Annex 5 HACCP Guidelines - aua.gr · HACCP 6 366 (b) Flow Diagram Consequently, a flow diagram that...

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HACCP 1 361 Annex 5 HACCP Guidelines 1. INTRODUCTION 2. HACCP PRINCIPLES 3. SUMMARY 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 6. OTHER SOURCES OF HACCP INFORMATION 1. INTRODUCTION The acronym HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is a prevention-based food safety system. HACCP systems are designed to prevent the occurrence of potential food safety problems. This is achieved by assessing the inherent risks attributable to a product or a process and then determining the necessary steps that will control the identified risks. Essentially, HACCP is a system that identifies and monitors specific foodborne hazards -- biological, chemical, or physical properties -- that can adversely affect the safety of the food product. This hazard analysis serves as the basis for establishing critical control points (CCPs). CCPs identify those points in the process that must be controlled to ensure the safety of the food. Further, critical limits are established that document the appropriate parameters that must be met at each CCP. Monitoring and verification steps are included in the system, again, to ensure that potential risks are controlled. The hazard analysis, critical control points, critical limits, and monitoring and verification steps are documented in a HACCP plan. Seven principles have been developed which provide guidance on the development of an effective HACCP plan. HACCP represents an important food protection tool. HACCP is not something limited to food franchises or chains. The concept can be applied by small independents as well as national or regional companies and can be integrated into the recipes and standard operating procedures of any size establishment. Employee training is key to successful implementation. Employees must learn which control points are critical in an operation and what the critical limits are at these points, for each preparation step they perform.

Transcript of Annex 5 HACCP Guidelines - aua.gr · HACCP 6 366 (b) Flow Diagram Consequently, a flow diagram that...

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Annex

5 HACCP Guidelines

1. INTRODUCTION2. HACCP PRINCIPLES3. SUMMARY 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS5. BIBLIOGRAPHY6. OTHER SOURCES OF HACCP INFORMATION

1. INTRODUCTION

The acronym HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is aprevention-based food safety system. HACCP systems are designed to prevent theoccurrence of potential food safety problems. This is achieved by assessing the inherentrisks attributable to a product or a process and then determining the necessary steps thatwill control the identified risks. Essentially, HACCP is a system that identifies and monitors specific foodborne hazards --biological, chemical, or physical properties -- that can adversely affect the safety of the foodproduct. This hazard analysis serves as the basis for establishing critical control points(CCPs). CCPs identify those points in the process that must be controlled to ensure thesafety of the food. Further, critical limits are established that document the appropriateparameters that must be met at each CCP. Monitoring and verification steps are included inthe system, again, to ensure that potential risks are controlled. The hazard analysis, criticalcontrol points, critical limits, and monitoring and verification steps are documented in aHACCP plan. Seven principles have been developed which provide guidance on thedevelopment of an effective HACCP plan.

HACCP represents an important food protection tool. HACCP is not something limited tofood franchises or chains. The concept can be applied by small independents as well asnational or regional companies and can be integrated into the recipes and standardoperating procedures of any size establishment. Employee training is key to successfulimplementation. Employees must learn which control points are critical in an operation andwhat the critical limits are at these points, for each preparation step they perform.

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Establishment management must also follow through by routinely monitoring the foodoperation to verify that employees are keeping the process under control by complying withthe critical limits.

As is the case with industry, mastering and applying regulatory aspects of HACCP is notlimited to large state programs. Local jurisdictions can effectively promote HACCP and applythe concept during inspections. The implementation of HACCP continues to evolve and tobe further refined as new products and procedures are developed and as hazards and theircontrol measures are more clearly defined. To meet the challenges presented by advancesin food research, product development, and their impact at retail, regulatory personnel mustkeep themselves informed. Food protection publications issued by the food industry,professional organizations, and other groups and continuing education programs can beparticularly helpful in providing an understanding of food operations and how the applicationof HACCP can bring a focus to food safety that traditional inspection methods have lacked.

(A) Definitions

Many terms are used in discussion of HACCP that must be clearly understood to effectivelydevelop and implement a plan. The following definitions are provided for clarity:

(1) Acceptable level means the presence of a hazard which does not posethe likelihood of causing an unacceptable health risk.

(2) Control point means any point in a specific food system at which loss ofcontrol does not lead to an unacceptable health risk.

(3) Critical control point, as defined in the Food Code, means a point atwhich loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk.

(4) Critical limit, as defined in the Food Code, means the maximum orminimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must becontrolled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified foodsafety hazard may occur.

(5) Deviation means failure to meet a required critical limit for a criticalcontrol point.

(6) HACCP plan, as defined in the Food Code, means a written documentthat delineates the formal procedures for following the HACCP principlesdeveloped by The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria forFoods.

(7) Hazard, as defined in the Food Code, means a biological, chemical, orphysical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.

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(8) Monitoring means a planned sequence of observations ormeasurements of critical limits designed to produce an accurate record andintended to ensurethat the critical limit maintains product safety. Continuousmonitoring means an uninterrupted record of data.

(9) Preventive measure means an action to exclude, destroy, eliminate, orreduce a hazard and prevent recontamination through effective means.

(10) Risk means an estimate of the likely occurrence of a hazard.

(11) Sensitive ingredient means any ingredient historically associated with aknown microbiological hazard that causes or contributes to production of apotentially hazardous food as defined in the Food Code.

(12) Verification means methods, procedures, and tests used to determine ifthe HACCP system in use is in compliance with the HACCP plan.

(B) History

The application of HACCP to food production was pioneered by the Pillsbury Company withthe cooperation and participation of the National Aeronautic and Space Administration(NASA), Natick Laboratories of the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force Space LaboratoryProject Group. Application of the system in the early 1960's created food for the UnitedState's space program that approached 100% assurance against contamination by bacterialand viral pathogens, toxins, and chemical or physical hazards that could cause illness orinjury to astronauts. HACCP replaced end-product testing to provide food safety assuranceand provided a preventive system for producing safe food that had universal application.

In the succeeding years, the HACCP system has been recognized worldwide as an effectivesystem of controls. The system has undergone considerable analysis, refinement, andtesting and is widely accepted in the United States and internationally.

(C) Advantages of HACCP

FDA is recommending the implementation of HACCP in food establishments because it is asystem of preventive controls that is the most effective and efficient way to ensure that foodproducts are safe. A HACCP system will emphasize the industry's role in continuousproblem solving and prevention rather than relying solely on periodic facility inspections byregulatory agencies.

