack on Pearl Harbor. Itled to the United States entry in World War II, killed and wounded many

    Americans, and sunk important military ships. Although there are many peoplewho visit Pearl Harbor and the USS Arizona memorial each day, it is asaddening thought that the number of the survivors dwindles ever lower. Forover 60 years, December 7th had reminded us about a date that will live in


    Grier, Peter. "Pearl Harbor Day: How Did Adolf Hitler React to the Attack?" TheChristian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 Nov.2013.

    Germany and Japan were allies during World War II. Adolf Hitler, Germanys

    leader, did not know beforehand about the attack on Pearl Harbor. He wasextremely happy to hear about its success and it made him think that he could notlose the war. Because the failed German events that happened previously, thePearl Harbor bombing came to Hitler as a light in the darkness.

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    "Japanese Fighter Pilot Recalls Vividly Attack on Pearl Harbor." : Kitsap Sun. N.p., n.d.Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    Although he had many more experiences in war, Fujita found the one concerningthe bombing of Pearl Harbor to be the most important to him. Later in his life, atabout the age of 69, Fujita and others visited Hawaii at a memorial service. He

    was delighted when he saw that Fusate Lida was buried by the US military. Whenasked about how he considered the US, Fujita responded with the statement thatthe Americans were his friends.

    "Saburo Kuruso, Former Special Ambassador To The United States." N.p., 24 Sept.1997. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.

    This website shows the Japanese bias is very strong. Some Japanese peoplebelieve that the United States and Japanswar was the United States fault anddefinitely not Japans. The author shows evidence of the United States motive to

    go to war before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Some of the Japanese believe that

    the United States made false accounts as to delude its own citizens from thetruth.

    "Pearl Harbor Visitors Get Japanese View of Dec. 7, 1941." Toledo Blade. N.p., 24 Nov.2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.

    By reading this website, we learned more about the effects of the bombing of PearlHarbor. Today, visitors to the USS Arizona Memorial, located at Pearl Harbor, canview several photos and pictures of Japan in the 1930s. In the 1980s, the memorialwas designed to serve as more of a shrine rather than a place where history isinterpreted and displayed. With a $56 million redevelopment, the museum allowsvisitors to learn more about the attack. With former enemies of America visitingthe US, American veterans and survivors begin to feel more comfortable aroundthe Japanese. The attitudes between the Japanese and the Americans began tosoften over the past few years. In 1991, former dive-bomber Zenji Abe brought agroup of Japanese veterans to Pearl Harbor. He stated that the Japanese leaving intheir aircrafts carriers in belief that the Japanese government had declared war. Inreality, war was not yet declared, and this action was going against their traditionsof bushido, or the way of the samurai. In an interview, Abe admitted that he feltbad.

    "The Significance of Pearl Harbour to America and the Second World War." TheGuardian. The Guardian, 6 Sept. 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    As a result of the bombing, isolationism is smothered out. Prior to the attack,Japan had kept its plan to attack a secret. In Roosevelts broadcast on December

    9, 1941, he let the American citizens know of the attack and of theirdetermination to fight back Japan. Roosevelt told the people not to fear, but tohave pride and courage.

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    "Thousands Remembered on 71st Anniversary of Pearl Harbor Attack." NY Daily News.N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013.

    This website gave us an idea of how Americans remember the bombing of PearlHarbor. Today, the bombing of Pearl Harbor will be remembered infamously.Americans remember the ones who had been killed in the attack. To recognizethese people, there would be a moment of silence at 7:55 A.M., the time at whichthe bombing began in 1941.

    "World War II." History: WW2 Pearl Harbor Attack for Kids. Ducksters, Nov. 2013.Web. 25 Nov. 2013.

    Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is located on the island of Oahu. The United States wasforced out of isolationism as a result of the bombing at Pearl Harbor; the

    European war had lasted already over two years before the United States joinedin on the war. The biggest loss for the Americans was the sunken USS Arizona,along with it over 1,100 military personnel. A total of 2,390 Americans werekilled and 1,178 were injured. Twelve ships were sunk and nine ships weredamaged. Compared to the Japanese losses, the US has staggering numbers.However, the attack had not crippled America like Japan had hoped, rather, ithad hardened the Americans resolve. On December 8, 1941, the United States

    declared war on Japan. Shortly afterward, Japans allies, Germany and Italy,declared war on the US.

    "World War 2 Records & Newspapers." World War 2 Articles. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov.2013.

    This website gave us more information about World War II. The war officiallybegan on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. The war ended in1945 when Japan and Germany surrendered. In March of 1938, Germany gainedcontrol over Austria. Wanting to please Hitler and avoid war, Britain and Francegave part of Czechoslovakia to Hitler during the Munich Conference. OnSeptember 1, 1939, Hitler and his army attacked Poland using Blitzkrieg, orlightning war, as their style. Refusing to withdraw his soldiers from Poland,Britain and France declared war. In July of 1940, in the Battle of Britain,Germany and Britain fought each other using air force. Ending in October with aBritish victory, Germany failed to gain control over Britain. In 1944, on June 6,or rather D-Day, the Allied Forces attacked the west while attacking the Naziforces coming from the east. This was called the Normandy Invasion.