HACCP offers two additional benefits over conventional inspection techniques. First,it clearly identifies the food establishment as the final party responsible for ensuring thesafety of the food it produces. HACCP requires the food establishment to analyze itspreparation methods in a rational, scientific manner in order to identify critical controlpoints and to establish critical limits and monitoring procedures. A vital aspect of the

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establishment's responsibility is to establish and maintain records that documentadherence to the critical limits that relate to the identified critical control points, thusresulting in continuous self-inspection. Secondly, a HACCP system allows the regulatoryagency to more comprehensively determine an establishment's level of compliance. A foodestablishment's use of HACCP requires development of a plan to prepare safe food. Thisplan must be shared with the regulatory agency because it must have access to CCPmonitoring records and other data necessary to verify that the HACCP plan is working. Using conventional inspection techniques, an agency can only determine conditions duringthe time of inspection which provide a "snapshot" of conditions at the moment of theinspection. However, by adopting a HACCP approach, both current and past conditions canbe determined. When regulatory agencies review HACCP records, they have, in effect, alook back through time. Therefore, the regulatory agency can better ensure that processesare under control.

Traditional inspection is relatively resource-intensive and inefficient and is reactive ratherthan preventive compared to the HACCP approach for ensuring food safety. Regulatoryagencies are challenged to find new approaches to food safety that enable them to becomemore focused and efficient and to minimize costs wherever possible. Thus, the advantagesof HACCP-based inspections are becoming increasingly acknowledged by the regulatorycommunity.

Examples of the successful implementation of HACCP by food establishments may befound throughout the food industry. During the past several years, FDA and a numberof state and local jurisdictions have worked with two national voluntary pilot projectsfor retail food stores and restaurants. These projects involved more than 20 foodestablishments and demonstrated that HACCP is a viable and practical option to improvefood safety. FDA believes that HACCP concepts have matured to the point at whichthey can be formally implemented for all food products on an industry-wide basis.

2. HACCP PRINCIPLES

(A) Background

The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF), whichdeveloped HACCP principles, was established in 1988 and has as members officials fromseveral federal agencies which include the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, the Food Safety Inspection Service, the AgriculturalResearch Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the U.S. Army. The NACMCFalso has national experts from academia, state government, consumer groups, and the foodindustry.

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(B) Principles

The NACMCF has developed seven widely accepted HACCP principles that explain thisprocess in great detail. To prepare an effective HACCP plan these principles must befollowed. Further, a comprehensive review of a HACCP plan must include consideration ofthese principles. These HACCP principles are discussed below.

PRINCIPLE #1: HAZARD ANALYSIS

(a) Purposes

The hazard analysis process accomplishes three purposes:

(i) Hazards of significance are identified;

(ii) The hazard analysis provides a risk basis for selecting likelyhazards;

(iii) Identified hazards can be used to develop preventive measures fora process or product to ensure or improve food safety.

Before beginning to develop a HACCP plan, a team should be assembled that is familiar withthe overall food operation and the specific production processes to be included in the plan. The team's goal and each member's responsibilities in reaching that goal must be clearlydefined.

The first step in the development of a HACCP plan for a food operation is identification ofhazards associated with the product. A hazard may be a biological, chemical, or physicalproperty that can cause a food to be unsafe. The analysis of hazards requires theassessment of two factors with respect to any identified hazard, i.e., the likelihood that thehazard will occur and the severity if it does occur. Hazard analysis also involvesestablishment of preventive measures for control. Hazards that involve low risk and that arenot likely to occur need not be considered for the purposes of HACCP.

To be effectively addressed, hazards must be such that their prevention, elimination, orreduction to acceptable levels is attained.

Numerous issues have to be considered during hazard analysis. These relate to factorssuch as ingredients, processing, distribution, and the intended use of the product. Theseissues include whether a food contains sensitive ingredients that can create microbiological,chemical, or physical hazards; or whether sanitation practices that are used can introducethese hazards to the food that is being prepared or processed. An example is whether thefinished food will be heated by the consumer, if it is consumed off the premises. Evenfactors beyond the immediate control of the food establishment, such as how the food will betreated if taken out by the consumer and how it will be consumed, must be consideredbecause these factors could influence how food should be prepared or processed in theestablishment.

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(b) Flow Diagram

Consequently, a flow diagram that delineates the steps in the process from receipt tosale or service forms the foundation for applying the seven principles. The significanthazards associated with each step in the flow diagram should be listed along withpreventative measures proposed to control the hazards. This tabulation will be used underPrinciple 2 to determine the CCPs. The flow diagram should be constructed by a HACCPteam that has knowledge and expertise on the product, process, and the likely hazards. Each step in a proces should be identified and observed to accurately construct the flowdiagram. Some examples of flow diagrams are found at the end of this Annex.

(c) Biological Hazards

Foodborne biological hazards include bacterial, viral, and parasitic organisms. Theseorganisms are commonly associated with humans and with raw products entering the foodestablishment. Many of these pathogens occur naturally in the environment where foods aregrown. Most are killed or inactivated by adequate cooking and numbers are kept to aminimum by adequate cooling during distribution and storage.

Bacterial pathogens comprise the majority of reported foodborne disease outbreaks andcases. A certain level of the pathogens can be expected with some raw foods. Temperatureabuse, such as improper hot or cold holding temperatures, can significantly magnify thisnumber. Cooked food which has been subject to cross-contamination with pathogens oftenprovides a fertile medium for their rapid and progressive growth.

Enteric viruses can be foodborne, waterborne, or transmitted from a person or from animals. Unlike bacteria, a virus cannot multiply outside of a living cell. Hepatitis A and Norwalkviruses are examples of viral hazards associated with ready-to-eat foods.

Parasites are most often animal host-specific and can include humans in their life cycles. Parasitic infections are commonly associated with undercooking meat products or crosscontamination of ready-to-eat food. Fishborne parasites in products that are intended to beeaten raw, marinated, or partially cooked can be killed by effective freezing techniques.

The following table provides an assessment of severity of the biological hazards whichmay be associated with food being prepared, served, or sold in food establishments.

TABLE 1. Hazardous Microorganisms and ParasitesGrouped on the Basis of Risk Severitya

Severe Hazards

Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and FShigella dysenteriaeSalmonella typhi; paratyphi A, B

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Hepatitis A and EBrucella abortis; B. suisVibrio cholerae 01Vibrio vulnificusTaenia soliumTrichinella spiralis

Moderate Hazards: Potentially Extensive Spreadb

Listeria monocytogenesSalmonella spp.Shigella spp.Enterovirulent Escherichia coli (EEC)Streptococcus pyogenesRotavirusNorwalk virus groupEntamoeba histolyticaDiphyllobothrium latumAscaris lumbricoidesCryptosporidium parvum

Moderate Hazards: Limited Spread

Bacillus cereusCampylobacter jejuniClostridium perfringensStaphylococcus aureusVibrio cholerae, non-01Vibrio parahaemolyticusYersinia enterocoliticaGiardia lambliaTaenia saginata

Adapted from International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Food (ICMSF)a

(1986). Used with permission, "HACCP Principles and Applications", Pierson and Corlett,Eds. 1992. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY.

Although classified as moderate hazards, complications and sequelae may be severe inb

certain susceptible populations.

(d) Chemical Hazards

Chemical hazards in foods should be considered during a hazard analysis. Chemicalcontaminants may be naturally occurring or may be added during the processing of food. Harmful chemicals at very high levels have been associated with acute cases of foodborneillnesses and can be responsible for chronic illness at lower levels.

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The following table provides some examples of chemical hazards found within the naturallyoccurring and added chemical categories. The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21,provides guidance on naturally occurring toxic substances and allowable limits for many ofthe chemicals added during processing (food additives). The FDA Compliance PolicyGuidelines also provide information on other naturally occurring chemicals.

Table 2. Types of Chemical Hazards and Examplesa

Naturally Occurring Chemicals

Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin) from moldScombrotoxin (histamine) from protein decompositionCiguatoxin from marine dinoflagellatesToxic mushroom speciesShellfish toxins (from marine dinoflagellates) Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)Plant toxinsPyrrolizidine alkaloidsPhytohemagglutinin

Added Chemicals

Agricultural chemicals: Pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers, insecticides, antibiotics and growth hormonesPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Industrial chemicalsProhibited substances (21 CFR 189) Direct IndirectToxic elements and compounds: Lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, and cyanideFood additives: Direct - allowable limits under GMPs Preservatives (nitrite and sulfiting agents) Flavor enhancers (monosodium glutamate) Nutritional additives (niacin) Color additives Secondary direct and indirect Chemicals used in establishments (e.g., lubricants, cleaners, sanitizers, cleaning compounds, coatings, and paints)Poisonous or toxic chemicals intentionally added (sabotage)

Used with permission, "HACCP Principles and Applications", Pierson and Corlett, Eds.a

1992. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY and adapted.

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(e) Physical Hazards

Illness and injury can result from hard foreign objects in food. These physical hazards canresult from contamination and/or poor procedures at many points in the food chain fromharvest to consumer, including those within the food establishment.

As establishments develop their HACCP programs, the following table can be used to furtheridentify sources of potential physical risks to the food being prepared, served, or sold.

Table 3. Main Materials of Concern as Physical Hazards and Common Sourcesa,b

Material Injury Potential Sources

Glass fixtures Cuts, bleeding; may Bottles, jars,require surgery to find light, utensils, or remove gauge covers

Wood Cuts, infection, choking; Fields, pallets,may require surgery to boxes, buildingsremove

Stones, metal Choking, broken teeth Fields, buildings,fragments Cuts, infection; may machinery, fields,

require surgery to remove wire, employees

Insulation Choking; long-term if Building materialsasbestos

Bone Choking, trauma Fields, improper plantprocessing

Plastic Choking, cuts, infection; Fields, plant packagingmay require surgery materials, pallets,to remove employees

Personal Choking, cuts, broken Employees effects teeth; may require

surgery to remove

Adapted from Corlett (1991).a

Used with permission, "HACCP Principles and Applications", Pierson and Corlett, Eds.b

1992. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY.

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(f) Determining Level of Risk

The potential significance or risk of each hazard should be assessed by considering itslikelihood of occurrence and severity. The estimate of risk for a hazard occurring is basedupon a combination of experience, epidemiological data, and information in the technicalliterature. Severity is the degree of seriousness of the consequences of a hazard if it were tobecome an actuality.

Hazard identification in conjunction with risk estimation provides a rational basis fordetermining which hazards are significant and must be addressed in the HACCP plan. Todetermine risk during the hazard analysis, safety concerns must be differentiated fromquality concerns. A food safety hazard is a biological, chemical, or physical property thatmay cause a food to be unsafe. There may be differences of opinion, even among experts,as to the risk of a hazard. The food establishment must rely upon the expert opinionpublished in peer reviewed literature or experts who actively assist in the development of theHACCP plan. The hazards must at least include those that are commonly associated with aspecific product. If a hazard that is commonly associated is dismissed from the plan, thebasis for rejecting it must be clearly stated in the hazard analysis so that it is understood andagreed to by the regulatory authority reviewing the HACCP plan.

(g) Hazard Analysis Process

This point in hazard analysis consists of asking a series of questions which are appropriateto each step in the flow diagram. The hazard analysis should question the effect of a varietyof factors upon the safety of the food.

(i) Ingredients

• Does the food contain any sensitive ingredients that are likely topresent microbiological hazards (e.g., Salmonella, Staphylococcusaureus), chemical hazards (e.g., aflatoxin, antibiotic, or pesticideresidues) or physical hazards (stones, glass, bone, metal)?

(ii) Intrinsic factors of food

Physical characteristics and composition (e.g., pH, type of acids,fermentable carbohydrate, water activity, preservatives) of the foodduring and after preparation can cause or prevent a hazard.

• Which intrinsic factors of the food must be controlled in order toensure food safety?

• Does the food permit survival or multiplication of pathogens and/ortoxin formation in the food before or during preparation?

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• Will the food permit survival or multiplication of pathogens and/or toxinformation during subsequent steps of preparation, storage, or consumerpossession?

• Are there other similar products in the market place? What has beenthe safety record for these products?

(iii) Procedures used for preparation/processing

• Does the preparation procedure or process include a controllable stepthat destroys pathogens or their toxins? Consider both vegetative cellsand spores.

• Is the product subject to recontamination between the preparation step(e.g., cooking) and packaging?

(iv) Microbial Content of the Food

• Is the food commercially sterile (i.e., low acid canned food)?

• Is it likely that the food will contain viable sporeforming ornonsporeforming pathogens?

• What is the normal microbial content of the food stored under properconditions?

• Does the microbial population change during the time the food isstored before consumption?

• Does that change in microbial population alter the safety of the food?

(v) Facility design

• Does the layout of the facility provide an adequate separation of rawmaterials from ready-to-eat foods?

• Is positive air pressure maintained in product packaging areas? Is thisessential for product safety?

• Is the traffic pattern for people and moving equipment a potentiallysignificant source of contamination?

(vi) Equipment design

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• Will the equipment provide the time/temperature control that isnecessary for safe food?

• Is the equipment properly sized for the volume of food that will beprepared?

• Can the equipment be sufficiently controlled so that the variation inperformance will be within the tolerances required to produce a safefood?

• Is the equipment reliable or is it prone to frequent breakdowns?

• Is the equipment designed so that it can be cleaned and sanitized?

• Is there a chance for product contamination with hazardoussubstances, e.g., glass?

• What product safety devices such as time/temperature integrators areused to enhance consumer safety?

(vii) Packaging

• Does the method of packaging affect the multiplication of microbialpathogens and/or the formation of toxins?

• Is the packaging material resistant to damage, thereby preventing theentrance of microbial contamination?

• Is the package clearly labeled "Keep Refrigerated" if this is required forsafety?

• Does the package include instructions for the safe handling andpreparation of the food by the consumer?

• Are tamper-evident packaging features used?

• Is each package legibly and accurately coded to indicate productionlot?

• Does each package contain the proper label?

(viii) Sanitation

• Can the sanitation practices that are employed impact upon the safetyof the food that is being prepared?

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• Can the facility be cleaned and sanitized to permit the safe handling offood?

• Is it possible to provide sanitary conditions consistently and adequatelyto ensure safe foods?

(ix) Employee health, hygiene, and education

• Can employee health or personal hygiene practices impact the safetyof the food being prepared?

• Do the employees understand the food preparation process and thefactors they must control to ensure safe foods?

• Will the employees inform management of a problem which couldimpact food safety?

(x) Conditions of storage between packaging and the consumer

• What is the likelihood that the food will be improperly stored at thewrong temperature?

• Would storage at improper temperatures lead to a microbiologicallyunsafe food?

(xi) Intended use

• Will the food be heated by the consumer?

• Will there likely be leftovers?

(xii) Intended consumer

• Is the food intended for the general public, i.e., a population that doesnot have an increased risk of becoming ill.

• Is the food intended for consumption by a population with increasedsusceptibility to illness (e.g., infants, the elderly, the infirm, andimmunocompromised individuals)?

(h) Developing Preventive Measures

The preventive measures procedure identifies the steps in the process at which hazards canbe controlled.

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After identifying the hazards the food establishment must then consider what preventivemeasures, if any, can be applied for each hazard. Preventive measures are physical,chemical, or other factors that can be used to control an identified health hazard. Morethan one preventive measure may be required to control a specific hazard and more thanone hazard may be controlled by a specified preventive measure.

For example, if a HACCP team were to conduct a hazard analysis for the preparation ofhamburgers from frozen beef patties, enteric pathogens on the incoming raw meat would beidentified as a potential hazard. Cooking is a preventive measure which can be used toeliminate this hazard. Thus, cooking, the preventive measure, would be listed along with thehazard (i.e., enteric pathogens) as follows:

Step Identified Hazard Preventive Measures

Cooking Enteric pathogens Cooking sufficiently to kill enteric pathogens

PRINCIPLE #2: IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCP) IN FOOD PREPARATION

A CCP is a point, step, or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safetyhazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. Points in foodpreparation that may be CCPs include cooking, chilling, specific sanitation procedures,product formulation control, prevention of cross contamination, and certain aspects ofemployee and environmental hygiene. For example, cooking that must occur at a specifictemperature and for a specified time in order to destroy microbiological pathogens is acritical control point. Likewise, refrigeration or the adjustment of a food's pH to a levelrequired to prevent hazardous microorganisms from multiplying or toxins from forming arealso CCPs.

Many points in food preparation may be considered control points, but very few are actuallycritical control points. A control point is any point, step, or procedure at which biological,physical, or chemical factors can be controlled. Concerns that do not impact food safety maybe addressed at control points; however, since these control points do not relate to foodsafety, they are not included in the HACCP plan.

Different facilities preparing the same food can differ in the risk of hazards and the points,steps, or procedures which are CCPs. This can be due to differences in each facility such aslayout, equipment, selection of ingredients, or the process that is used. Generic HACCPplans can serve as useful guides; however, it is essential that the unique conditions withineach facility be considered during the development of a HACCP plan.

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CCPs must be carefully developed and documented. In addition, they must be used only forpurposes of product safety. The following decision tree is helpful in verifying which of thefood preparation steps should be designated as CCPs.

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Critical Control Point Decision Tree(Apply at each step in food preparation that has an identified hazard)

Q 1. Do preventive measure(s) exist for the identified hazard? •

– – YES NO Modify step, process or product?

– Is control at this step necessary for safety? 'YES

' NO 'Not a CCP 'STOP*

–Q 2. Does this step eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of a hazard to an acceptable level?

– NO 'YES '

–Q 3 Could contamination with identified hazard(s) occur in excess of acceptable level(s) or could these increase to unacceptable level(s)?

' YES ' NO ' Not a CCP ' STOP

–Q 4. Will a subsequent step eliminate identified hazard(s) or reduce the likely occurrence to an acceptable level? – –

YES NO

– –' Not a CCP ' STOP* CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

*PROCEED TO NEXT STEP IN THE DESCRIBED PROCESS

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PRINCIPLE #3: ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS FOR PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Associated with Each Identified Critical Control Point

This step involves establishing a criterion that must be met for each preventive measureassociated with a CCP. Critical limits can be thought of as boundaries of safety for eachCCP and may be set for preventive measures such as temperature, time, physicaldimensions, a , pH, and available chlorine. Critical limits may be derived from sources suchw

as regulatory standards and guidelines, scientific literature, experimental studies, andconsultation with experts.

Criteria Most Frequently Used for Critical Limits

TimeTemperatureHumidityaw

pHTitratable acidityPreservativesSalt concentrationAvailable chlorineViscosity

(a) Critical Limit

A critical limit is defined as a criterion that must be met for each preventive measureassociated with a CCP. Each CCP will have one or more preventive measures that must beproperly controlled to ensure prevention, elimination, or reduction of hazards to acceptablelevels. The food establishment is responsible for using competent authorities to validatethat the critical limits chosen will control the identified hazard.

(b) Target Level

In some cases, variables involved in food preparation may require certain target levels toensure that critical limits are not exceeded. For example, a preventive measure and criticallimit may be an internal product temperature of 71 C (160 F) during one stage of a process. o o

The oven temperature, however, may be 71 ±3 C (160± F); thus an oven target temperatureo o

would have to be greater than 74 C (165 F) so that no product receives a cook of less thano o

71 C (160 F).o o

(c) Application Example

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An example for Principle 3 is the cooking of beef patties. The process should be designed toeliminate the most heat-resistant vegetative pathogen which could reasonably be expectedto be in the product. Criteria may be required for factors such as temperature, time, andmeat patty thickness. Technical development of the appropriate critical limits requiresaccurate information on the probable maximum numbers of these microorganisms in themeat and their heat resistance. The relationship between the CCP and its critical limits forthe meat patty example is shown below:

Process Step CCP Critical Limits

Cooking YES Minimum internal temperature of patty: 68 C / 155 Fo o

Broiler temperature: ______ C / ______ Fo o

Time; rate of heating/cooling(e.g., conveyer belt speed in): cm/min: ______ ft/min

Patty thickness: ______ cm / ____inPatty composition: e.g., % Fat, % FillerOven humidity: ______% RH

PRINCIPLE #4: ESTABLISH PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CCPS

(a) Observations and Measurements

Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assesswhether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for use infuture verification procedures. There are three main purposes for monitoring:

(i) It tracks the system's operation so that a trend toward a loss ofcontrol can be recognized and corrective action can be taken to bringthe process back into control before a deviation occurs;

(ii) It indicates when loss of control and a deviation have actuallyoccurred, and corrective action must be taken; and

(iii) It provides written documentation for use in verification of theHACCP plan.

Examples of Measurements for Monitoring

Visual observationsTemperatureTimepHaw

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(b) Continuous Monitoring

An unsafe food may result if a process is not properly controlled and a deviation occurs. Because of the potentially serious consequences of a critical defect, monitoring proceduresmust be effective.

Continuous monitoring is always preferred when feasible and continuous monitoring ispossible with many types of physical and chemical methods. For example, the temperatureand time for an institutional cook-chill operation can be recorded continuously ontemperature recording charts. If the temperature falls below the scheduled temperature orthe time is insufficient, as recorded on the chart, the batch must be recorded as a processdeviation and reprocessed or discarded.

Instrumentation used by the food establishment for measuring critical limits must be carefullycalibrated for accuracy. Records of calibrations must be maintained as a part of the HACCPplan documentation.

(c) Monitoring Procedures

When it is not possible to monitor a critical limit on a continuous basis, it is necessary toestablish that the monitoring interval will be reliable enough to indicate that the hazard isunder control. Statistically designed data collection or sampling systems lend themselves tothis purpose. When statistical process control is used, it is important to recognize thatviolations of critical limits must not occur. For example, when a temperature of 68 C (155 F)O O

or higher is required for product safety, the minimum temperature of the product may be setat a target that is above this temperature to compensate for variation.

Most monitoring procedures for CCPs will need to be done rapidly because the time framebetween food preparation and consumption does not allow for lengthy analytical testing. Microbiological testing is seldom effective for monitoring CCPs because of its time-consuming nature. Therefore, physical and chemical measurements are preferred becausethey may be done rapidly and can indicate whether microbiological control is occurring.

Assignment of responsibility for monitoring is an important consideration for each CCP withinthe operation. Specific assignments will depend on the number of CCPs, preventivemeasures, and the complexity of monitoring. The most appropriate employees for suchassignments are often directly associated with the operation, such as the person in charge ofthe food establishment, chefs, and departmental supervisors.

Individuals monitoring CCPs must be trained in the monitoring technique, completelyunderstand the purpose and importance of monitoring, and be unbiased in monitoring andreporting so that monitoring is accurately recorded. The designated individuals must haveready access to the CCP being monitored and to the calibrated instrumentation designatedin the HACCP plan.

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The person responsible for monitoring must also record a food operation or product thatdoes not meet critical limits and ensure that immediate corrective action can be taken. Allrecords and documents associated with CCP monitoring must be signed or initialed by theperson doing the monitoring.

Random checks may be useful in supplementing the monitoring of certain CCPs. They maybe used to check incoming ingredients, serve as a check for compliance where ingredientsare recertified as meeting certain standards, and assess factors such as equipment. Random checks are also advisable for monitoring environmental factors such as airbornecontamination, and cleaning and sanitizing gloves.

With some foods containing microbiologically sensitive ingredients, there may not be analternative to microbiological testing. However, it is important to recognize that a samplingfrequency which is adequate for reliable detection of low levels of pathogens is seldompossible because of the large number of samples needed. For this reason, microbiologicaltesting has limitations in a HACCP system, but is valuable as a means of establishing andverifying the effectiveness of control at CCPs (such as through challenge tests, randomtesting, or testing that focuses on isolating the source of a problem).

PRINCIPLE #5: ESTABLISH THE CORRECTIVE ACTION TO BE TAKEN WHENMONITORING SHOWS THAT A CRITICAL LIMIT HAD BEEN EXCEEDED

(a) Purpose of Corrective Action Plan

Although the HACCP system is intended to prevent deviations from occurring,perfection is rarely, if ever, achievable. Thus, there must be a corrective actionplan in place to:

(i) Determine the disposition of any food that was produced when adeviation was occurring;

(ii) Correct the cause of the deviation and ensure that the critical controlpoint is under control; and

(iii) Maintain records of corrective actions.

(b) Aspects of Corrective Action Plan

Because of the variations in CCPs for different food operations and the diversity of possibledeviations, specific corrective action plans must be developed for each CCP. The actionsmust demonstrate that the CCP has been brought under control. Individuals who have athorough understanding of the operation, product, and HACCP plan must be assignedresponsibility for taking corrective action. Corrective action procedures must be documentedin the HACCP plan.

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Food establishments covered by the Food Code will usually be concerned with food whichhas a limited shelf-life and distribution. Primary focus for the application of this HACCPprinciple will be on the correction of the procedure or condition which led to thenoncompliance. More frequent monitoring may be temporarily required to ensure that thedeviation from the established critical limit is not continuing when the operation is resumed.

If a deviation should occur in food operations that are traditionally considered foodprocessing operations, such as cook-chill, curing and smoking, or reduced oxygenpackaging, the food establishment must place the product on hold pending completion ofappropriate corrective actions and analyses. As appropriate, scientific experts andregulatory agencies must be consulted regarding additional testing or disposition of theproduct. Identification of deviant lots and corrective actions taken to ensure safety of theselots must be noted in the HACCP record. This record must remain on file for a reasonableperiod after the expiration date or expected shelf life of the product.

HACCP PRINCIPLE #6: ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE RECORD KEEPING SYSTEMS THAT DOCUMENT THE HACCP SYSTEM

(a) Written HACCP Plan

This principle requires the preparation and maintenance of a written HACCP plan by thefood establishment. The plan must detail the hazards of each individual or categoricalproduct covered by the plan. It must clearly identify the CCPs and critical limits for eachCCP. CCP monitoring and record keeping procedures must be shown in the establishment'sHACCP plan. HACCP plan implementation strategy should be provided as a part of the foodestablishment's documentation.

(b) Record Keeping

The principle requires the maintenance of records generated during the operation of theplan. The record keeping associated with HACCP procedures ultimately makes the systemwork. One conclusion of a study of HACCP performed by the U.S. Department of Commerceis that correcting problems without record keeping almost guarantees that problems willrecur. The requirement to record events at CCPs on a regular basis ensures that preventivemonitoring is occurring in a systematic way. Unusual occurrences that are discovered asCCPs are monitored or that otherwise come to light must be corrected and recordedimmediately with notation of the corrective action taken.

The level of sophistication of the record keeping necessary for the food establishmentis dependent on the complexity of the food preparation operation. A sous vidé processor cook-chill operation for a large institution would require more record keeping than alimited menu cook-serve operation. The simplest effective record keeping system that lendsitself well to integration within the existing operation is best.

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(c) Contents of the Plan and Records

The approved HACCP plan and associated records must be on file at the foodestablishment. Generally, the following are examples of documents that can beincluded in the total HACCP system:

(i) Listing of the HACCP team and assigned responsibilities;(ii) Description of the product and its intended use;(iii) Flow diagram food preparation indicating CCPs;(iv) Hazards associated with each CCP and preventive measures;(v) Critical limits;(vi) Monitoring system;(vii) Corrective action plans for deviations from critical limits;(viii) Record keeping procedures; and(ix) Procedures for verification of HACCP system.

(d) Format for HACCP Information

In addition to listing the HACCP team, product description and uses, andproviding a flow diagram, other information in the HACCP plan can be tabulatedas follows:

Process CCP Chemical Critical Monitoring Corrective HACCP Verification

Step Physical Limit Procedures Action(s) Records Procedures/

Biological Frequency Person(s) Person(s)

Hazards Person(s) Responsible Responsible

Responsible

The following chart is an example of a HACCP plan documentation for a productcooling step in a retail level food establishment.

PROCESS STEP COOLINGCCP Critical Control Point #8

Criteria or Critical Limit Cool Foods Rapidly in Small Quantities to5 C(41 F)o o

Establish Monitoring Department Personnel Break Down Food intoSmall Quantities and Monitor The Cooling Process

Corrective/Preventive Action Modify Cooling Procedures/ Discard

HACCP Records Deli Cooking/Cooling Log

HACCP System Verification Deli Safety Audit by Store Manager

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(e) Examples of Records obtained during the operation of the plan:

(i) Ingredients

• Supplier certification documenting compliance with establishment'sspecifications.

• Establishment audit records verifying supplier compliance.

• Storage temperature record for temperature-sensitive ingredients.

• Storage time records of limited shelf-life ingredients.

(ii) Preparation

• Records from all monitored CCPs.

• Records verifying the continued adequacy of the food preparationprocedures.

(iii) Packaging

• Records indicating compliance with specifications of packagingmaterials.

• Records indicating compliance with sealing specifications.

(iv) Finished product

• Sufficient data and records to establish the efficacy of barriers inmaintaining product safety.

• Sufficient data and records establishing the safe shelf-life of theproduct; if age of product can affect safety.

• Documentation of the adequacy of the HACCP procedures from anauthority knowledgeable of the hazards involved and necessarycontrols.

(v) Storage and distribution

• Temperature records.

• Records showing no product shipped after shelf life date ontemperature-sensitive products.

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(vi) Deviation and corrective action

• Validation records and modification to the HACCP plan indicatingapproved revisions and changes in ingredients, formulations,preparation, packaging, and distribution control, as needed.

(vii) Employee training

• Records indicating that food employees responsible for implementationof the HACCP plan understand the hazards, controls, and procedures. Refer to the discussion regarding Training and Knowledge underPrinciple #7.

PRINCIPLE #7: ESTABLISH PROCEDURES TO VERIFY THAT THE HACCP SYSTEM IS WORKING

(a) Establishing Verification Procedures

(i) The first phase of the process is the scientific or technical verificationthat critical limits at CCPs are satisfactory. This can be complex andmay require intensive involvement of highly skilled professionals from avariety of disciplines capable of doing focused studies and analyses. Areview of the critical limits is necessary to verify that the limits areadequate to control the hazards that are likely to occur.

(ii) The second phase of verification ensures that the facility's HACCPplan is functioning effectively. A functioning HACCP system requires littleend-product sampling, since appropriate safeguards are built in early inthe food preparation. Therefore, rather than relying on end-productsampling, food establishments must rely on frequent reviews of theirHACCP plan, verification that the HACCP plan is being correctlyfollowed, review of CCP records, and determinations that appropriaterisk management decisions and product dispositions are made whenpreparation deviations occur.

(iii) The third phase consists of documented periodic revalidations,independent of audits or other verification procedures, that must beperformed to ensure the accuracy of the HACCP plan. Revalidationsare performed by a HACCP team on a regular basis and/or wheneversignificant product, preparation, or packaging changes requiremodification of the HACCP plan. The revalidation includes adocumented on-site review and verification of all flow diagrams andCCPs in the HACCP plan. The HACCP team modifies the HACCP planas necessary.

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(iv) The fourth phase of verification deals with the regulatory agency'sresponsibility and actions to ensure that the establishment's HACCPsystem is functioning satisfactorily.

(b) The following are some examples of HACCP plan verification activities which should be used as a part of a HACCP program:

(i) Verification procedures may include:

• Establishment of appropriate verification inspection schedules;

• Review of the HACCP plan;

• Review of CCP records;

• Review of deviations and their resolution, including the disposition offood;

• Visual inspections of operations to observe if CCPs are under control;

• Random sample collection and analysis;

• Review of critical limits to verify that they are adequate to controlhazards;

• Review of written record of verification inspections which certifiescompliance with the HACCP plan or deviations from the plan and thecorrective actions taken;

• Validation of HACCP plan, including on-site review and verification offlow diagrams and CCPs; and

• Review of modifications of the HACCP plan.

(ii) Verification inspections should be conducted:

• Routinely or on an unannounced basis, to ensure that selected CCPsare under control;

• When it is determined that intensive coverage of a specific food isneeded because of new information concerning food safety;

• When foods prepared at the establishment have been implicated as avehicle of foodborne disease;

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• When requested on a consultative basis and resources allowaccommodating the request;

• When established criteria have not been met; and

• To verify that changes have been implemented correctly after aHACCP plan has been modified.

(iii) Verification reports should include information about:

• Existence of a HACCP plan and the person(s) responsible foradministering and updating the HACCP plan;

• The status of records associated with CCP monitoring;

• Direct monitoring data of the CCP while in operation; Certification thatmonitoring equipment is properly calibrated and in working order;

• Deviations and corrective actions;

• Any samples analyzed to verify that CCPs are under control. Analysesmay involve physical, chemical, microbiological, or organolepticmethods;

• Modifications to the HACCP plan; and

• Training and knowledge of individuals responsible for monitoringCCPs.

(c) Training and Knowledge

(i) Focus and Objective

Training and knowledge are very important in making HACCPsuccessful in any food establishment. HACCP works best when it isintegrated into each employee's normal duties rather than added assomething extra.

The depth and breadth of training will depend on the particularemployee's responsibilities within the establishment. Management orsupervisory individuals will need a deeper understanding of the HACCPprocess because they are responsible for proper plan implementationand routine monitoring of CCPs such as product cooking temperaturesand cooling times. The training plan should be specific to theestablishment's operation rather than attempt to develop HACCPexpertise for broad application.

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The food employee's training should provide an overview of HACCP'sprevention philosophy while focusing on the specifics of the employee'snormal functions. The CCPs such as proper handwashing and use ofutensils or gloves for working with ready-to-eat food should be stressed. The use of recipes or Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) whichinclude the critical limits of cooking times and temperatures, with a finalcooking time and temperature measurement step, should be included.

For all employees, the fundamental training goal should be to makethem proficient in the specific tasks which the HACCP plan requiresthem to perform. This includes the development of a level ofcompetency in their decision making about the implementation of propercorrective actions when monitoring reveals violation of the critical limit. The training should also include the proper completion and maintenanceof any records specified in the establishment's plan.

(ii) Reinforcement

Training reinforcement is also needed for continued motivation of thefood establishment employees. Some examples might include:

• A HACCP video training program such as the PennsylvaniaDepartment of Environmental Regulation's Foodborne Illness: It's YourBusiness;

• Changing reminders about HACCP critical limits such as"HANDWASHING PAYS BIG DIVIDENDS" printed on employee's timecards or checks; and

• Work station reminders such as pictorials on how and when to takefood temperatures.

Every time there is a change in a product or food operation within theestablishment, the HACCP training needs should be evaluated. Forexample, when a food establishment substitutes a frozen seafoodproduct for a fresh one, proper thawing critical limits should be taughtand then monitored for implementation. The employees should be madesensitive to how the changes will affect food safety

The HACCP plan should include a feedback loop for employees tosuggest what additional training is needed. All employees should bemade a part of the continuous food safety improvement cycle becausethe old statement is very true, "The customer's health is in their hands". This helps maintain their active awareness and involvement in theimportance of each job to the safety of the food provided by theirestablishment.

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3. SUMMARY

HACCP is a systematic approach to food safety which will dramatically improve the level offood safety. The NACMCF has developed the seven HACCP principles discussed within thisAnnex. The FDA recommends the implementation of a HACCP system throughout the foodindustry using these NACMCF recommendations.

An effective national food safety program from food production to consumer is enhanced bythe implementation of HACCP. The statistics from foodborne surveillance reveal that retaillevel food establishments can have a significant impact on the health of consumers.

Implementation of HACCP programs by the establishments will profoundly enhance their rolein the protection of public health beyond the traditional emphasis on facility and equipmentdesign and maintenance and adherence to the principles of sanitation, good manufacturing,and food preparation practices. The education and training of all personnel are critical to thesuccess and effectiveness of any HACCP program. The Food Code stresses the applicationto HACCP principles and the knowledge and responsibilities of establishment managementand employees.

Specific HACCP plans for the products prepared and sold by the retail food establishmentshould be developed and implemented for optimal food safety management. HACCPsystems are recommended for use as a tool for regulatory inspections. The regulatoryofficial should incorporate procedures in the inspection process that ensure record reviewsand active monitoring.

Because the retail food establishment industry is composed of large, small, chain, andindependent establishments, the level of food safety expertise varies widely and is notnecessarily linked to size or affiliation. Regardless of the size and sophistication of theestablishment, a HACCP plan for safe food preparation and sales needs to be designed,implemented, and verified.

Studies have shown that a significant level of illness and mortality from foodborne disease ininstitutional feeding operations such as hospitals, nursing homes, and prisons is related topreventable causes. For populations that may be more vulnerable to foodborne disease,FDA and the NACMCF recommend that HACCP systems be immediately implemented byestablishments and institutions preparing foods for these susceptible individuals.

Food processing operations at retail food establishments such as reduced oxygen packagingand curing and smoking under the Food Code are required to develop and implement aHACCP plan for that part of the operation. Additionally, any establishment seeking avariance from the requirements of the Code must submit a HACCP plan. The HACCP Annexcan serve to guide these establishments in this process.

Food establishments have the primary responsibility for food safety. The development andimplementation of HACCP programs is a reliable and responsible step to help ensure thesafety of food offered for consumption.

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4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Much of this HACCP Annex material is adapted from National Advisory Committee onMicrobiological Criteria for Foods, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System,adopted March 20, 1992.

Some of the charts were provided courtesy of "Overview of Biological, Chemical, andPhysical Hazards" in "HACCP Principles and Applications, Merle Pierson and Donald A.Corlett, Jr. (Eds.), 1992 p 8-28. Chapman and Hall, New York.

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bean, N.H. and P.M. Griffin 1990. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-87. J. Food Prot. 53(9):804-817.

Bjerklie, S., 1992. HACCP in your plant: What HACCP is, what it isn't and how youroperations will be affected. Meat and Poultry 38(2):14-22.

Bryan, F.L., 1990. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) concept. Dairy, FoodEnviron. Sanitat. 10(7):416-418.

Bryan, F.L., 1990. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems for retail food andrestaurant operations. J. Food Prot. 53(11):978-983.Bryan, F.L., 1988. Risks associated with vehicles of foodborne pathogens and toxins. J.Food Prot. 51(6):498-508.

Bryan, F.L., 1988. Risks of practices, procedures and processes that lead to outbreaks offoodborne diseases. J. Food Prot. 51(8):663-673.

Bryan, F.L., P.Teufel, S. Riaz, S. Roohi, F. Quadar and Z. Malik, 1992. Hazards and criticalcontrol points of vending operations at a railway station and a bus station in Pakistan. J.Food Technol. 55(7):534-541.

Bryan, F.L., C.A. Bartelson, C.O. Cook, P. Fisher, J.J. Guzewich, B.J. Humm, R.C. Swanson,and E.C.D. Todd, 1991. Procedures to Implement the Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointSystem. Int. Assoc. of Milk, Food, Environ. Sanitarians, Ames, IA, 72 pp. Buchanan, R.L., 1990. HACCP: A re-emerging approach to food safety. Trends in FoodScience & Technology, November 1990, Elsevier Science Publishers, Inc.

Corlett, D.A., Jr., 1989. Refrigerated foods and use of hazard analysis and critical controlpoint principles. Food Technol. 43(2):91-94.

Corlett, D.A. Jr., 1991. Regulatory verification of industrial HACCP systems. Food Technol.45(5):144-146.

Cox, L.J., 1989. A perspective on listeriosis. Food Technol. 45(12):52-59.

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Curiale, M.S., 1991. Shelf-life evaluation analysis. Dairy, Food Environ. Sanit.11(7):364-369.

Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, 1993. HACCP Reference Book. Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL.

Food Marketing Institute, 1989. Food handler's pocket guide for food safety and quality. Washington, DC.

Food Marketing Institute., 1989. A program to ensure food safety in the supermarket -- thehazard analysis critical control point system. Washington, DC.

Foster, E.M., 1989. A half-century of food microbiology. Food Technol. 43(9):208-215.

Guzewich, J. J., 1987. Practical Procedures for Using the Hazard Analysis Critical ControlPoint (HACCP) Approach in Food Service Establishments by Industry and RegulatoryAgencies. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI. Kemp, S., 1991. Start a quality improvement program. North Carolina State University, SeaGrant College Program. Raleigh, NC. Seafood Current, 5(1).

International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc., 1991Procedures to implement the hazard analysis critical control point system. Des Moines, IA.

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, 1986. Microorganismsin Foods 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis: Principles and specific applications. 2nded. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, 1989. Microorganismsin Foods 4. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system toensure microbiological safety and quality. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston.

Lee, J.S., with K.S. Hilderbrand Jr., 1992. Hazard analysis & critical control point applicationsto the seafood industry. ORESU-H-92-001. Oregon Sea Grant, Oregon State University.Corvallis, OR.

Lydecker, T., 1991. How self-inspection flies: HACCP systems in airline catering companies.Food Service Director. 15:87.

Martin, P., 1991. Hazard control. Restaurant Business, 1:256.

McIntyre, C.R. 1991. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) identification. Dairy,Food and Environ. Sanit. 11(7):357-358.

National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods, 1992. Hazard analysisand critical control point system. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 16:1-23.

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National Fisheries Institute, 1991. Seafood industry, hazard analysis critical control point,HACCP, training manual. Arlington, VA.

National Food Processors Association, 1992. HACCP and total quality management --winning concepts for the 90's: A review. J. Food Prot. 55:459-462.

New England Fisheries Development Association, 1991. HACCP manual for processors. 309 World Trade Center, Boston, MA 02210-2001.

Pierson, M.D. and D.A. Corlett, Jr., 1992, HACCP Principles and Applications, Van NostrandReinhold, New York. 212 pp.

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Pisciella, J.A., 1991. Overcoming the barriers to HACCP in restaurants. Food Prot. InsideRpt. July-August:2A.

Price, R. J. (Ed.), 1985. Seafood retailing manual, 3rd ed. University of California, Sea GrantExtension Program, Davis, CA.

Price, R. J., 1990. Retail seafood cross-contamination. UCSGEP 90-6. University ofCalifornia, Food Science & Technology Department. Davis, CA 95616.

Price, R. J., 1990. Retail seafood temperature control. UCSGEP 90-5. University ofCalifornia, Food Science & Technology Department, Davis, CA 95616.

Price, R.J., P.D. Tom, and K.E. Stevenson, 1993. Ensuring food safety -- The HACCP way. University of California, Food Science & Technology Department, Davis, CA 95616.

Rhodes, M.E., 1991. Educating professionals and consumers about extended-shelf-liferefrigerated foods. Food Technol. 47(4):182-183.

Snyder, O.P., 1991. HACCP in the retail food industry. Dairy, Food Environ. Sanit.11(2):73-81.

Stevenson, K.E., 1990. Implementing HACCP in the food industry. Food Technol.42(5):179-180.

Sumner, S.S., et al., 1992. Food Safety/Food Sanitation Workshop, Introduction to HACCPProcedures - Final Report (special project number 91-EFSQ-4021). Nebraska CooperativeExtension. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0919.

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6. OTHER SOURCES OF HACCP INFORMATION:

FDA Prime Connection. A Free On-Line HACCP Technical Database via CFSAN WebPage (http:\\www.fda.gov), FDA, 200 C Street SW - HFS-676, Washington, D.C. 20204-0001or E-mail [email protected].

PA DEPARTMENT of ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES, 1992. Foodborne Illness: It's yourbusiness (HACCP video). Division of Food Protection, Food Facilities Section, Harrisburg, PA.

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Two Typical Flow Diagrams

Receiving Flow Chart 1

Refrigerated Frozen Storage Storage

Thawing CCP

Plant Plant Pre- Cutting/ Cooking CCP Pre- Cooked & Grinding Packaged Packaged

Cooling Hot Holding Cooling CCP Display CCP

CCP Cut & Package/ Reheating

Labeling CCP

Refrigerated Refrigerated Packaging Display Display Labeling CCP CCP

Refrigerated Refrigerated Hot Holding Display Display Display CCP CCP CCP

Consumer Consumer Consumer Consumer Consumer Consumer

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Flow Chart 2

Receiving

Refrigerated Frozen Storage Storage

Thawing

Cutting/Preparation

Cooking Cooking CCP CCP

Serving

Cooling Slicing Cooling Hot Holding CCP CCP CCP

Reheating Serving Slicing Serving CCP

Hot Holding Consumption Serving CCP

Serving Consumption

Consumption